চাতক

অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ পৰা
চাতক বা টেলটুপী (Barn Swallow)
ইউৰোপত চাতক বা টেলটু্পী
সংৰক্ষণ স্থিতি
জীৱবৈজ্ঞানিক শ্ৰেণীবিভাজন
জগৎ/ৰাজ্য: Animalia
পৰ্ব: Chordata
শ্ৰেণী: Aves
বৰ্গ: Passeriformes
পৰিয়াল: Hirundinidae
গণ: Hirundo
প্ৰজাতি: H. rustica
বৈজ্ঞানিক নাম
Hirundo rustica
Linnaeus, 1758
চাতক চৰাইৰ বিতৰণ
  Breeding range
  Resident year-round
  Non-breeding range
সমাৰ্থক
  • Hirundo erythrogaster

চাতক বা টেলটু্পী (ইংৰাজী: Barn Swallow, বৈজ্ঞানিক নাম-Hirundo rustica) চাতক(Swallow) এইজাতীয় চৰাইসমূহৰ ভিতৰত আটাইতকৈ বহুলভাৱে বিস্তৃত হৈ থকা চৰাইৰ প্ৰজাতি৷[2] ই এবিধ সহজে চিনিব পৰা চৰাই-ইয়াৰ দেহৰ ওপৰভাগ নীল-বৰণীয়া, নেজ জোঙা আৰু দকৈ দুভাগকৈ কটা৷ ইয়াক প্ৰধানকৈ ইউৰোপ, এছিয়া, আফ্ৰিকা আৰু আমেৰিকাত দেখা পোৱা যায়৷ [2]

বিৱৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

ইংলেণ্ডত চাতক চৰাই

পূৰ্ণবয়স্ক চাতক চৰাইৰ দেহৰ দৈৰ্ঘ্য প্ৰায় ১৭-১৯ ছে:মি: আৰু ওজন প্ৰায় ১৬-২২ গ্ৰাম হয়৷ ইয়াৰ দেহৰ ওপৰ অংশ নীলা বৰণীয়া আৰু কপাল আৰু ডিঙি মাখনবৰণীয়া৷ ইয়াৰ বুকুত বহল আৰু গাঢ় নীলা আঁচ এডাল থাকে৷ চাতক চৰাইৰ নেজ দীঘলীয়া আৰু খাঁজকটা হয়৷ নেজৰ ওপৰৰ ফালে বগা দাগেৰে এডাল দীঘলীয়া আঁচ থকা দেখা যায়৷ [3]

মাইকী চাতক চৰাই দেখাত মতাটোৰ সৈতে একে হয়, কিন্তু ইয়াৰ নেজ কিছু চুটি আৰু বুকুৰ আঁচডাল সিমান উজ্জ্বল নহয়৷ পোৱালি চাতক চৰাইৰ গাৰ বৰণ মুগা হয় আৰু মুখখন কিছু ৰঙচুৱা হয়৷ ইয়াৰ দেহৰ তলৰ অংশ বগা চানেকীয়া হোৱা দেখা যায়৷ ইয়াৰো পূৰ্ণবয়স্ক চৰাইতকৈ নেজৰ দৈৰ্ঘ্য কম হোৱা দেখা যায়৷ [2]

টেক্স'নমি[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

চাতক চৰাইৰ বিষয়ে পোণপ্ৰথমে কেৰ'লাছ লিনিয়াছে ১৭৫৮ চনত তেওঁৰ 'Systema Naturae' নামৰ গ্ৰন্থত 'Hirundo rustica' নামৰে উল্লেখ কৰিছিল৷[4][5]

ইউৰোপীয়ান চাতক চৰাইৰ ভিডিঅ'

বৰ্তমানলৈকে চাতক চৰাইৰ ছটা উপ-প্ৰজাতি চিনাক্ত কৰা হৈছে-

  • Hirundo rustica saturata- ১৮৮৩, ৰবাৰ্ট ৰিডগৱে (Robert Ridgway)- প্ৰধানকৈ পূব এছিয়াত বিস্তৃত৷ [6]
  • Hirundo rustica rustica- ইউৰোপ আৰু এছিয়াত বিস্তৃত হৈ আছে৷ [2] The Barn Swallows wintering in southern Africa are from across Eurasia to at least 91°E,[7]
  • Hirundo rustica transitiva - ১৯১০, আৰ্ণেষ্ট হাৰ্টাৰ্ট (Ernst Hartert)- মধ্য-পূব প্ৰান্তৰ তুৰ্কী , ইজৰাইল আদি দেশত বিস্তৃত৷ [2]
leftজাপানত H. r. gutturalis
  • Hirundo rustica savignii- ১৮১৭, জেমছ ফ্ৰান্সিছ ষ্টিফেনছ (James Francis Stephens)-ফ্ৰান্সত দেখা পোৱা যায়[8]
  • Hirundo rustica gutturalis, ১৭৮৬, Giovanni Antonio Scopoli[6][9]
  • Hirundo rustica tytleri, ১৮৬৪, থমাছ জাৰদন (Thomas C. Jerdon) [6] [9]
আমেৰিকাত H. r. erythrogaster
  • Hirundo rustica erythrogaster,১৭৮৩,Pieter Boddaert- প্ৰধানকৈ উত্তৰ আমেৰিকাত দেখা যায়৷ [6]

বিতৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

It breeds in the Northern Hemisphere from sea level to typically 2,700 metres (8,900 ft),[10] but to 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) in the Caucasus[3] and North America,[11] and it is absent only from deserts and the cold northernmost parts of the continents. Over much of its range, it avoids towns, and in Europe is replaced in urban areas by the House Martin. However, in Honshū, the Barn Swallow is a more urban bird, with the Red-rumped Swallow (Cecropis daurica) replacing it as the rural species.[2]

