ফেঁচু

অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ পৰা
ফেঁচু (Black Drongo)
Note the white rictal spot at the base of the beak.
সংৰক্ষণ স্থিতি
জীৱবৈজ্ঞানিক শ্ৰেণীবিভাজন
জগৎ/ৰাজ্য: Animalia
পৰ্ব: Chordata
শ্ৰেণী: Aves
বৰ্গ: Passeriformes
পৰিয়াল: Dicruridae
গণ: Dicrurus
প্ৰজাতি: D. macrocercus
বৈজ্ঞানিক নাম
Dicrurus macrocercus
(Vieillot, 1817)
Subspecies

D. m. macrocercus (Vieillot, 1817)[2]
D. m. albirictus (Hodgson, 1836)[3]
D. m. minor Blyth, 1850[4]
D. m. cathoecus Swinhoe, 1871[5]
D. m. thai Kloss, 1921[6]
D. m. javanus Kloss, 1921[6]
D. m. harterti Baker, 1918[7]

ফেঁচুৰ বিতৰণৰ মানচিত্ৰ
সমাৰ্থক

Buchanga atra
Bhuchanga albirictus[8]

ফেঁচু[9] (ইংৰাজী: Black Drongo, বৈজ্ঞানিক নাম-Dicrurus macrocercus) 'Dicruridae' পৰিয়ালৰ অন্তৰ্ভুক্ত এবিধ মজলীয়া আকাৰৰ চৰাইৰ প্ৰজাতি৷ দক্ষিণ এছিয়াইৰাণ, ভাৰত, শ্ৰীলংকাৰ পৰা চীন তথা ইণ্ডোনেছিয়া লৈকে ই স্থানীয় ভাৱে প্ৰজনন কৰে৷ ইয়াৰ সমগ্ৰ দেহটো ক'লা বৰণৰ, নেজ খাঁজকটা (forked)৷ ই প্ৰধানকৈ পোক-পতংগ খাই জীয়াই থাকে বাবে খেতি-পথাৰৰ আশে পাশে এই চৰাইবিধ পৰ্য্যাপ্ত পৰিমাণে দেখা পোৱা যায়৷ ফেঁচুক সাধাৰণতে অতিমাত্ৰা আক্ৰমণাত্মক আচৰণৰ বাবে জনা যায়৷ নিজৰ টেৰিটৰীৰ ভিতৰত সোমোৱা যিকোনো সৰু-বৰ চৰাইকে ই খেদি পঠিয়ায়৷

টেক্স'নমি[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Typical silhouette

ফেঁচুক এসময়ত 'Drongo' পৰিয়ালৰে অন্য এবিধ প্ৰজাতি 'Fork-tailed Drongo' ৰ উপ-প্ৰজাতি বুল গণ্য কৰা হৈছিল৷[10][11]৷ বৰ্তমান এই দুয়োটাকে ভিন্ন প্ৰজাতি বুলি স্বীকৃতি দিয়া হৈছে৷[12][13] with the Fork-tailed Drongo restricted to Africa and separated from the Asian range of the Black Drongo.[12][13]

ফেঁচুৰ এতিয়ালৈকে সাতটা উপ-প্ৰজাতি চিনাক্ত কৰা হৈছে[13] -

বিৱৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Immatures can resemble the White-bellied Drongo

ফেঁচুৰ দেহৰ বৰণ জিলিকা ক'লা আৰু নেজডাল দকৈ দুভাগ কৈ কটা৷ পূৰ্ণবয়স্ক মতা ফেঁচু চৰাইৰ 'গেপ'(gape)ৰগুৰিত বগা দাগ থকা দেখা যায়৷ The iris is dark brown (not crimson as in the similar Ashy Drongo). The sexes cannot be told apart in the field. Juveniles are brownish and may have some white barring or speckling towards the belly and vent, and can be mistaken for the White-bellied Drongo. First-year birds have white tips to the feathers of the belly, while second-years have these white-tipped feathers restricted to the vent.[16]

