ফেচুলুকা

অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ পৰা
ফেচুলুকা (Red-vented Bulbul)
P. c. cafer (Tirunelveli, India)
সংৰক্ষণ স্থিতি
জীৱবৈজ্ঞানিক শ্ৰেণীবিভাজন
জগৎ/ৰাজ্য: Animalia
পৰ্ব: Chordata
শ্ৰেণী: Aves
বৰ্গ: Passeriformes
পৰিয়াল: Pycnonotidae
গণ: Pycnonotus
প্ৰজাতি: P. cafer
বৈজ্ঞানিক নাম
Pycnonotus cafer
(Linnaeus, 1766)
সমাৰ্থক

Molpastes cafer
Molpastes haemorrhous
Pycnonotus pygaeus

ফেচুলুকা (ইংৰাজী: Red-vented Bulbul, বৈজ্ঞানিক নাম-Pycnonotus cafer) এবিধ মজলীয়া আকাৰৰ চৰাইৰ প্ৰজাতি৷ ইয়াক ভাৰত উপমহাদেশৰ শ্ৰীলংকাৰ পৰা তীব্বতলৈকে স্থানীয়ভাৱে দেখা পোৱা যায়৷ [2]

টেক্স'নমি[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

P. c. bengalensis (Kolkata, India)

The Red-vented Bulbul was originally described by Linnaeus in 1766. Several populations of this widespread species have been named as subspecies (or races). The nominate race is found in southern India.[3] The type locality of Puducherry was designated by Erwin Stresemann.[4]

বিৱৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Underside of race bengalensis

The Red-vented Bulbul is easily identified by its short crest giving the head a squarish appearance. The body is dark brown with a scaly pattern while the head is darker or black. The rump is white while the vent is red. The black tail is tipped in white. The Himalayan races have a more prominent crest and are more streaked on the underside.[5]

বিতৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

In its native range it is rarely found in mature forests. A study based on 54 localities in India concluded that vegetation is the single most important factor that determines the distribution of the species.[6]

It has been introduced into Hawaii, Fiji and New Zealand.

বাসস্থান[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

This is a bird of dry scrub, open forest, plains and cultivated lands.[7] They were introduced to Samoa in 1943 and became common on Upolu by 1957. Red-vented Bulbuls were introduced to Fiji around 1903 by indentured labourers from India.[8]

আচৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Nest

খাদ্য[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Red-vented bulbuls feed on fruits, petals of flowers,[9] nectar, insects and occasionally geckos.[10][11]

প্ৰজনন[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Red-vented bulbuls build their nests in bushes at a height of around 2–3 m (7–10 ft; two or three eggs is a typical clutch. Nests are occasionally built inside houses[12][13] or in a hole in a mud bank.[14]

They breed from June to September. The eggs are pale-pinkish with spots of darker red more dense at the broad end.[15] They are capable of having multiple clutches in a year. Nests are small flat cups made of small twigs but sometimes making use of metal wires.[16] The eggs hatch after about 14 days.[17] Both parents feed the chicks and on feeding trips wait for the young to excrete, swallowing the faecal sacs produced.[18] The Pied Crested Cuckoo is a brood parasite of this species.[19]

তথ্যসুত্ৰ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. BirdLife International (2012). "Pycnonotus cafer". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/106007196। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 16 July 2012. 
  2. Lowe S., Browne M., Boudjelas S., De Poorter M. (2000). 100 of the World’s Worst Invasive Species:A selection from the Global Invasive Species Database.. The Invasive Species Specialist Group (ISSG). http://www.issg.org/database/species/reference_files/100English.pdf. 
  3. উদ্ধৃতি ত্ৰুটি: অবৈধ <ref> টেগ; whistler নামৰ refৰ বাবে কোনো পাঠ্য প্ৰদান কৰা হোৱা নাই
  4. Stresemann, E. (1952). "On the birds collected by Pierre Poivre in Canton, Manila, India and Madagascar (1751–1756)". Ibis খণ্ড 94 (3): 499–523. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1952.tb01847.x. 
  5. Sibley, CB; Short, LL (1959). "Hybridization in some Indian Bulbuls Pycnonotus cafer x P. leucogenys". Ibis খণ্ড 101 (2): 177–182. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1959.tb02373.x. 
  6. Vijayan, VS (1975). The ecological isolation of Bulbuls (Pycnonotidae) with special reference to Pycnonotus cafer cafer and P. luteolus luteolus at Point Calimere, Tamil Nadu. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Bombay. 
  7. উদ্ধৃতি ত্ৰুটি: অবৈধ <ref> টেগ; rasmussen নামৰ refৰ বাবে কোনো পাঠ্য প্ৰদান কৰা হোৱা নাই
  8. Watling, D (1978). "Observations on the naturalized distribution of the Red-vented Bulbul in the Pacific, with special reference to the Fiji islands" (PDF). Notornis খণ্ড 25: 109–117. http://www.notornis.org.nz/free_issues/Notornis_25-1978/Notornis_25_2.pdf. 
  9. Johnson, J. M. (1989). "Redvented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer (Linne) eating petals of Magnolia". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 86 (1): 103. 
  10. Bharos,AMK (1999). "Attempt by Redvented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer to feed on a young House Gecko Hemidactylus flaviviridis". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 96 (2): 320. 
  11. Sharma, Satish Kumar (2000). "Redvented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer feeding on tail of House Gecko Hemidactylus flaviviridis". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 97 (2): 284. 
  12. Dixit,D (1963). "Notes on a case of the redvented bulbul, Pycnonotus cafer (linnaeus) nesting indoors". Pavo খণ্ড 1 (1): 19–31. 
  13. Inglis, CM (1922). "Curious site for nest of the Bengal Redvented Bulbul (Molpastes haemarrhous bengalensis)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 28 (4): 1135–1136. http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/30348226. 
  14. Lamba, BS (1976). "Redvented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer nesting in a hole in a mud bank". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 73 (2): 395. 
  15. Jerdon, TC (1863). The Bird of India Volume 2. Part 1.. পৃষ্ঠা. 93–96. http://www.archive.org/stream/birdsofindiabein21jerd#page/94/mode/1up/. 
  16. Lamba, BS (1968). "Wire nests of Redvented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer (Linnaeus)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 65 (1): 222–223. 
  17. Ali S & S D Ripley (1996). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. 6 (2 সম্পাদনা). Oxford University Press. পৃষ্ঠা. 85–92. 
  18. McCann, Charles (1932). "Notes on the nesting habits of the Red-vented Bulbul (Molpastes cafer)". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. (3): 680–681. 
  19. Tooth, EE (1902). "A Pied-Crested Cuckoo's egg Coccystes jacobinus found in the nest of the Bengal Red-vented Bulbul Molpastes bengalensis". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 14 (1): 172. http://biodiversitylibrary.org/page/30157811. 

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