In flight as seen from below

বাসস্থান[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The preferred habitat of the Barn Swallow is open country with low vegetation, such as pasture, meadows and farmland, preferably with nearby water. This swallow avoids heavily wooded or precipitous areas and densely built-up locations. T[3]

In winter, the Barn Swallow is cosmopolitan in its choice of habitat, avoiding only dense forests and deserts.[12] It is most common in open, low vegetation habitats

আচৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

খাদ্য[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Flying low over water in Spain

The Barn Swallow typically feeds 7–8 metres (23–26 ft) above shallow water or the ground, often following animals, humans or farm machinery to catch disturbed insects, but it will occasionally pick prey items from the water surface, walls and plants. In the breeding areas, large flies make up around 70% of the diet, with aphids also a significant component.

প্ৰজনন[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The male Barn Swallow returns to the breeding grounds before the females and selects a nest site, which is then advertised to females with a circling flight and song.

Both sexes defend the nest, but the male is particularly aggressive and territorial.[2] Once established, pairs stay together to breed for life, but extra-pair copulation is common, making this species genetically polygamous, despite being socially monogamous.[13] As its name implies, the Barn Swallow typically nests inside accessible buildings such as barns and stables, or under bridges and wharves. The neat cup-shaped nest is placed on a beam or against a suitable vertical projection. It is constructed by both sexes, although more often by the female, with mud pellets collected in their beaks and lined with grasses, feathers, algae[14] or other soft materials.[2] Barn Swallows may nest colonially where sufficient high-quality nest sites are available, and within a colony, each pair defends a territory around the nest which, for the European subspecies, is four to eight square metres (45 to 90 square feet) in size. Colony size tends to be larger in North America.[11]

There are normally two broods, with the original nest being reused for the second brood and being repaired and reused in subsequent years. Hatching success is 90% and the fledging survival rate is 70–90%. Average mortality is 70–80% in the first year and 40–70% for the adult. Although the record age is more than 11 years, most survive less than four years.[2]

স্থিতি[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The Barn Swallow has an enormous range, with an estimated global extent of 51.7 million square kilometres (19.96 million square miles) and a population of 190 million individuals. Although global population trends have not been quantified, the species is not believed to approach the thresholds for the population decline criterion of the IUCN Red List (that is, declining more than 30 percent in ten years or three generations). For these reasons, the species is evaluated as "least concern" on the 2007 IUCN Red List,[1] and has no special status under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), which regulates international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants.[11]

তথ্যসুত্ৰ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. 1.0 1.1 BirdLife International (2012). "Hirundo rustica". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/106007116। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 16 July 2012. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 Turner, Angela K; Rose, Chris (1989). Swallows & martins: an identification guide and handbook. প্ৰকাশক Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-51174-7.  p164–169
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Snow, David; Perrins, Christopher M (editors) (1998). The Birds of the Western Palearctic concise edition (2 volumes). প্ৰকাশক Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854099-X.  p1061–1064
  4. (লেটিন) Linnaeus, Carolus (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata.. Holmiae. (Laurentii Salvii).. পৃষ্ঠা. 191. 
  5. Lewis, Charlton T (1888). A Latin dictionary for schools. Harper & Brothers. ISBN 0-19-910204-X. http://www.archive.org/details/latindictionaryf00lewiuoft. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Dickinson, Edward C.; Eck, Siegfried; Christopher M. Milensky (2002). "Systematic notes on Asian birds. 31. Eastern races of the barn swallow Hirundo rustica Linnaeus, 1758". Zoologische Verhandelingen, Leiden খণ্ড 340: 201–203. ISSN 0024-1652. http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/document/46729। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2007-11-17. 
  7. "European Swallow Hirundo rustica". SAFRING results. Avian Demography Unit, Department of Statistical Sciences, University of Cape Town. Archived from the original on 11 December 2007. http://web.uct.ac.za/depts/stats/adu/safring/results/0493.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2007-12-01. 
  8. Dekker, René (2003). "Type specimens of birds. Part 2.". NNM Technical Bulletin খণ্ড 6: 20. http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/document/43413। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2001-11-24. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 Rasmussen, Pamela C. & John C. Anderton (2005). Birds of South Asia: The Ripley Guide. Smithsonian Institution and Lynx Edicions. ISBN 84-87334-67-9. 
  10. "BirdLife International Species factsheet: Hirundo rustica". BirdLife International. http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/species/index.html?action=SpcHTMDetails.asp&sid=7116&m=1। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2007-12-06. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Dewey, Tanya; Roth, Chava (2002). "Hirundo rustica". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. Archived from the original on 10 December 2007. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Hirundo_rustica.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2007-11-19. 
  12. Sinclair, Ian; Hockey, Phil; Tarboton, Warwick (2002). SASOL Birds of Southern Africa. প্ৰকাশক Cape Town: Struik. ISBN 1-86872-721-1.  p294
  13. Møller, Anders Pape; Tegelstrom, Håkan (November 1997). "Extra-pair paternity and tail ornamentation in the barn swallow". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology খণ্ড 41 (5): 353–360. doi:10.1007/s002650050395. 
  14. Duffin, K. (1973). "Barn Swallows use freshwater and marine algae in nest construction". Wilson Bull. খণ্ড 85: 237–238. 

আলোকচিত্ৰৰ ভঁৰাল[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

বাহ্যিক সংযোগ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

লগতে চাওক[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Smiddy, P. 2010. Post-fledging roosting at the nest in juvenile barn swallows (Hirundo rustica). Ir Nat. J. : 31: 44 – 46.