They are aggressive and fearless birds, and although only 28–cm (11–in) in length, they will attack much larger species that enter their nesting territory, including crows and birds of prey. This behaviour led to their former name of King Crow. They fly with strong flaps of the wing and are capable of fast manoeuvres that enable them to capture flying insects.[17] With short legs, they sit upright on thorny bushes, bare perches or electricity wires. They may also perch on grazing animals.[18]

They are capable of producing a wide range of calls but a common call is a two note tee-hee call resembling that of the Shikra (Accipiter badius).[14]

বিতৰণ তথা বাসস্থান[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Calls

The Black Drongo is found predominantly in open country and usually perches and hunts close to the ground. They are mostly aerial predators of insects but also glean from the ground or off vegetation. They are found as summer visitors to northeastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan but are residents from the Indus Valley until Bangladesh and into India and Sri Lanka.[14] Some populations show seasonal movements[18] that are poorly understood.[19] The Black Drongo can be found in savannas, fields, and urban habitats.

Black Drongos were introduced just before the Second World War from Taiwan to the island of Rota to help in the control of insects. It is believed that they dispersed over the sea to the island of Guam in the 1950s. By 1967, they were the fourth most commonly seen birds in roadside counts on Guam and are today the most abundant bird there.[20][21] Predation by and competition from Black Drongos have been suggested as factors in the decline of endemic bird species such as the Rota Bridled White-eye[22] and the Guam Flycatcher.[20][23]

আচৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

খাদ্য[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Black Drongo sunning or possibly anting[24]

Black Drongos become active very early at dawn and roost later than many other birds. They feed mainly on insects such as grasshoppers, cicadas,[25] termites, wasps, bees, ants, moths, beetles and dragonflies. They sometimes fly close to tree branches, attempting to disturb any insects that may be present. They congregate in fields that are being ploughed, picking up exposed caterpillars and beetle grubs. As many as 35 birds have been seen at such congregations. They are also attracted to burning grasslands where insects are disturbed. They appear to avoid flies.[26] They associate with Common Mynas, Cattle Egrets and other birds that share a similar diet and habitat.[27] Drongos benefit from this association and are more successful in their foraging.

প্ৰজনন[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Nest in West Bengal

Black Drongos breed mainly in February and March in southern India, and until August in other parts of the country. Males and females sing in the mornings during the breeding season. Courtship can include aerobatic chases and they may lock their wings and beaks together, with the pair sometimes falling to the ground. Displays may be made on the ground.[28] Pair bonds are retained for a whole breeding season. The nest is a cup made with a thin layer of sticks placed in the fork of branch, and is built in a week by both the male and female. Eggs are laid close to the first rains in April.[16] The usual clutch is three or rarely four eggs laid in a cup nest placed in the fork of an outer branch of tree. Large leafy tree such as the Jackfruit are preferred. The eggs are pale cream to red with spots and markings and are 26 mm long (1.05 in) and 19 mm wide (0.75 in). The eggs are incubated by both parents and hatch after 14 to 15 days. Nestlings are brooded for the first five days, after which the young are capable of maintaining a fairly constant body temperature.[16] A second clutch may be laid if the first is destroyed.[18] Nests are sometimes built in telephone poles.[29] A nesting territory of 0.003 to 0.012 km² (0.3 to 1.2 hectares) is maintained.[16]

আক্ৰমণাত্মক আচৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Fully fledged young yet to develop the forked tail

Their habit of driving away predators from near their nests is believed to encourage other birds such as orioles, doves, pigeons, babblers,[30] and especially bulbuls, to nest in the vicinity.[31][32] In one study 18 of 40 nests had Red-vented Bulbuls nesting within ১০ metre (৩৩ ft).[16] An abnormal case of a Red-vented Bulbul feeding the chicks of a Black Drongo at their nest has been recorded.[33]

They are so aggressive that they may sometimes land on large birds of prey and peck them when mobbing.[34]

মানুহৰ সৈতে সম্পৰ্ক[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Their habit of preying on bees[35] makes them a nuisance to bee-keepers, but farmers attract them to their fields using artificial perches in fields to encourage them to feed on pest insects.[36][37]

