টিপচী

অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ পৰা
টিপচী চৰাই (Common Tailorbird)
O. s. guzuratus on Erythrina flower stalk
সংৰক্ষণ স্থিতি
জীৱবৈজ্ঞানিক শ্ৰেণীবিভাজন
জগৎ/ৰাজ্য: Animalia
পৰ্ব: Chordata
শ্ৰেণী: Aves
বৰ্গ: Passeriformes
পৰিয়াল: Cisticolidae
গণ: Orthotomus
প্ৰজাতি: O. sutorius
বৈজ্ঞানিক নাম
Orthotomus sutorius
(Pennant, 1769)
Subspecies
  • O. s. sutorius (Pennant, 1769)
  • O. s. fernandonis (Whistler, 1939)
  • O. s. guzuratus (Latham, 1790)
  • O. s. patia Hodgson, 1845
  • O. s. luteus Ripley, 1948
  • O. s. inexpectatus La Touche, 1922
  • O. s. maculicollis F. Moore, 1855
  • O. s. longicauda (J. F. Gmelin, 1789)
  • O. s. edela Temminck, 1836

টিপচী চৰাই [2] (ইংৰাজী: Common Tailorbird, বৈজ্ঞানিক নাম-Orthotomus sutorius) সমগ্ৰ এছিয়া মহাদেশতে বিস্তৃত হৈ থকা এবিধ সৰু আকাৰৰ চৰাইৰ প্ৰজাতি৷ নগৰৰ উদ্যান সমূহত ই এবিধ চিনাকি চৰাই৷ ই জোপোহাৰ মাজতে লুকাই থাকে যদিও ডাঙৰ মাতটোৰ বাবে ইয়াৰ উপস্থিতি গম পোৱা যায়৷ ইয়াক সাধাৰণতে খেতি-পথাৰ, উদ্যান, বনাঞ্চলৰ দাঁতি-কাষৰীয়া অঞ্চল আদিত দেখা পোৱা যায়৷ ই ঘাইকৈ পতংগভোজী চৰাই (insectivorous)৷ ইয়াৰ মাত ডাঙৰ আৰু চ্চিপ-চ্চিপ-চ্চিপ ধৰণৰ৷ [3]

টেক্স'নমি[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

A number of subspecies are recognized within its widespread range in South Asia and Southeast Asia. The nominate race is from the lowlands of Sri Lanka. Race O. s. fernandonis is found in the highlands of Sri Lanka. Neighbouring India has O.s. guzuratus in the peninsula and west to Pakistan while towards the north O. s. patia is found in the Terai of Nepal along the Himalayan foothills until Myanmar. A small population of O. s. patia is also found in the northern Eastern Ghats (Wangasara).[4] The hills of northeastern India have O. s. luteus. In Southeast Asia O. s. inexpectatus and O. s. maculicollis are found in Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, Malaysia, Cambodia and Vietnam. South east China, including the island of Hainan, and Tonkin in Vietnam have O. s. longicauda while O. s. edela is found on Java.

বিৱৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The Common Tailorbird is a brightly coloured bird, with bright green upperparts and whitish underparts. They range in size from ১০ to ১৪ centimetre (৩.৯ to ৫.৫ in) and weigh ৬ to ১০ gram (০.২১ to ০.৩৫ oz). They have short rounded wings, a long tail, strong legs and a sharp bill with curved tip to the upper mandible. They are wren-like with a long upright tail that is often moved around. The crown is rufous and the upperparts are predominantly olive green. The underside is creamy white. The sexes are identical, except that the male has long central tail feathers in the breeding season, although the reliability of sexing data accompanying museum specimens used in determining this sexual dimorphism has been questioned.[5] Young birds are duller.[3] When calling, the dark patches on the sides of the neck become visible.[6] These are due to the dark pigmented and bare skin that are present in both sexes and sometimes give the appearance of a dark gorget.[7]

আচৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Foraging for insects

Tailorbirds are found in singly or in pairs, usually low in the undergrowth or trees sometimes hopping on the ground. They forage for insects and have been known to feed on a range of beetles and bugs. They are attracted to insects at flowers and are known to favour the inflorescenses of mango. They also visit flowers such as those of Bombax, Salmalia for nectar and are sometimes covered in pollen, giving them a golden-headed appearance.[7]

খাদ্য[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

প্ৰজনন[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Nest in India

The breeding season is March to December peaking from June to August in India, coinciding with the wet season. In Sri Lanka the main breeding periods are March to May and August to September, although they can breed throughout the year.[3]

The nest is a deep cup, lined with soft materials and placed in thick foliage and the leaves holding the nest have the upper surfaces outwards making it difficult to spot. The punctures made on the edge of the leaves are minute and do not cause browning of the leaves, further aiding camouflage. [8] The stitch is made by piercing two leaves and drawing fibre through them. The fibres fluff out on the outside and in effect they are more like rivets.[9]

The incubation period is about 12 days. Both male and female feed the young. Mortality of eggs and chicks is high due to predation by rodents, cats, crow-pheasants, lizards and other predators.[7] The young birds fledge in about 14 days. The female alone incubates according to some sources, while others suggest that both sexes incubate; however, both parents take part in feeding and sanitation.[10]

আলোকচিত্ৰ ভঁৰাল[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

তথ্যসুত্ৰ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. BirdLife International (2012). "Orthotomus sutorius". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/106007646। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 16 July 2012. 
  2. N.N. Dutta et al, Annals of Biological Research, 2011, 2 (5):374-384
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Rasmussen, P.C.; Anderton, J.C. (2005). Birds of South Asia: The Ripley Guide. Vol. 2. Smithsonian Institution & Lynx Edicions. পৃষ্ঠা. 477. 
  4. Ripley, S. Dillon; Beehler, Bruce M.; Raju, KSR Krishna (1988). "Birds of the Visakhapatnam Ghats, Andhra Pradesh-2". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 85 (1): 90–107. 
  5. Ali, Salim; Whistler, Hugh (1939). "The birds of Central India. Part I.". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 41 (1): 82–106. 
  6. Cave, Walter A. (1913). "The Birds of Colombo". Spolia Zeylanica খণ্ড 8: 94–115. http://www.archive.org/stream/spoliazeylanica08nati#page/96/mode/2up. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 Ali, S.; Ripley, S.D. (1997). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. 8 (2nd সম্পাদনা). Oxford University Press. পৃষ্ঠা. 78–84. ISBN 0195636570. 
  8. Wood, Casey A. (1925). The nest of the Indian tailor bird. Smithsonian Report. পৃষ্ঠা. 349–354. http://www.archive.org/stream/annualreportofbo1925smit#page/n387/mode/2up. 
  9. Neelakantan, K.K. (1976). "On some nests of the Tailor Bird (Orthotomus sutorius)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 73 (2): 396–400. 
  10. Neelakantan, K.K. (1976). "On a nesting pair of Tailor Birds (Orthotomus sutorius)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 73 (1): 219–221. 

লগতে চাওক[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  • Sen, S.N. (1947). "An early nest of the Tailor Bird [Orthotomus sutorius (Pennant)]". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 47 (1): 159–160. 
  • Green, E.E. (1899). "Birds tapping at window-panes". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 12 (2): 415. 
  • Fernando, H.F. (1913). "Note on "Orthotomus sutorius" – the Indian Tailor Bird". Spolia Zeylanica খণ্ড 8 (32): 300–302. 

বাহ্যিক সংযোগ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]