তথ্যসুত্ৰ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. BirdLife International (2012). "Dicrurus macrocercus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/106006034। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 16 July 2012. 
  2. Vieillot, Louis Jean Pierre (1817). Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle Appliquée aux Arts খণ্ড 9: 588. 
  3. Hodgson, Brian Houghton (1836). The India Review and Journal of Foreign Science and the Arts খণ্ড 1 (8): 326. 
  4. Blyth, Edward (1850). The Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal খণ্ড 19: 255. 
  5. Swinhoe, Robert (1871). Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year খণ্ড 2: 377. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 Kloss, Cecil Boden (1921). Journal of the Federated Malay States Museums. 10 খণ্ড pt. 3: 208. 
  7. Baker, Edward Charles Stuart (1918). "Some Notes on the Dicruridae". Novitates Zoologicae খণ্ড 25: 299. http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/3857129. 
  8. Neave, Sheffield A., ed (1939). Nomenclator Zoologicus; a List of the Names of Genera and Subgenera in Zoology from the Tenth Edition of Linnaeus, 1758, to the End of 1935 (with supplements). Volume 1. Zoological Society of London, London. পৃষ্ঠা. 425. http://www.ubio.org/NZ/detail.php?uid=24210&d=1. 
  9. N.N. Dutta et al, Annals of Biological Research, 2011, 2 (5):374-384
  10. উদ্ধৃতি ত্ৰুটি: অবৈধ <ref> টেগ; Sharpe নামৰ refৰ বাবে কোনো পাঠ্য প্ৰদান কৰা হোৱা নাই
  11. উদ্ধৃতি ত্ৰুটি: অবৈধ <ref> টেগ; Deignan নামৰ refৰ বাবে কোনো পাঠ্য প্ৰদান কৰা হোৱা নাই
  12. উদ্ধৃতি ত্ৰুটি: অবৈধ <ref> টেগ; Pasquet নামৰ refৰ বাবে কোনো পাঠ্য প্ৰদান কৰা হোৱা নাই
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Vaurie, Charles (1949). "A revision of the bird family Dicruridae". Bulletin of the AMNH খণ্ড 93 (4): 203–342. সাঁচ:Hdl. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 Rasmussen, Pamela C.; JC Anderton (2005). Birds of South Asia: The Ripley Guide. Volume 2. Smithsonian Institution and Lynx Edicions. পৃষ্ঠা. 590. 
  15. Baker, ECS (1921). "Handlist of the birds of the Indian empire". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 27 (3): 46–47. http://www.archive.org/details/handlistofgenera00bake. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Shukkur, EAA and Joseph, KJ (1978). "Breeding biology of the Black Drongo". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 75 (4): 1212–1226. 
  17. Chari, N.; Janaki Rama Rao, N., Ramesh, R. & Sattaiah, G. (1982). "Comparative studies on flight characteristics, moment of inertia and flight behaviour of two fly-catchers, Dicrurus adsimilis and Merops orientalis". Ind. J. Exp. Biol. খণ্ড 20: 894–896. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Whistler, Hugh (1949). Popular handbook of Indian birds. 4th ed.. Gurney and Jackson, London. পৃষ্ঠা. 155–157. http://www.archive.org/stream/popularhandbooko033226mbp#page/n195/mode/1up. 
  19. Decandido, Robert; Nualsri, Chukiat and Allen, Deborah (2004). "Migration of Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus in southern Thailand in autumn 2003". Forktail খণ্ড 20: 143–144. http://web.archive.org/web/20081011023321/http://www.orientalbirdclub.org/publications/forktail/20pdfs/Decandido-Drongo.pdf. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 Fritts, Thomas H. and Rodda, Gordon H. (1998). "The role of introduced species in the degradation of island ecosystems: A case history of Guam". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics খণ্ড 29 (1): 113–140. doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.29.1.113. http://web.archive.org/web/20060906152104/http://cas.bellarmine.edu/tietjen/Ecology/guam.pdf. 
  21. Jenkins, J. M. (1983). The native forest birds of Guam. Ornithological Monographs 31. American Ornithologists Union. ISBN 0-943610-38-9. http://sora.unm.edu/node/156. 
  22. Amidon F. A. (2000). Habitat relationships and life history of the Rota Bridled White-eye (Zosterops rotensis). M.Sc. thesis. Virginia Polytechnic Institute. 
  23. Maben, Anne F. (1982). The Feeding Ecology of the Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus on Guam. Master's Thesis. Univ. Calif., Long Beach.. 
  24. Fletcher, T. B. (1937). "Birds and ants". Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 39: 640. 
  25. Fischer, CEC (1923). "Drongo and cicada". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 29 (3): 839–840. 
  26. Mason, C W & H Maxwell-Lefroy (1911). The food of birds in India.. (Entomological series. Vol 3) Department of Agriculture in India. পৃষ্ঠা. 69–73. http://www.archive.org/details/foodofbirdsinind00masonrich. 
  27. Dewar, Douglas (1905). "King-Crows and Mynas as mess-mates". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 16 (2): 364–366. http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/5725536. 
  28. Neelakantan, KK (1962). "Courtship and mating of the black drongo". Newsletter for birdwatchers খণ্ড 2 (4): 9. http://archive.org/stream/NLBW2#page/n54/mode/1up. 
  29. Raju,KSR Krishna; Raju,UV Bairagi (1989). "Black Drongo Dicrurus adsimilis nesting on electric pole". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 86 (3): 449–450. 
  30. Allen, GO (1920). "Birds of different species nesting in company". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society খণ্ড 26: 1044. http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/2050709. 
  31. Shukkur,EAA & Joseph,KJ (1980). Proximity nesting of the Black Drongo and the Redvented Bulbul In Proceedings of the All India Symposium of Environmental Biology. Department of Zoology, University of Kerala. পৃষ্ঠা. 40–42. 
  32. Waite, HW (1920). "Birds of different species nesting in company". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 27 (1): 171. http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/30358758. 
  33. Van Gruisen, J (2004). "Red-vented bulbul Pycnonotus cafer feeding Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus chicks". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 101: 159–60. 
  34. Melville, DS (1992). "Intense mobbing by a Black Drongo Dicrurus macrocercus". J. Bombay Natural History Society খণ্ড 88: 285. 
  35. Mundkur,Taej (1985). "Bee hunting by the Black Drongo". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 82 (2): 411. 
  36. Parasharya, BM; Dodia, JF; Mathew, KL; Yadav, DN (1996). "The role of birds in the natural regulation of Helicoverpa armigera Hubner in wheat". Pavo খণ্ড 34 (1&2): 33–38. 
  37. Parasharya, BM; J F Dodia; K L Mathew & D N Yadav (1994). "Natural regulation of white grub (Holotrichia sp.: Scarabeidae) by birds in agroecosystem". J. Biosci. খণ্ড 19 (4): 381–389. doi:10.1007/BF02703175. http://www.ias.ac.in/jarch/jbiosci/19/381-389.pdf. 

লগতে চাওক[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  • Bhujle,BV; Nadkarni,VB (1980) Histological and histochemical observations on the adrenal gland of four species of birds, Dicrurus macrocercus (Viellot), Centropus sinensis (Stephens), Sturnus pagodarum (Gmelin) and Columba livia (Gmelin). Zool. Beitrage 26(2):287–295.
  • Lamba,BS (1963) The nidification of some common Indian birds. 3. The Black Drongo (Dicrurus macrocercus Viellot). Res. Bull. Panjab Univ. 14(1–2):1–9.
  • Shukkur,EAA; Joseph,KJ (1980) Annual rhythm in the Black Drongo Dicrurus adsimilis (family Dicruridae, Passeriformes, Aves). Comparative Physiol. Ecol. 5(2):76–77.
  • Shukkur, EAA (1978) Biology, Ecology and Behaviour of the Black Drongo (Dicrurus adsimilis). Thesis, University of Calicut.

বাহ্যিক সংযোগ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]