বুলবুলি

অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ পৰা
বুলবুলি (Red-whiskered Bulbul)
সংৰক্ষণ স্থিতি
জীৱবৈজ্ঞানিক শ্ৰেণীবিভাজন
জগৎ/ৰাজ্য: Animalia
পৰ্ব: Chordata
শ্ৰেণী: Aves
বৰ্গ: Passeriformes
পৰিয়াল: Pycnonotidae
গণ: Pycnonotus
প্ৰজাতি: P. jocosus
বৈজ্ঞানিক নাম
Pycnonotus jocosus
(Linnaeus, 1758)
সমাৰ্থক

Otocompsa emeria

বুলবুলি (ইংৰাজী: Red-whiskered Bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus) এছিয়া মহাদেশত বিস্তৃত হৈ থকা এবিধ মজলীয়া আকাৰৰ চৰাইৰ প্ৰজাতি৷ ই সাধাৰণতে ফল-মূল আদি খাই জীয়াই থাকে৷ ইয়াৰ মূৰত থকা মুকুট (crest) আৰু ৰঙা কটি (vent) তথা চকুৰ ৰঙা অংশৰ বাবেই সহজেই চিনাক্ত কৰিব পৰা যায়৷

টেক্স'নমি[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The Red-whiskered Bulbul was one of the many species originally described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 in his Systema Naturae. He placed it along with the shrikes under Lanius.

The populations found across their range show a range of plumage variations and some of these are recognized as subspecies:[2][3]

  • jocosus, the nominate form is found in Hong Kong[4]
  • fuscicaudatus of peninsular India has nearly complete breast band and no white tip to tail
  • abuensis of northwestern India (type locality Mount Abu[5]) is pale and has a broken breast band and no white tip to tail
  • pyrrhotis of the terai is pale above with white tail tips and widely separated breast band
  • emeria of Eastern peninsula and Ganges Delta is warm brown above with a slim bill and a long crest (also introduced into Florida[6])
  • whistleri is found in the Andaman Islands and has a warm brown above, a heavier bill and a shorter crest than emeria
  • monticola is found in northeastern India and has darker upperparts than pyrrhotis
  • pattani is found in Thailand
  • peguensis not always recognized was described from southern Burma[7]

বিৱৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The Red-whiskered Bulbul is about ২০ centimetre (৭.৯ in) in length. It has brown upper-parts and whitish underparts with buff flanks and a dark spur running onto the breast at shoulder level. It has a tall pointed black crest, red face patch and thin black moustachial line. The tail is long and brown with white terminal feather tips, but the vent area is red.

The loud and evocative call is a sharp kink-a-joo (also transcribed as pettigrew or kick-pettigrew or pleased to meet you[2]) and the song is a scolding chatter. It is more often heard than seen, but will often perch conspicuously especially in the mornings when they call from the tops of trees. The life span is about 11 years.[8]

বিতৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

It has established itself in Australia, Los Angeles, Hawaii,[9] and Florida[10] in the United States, and in the Mauritius, Assumption Island[11] and Mascarene Islands.[12][13] In Florida, it is only found in a small area, and its population could be extirpated easily.[14]

বাসস্থান[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Immature of race emeria from Kolkata

This is a bird of lightly wooded areas, more open country with bushes and shrubs, and farmland. Irruptions have been noted from early times with Thomas C. Jerdon noting that they "periodically visiting Madras and other wooded towns in large flocks."[15]

আচৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Nest

খাদ্য[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The Red-whiskered Bulbul feeds on fruits (including those of Thevetia peruviana that are toxic to mammals), nectar and insects.[16]

প্ৰজনন[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The breeding season is spread out and peaks from December to May in southern India and March to October in northern India.[3] Breeding may occur once or twice a year.[17] The courtship display of the male involves head bowing, spreading the tail and drooping wings.[17] The nest is cup-shaped, and is built on bushes, thatched walls or small trees. It is woven of fine twigs, roots, and grasses, and embellished with large objects such as bark strips, paper, or plastic bags.[14] Clutches typically contain two to three eggs.[17]

They defend territories of about ৩,০০০ square metre (৩২,০০০ sq ft) during the breeding season.[18] They roost communally in loose groups of hundred or more birds.[19][20]

মানুহৰ সৈতে সম্পৰ্ক[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

This species was once a popular cagebird in parts of India. C. W. Smith noted[21] that

These birds are in great request among the natives, being of a fearless disposition, and easily reclaimed. They are taught to sit on the hand, and numbers may thus be seen in any Indian bazaar.

The species continues to be a popular cagebird in parts of Southeast Asia.[12]

তথ্যসুত্ৰ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. BirdLife International (2012). "Pycnonotus jocosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/106007183। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 16 July 2012. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Ali, S. and Ripley, S. D. (1996). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. 6 (2 সম্পাদনা). Oxford University Press. পৃষ্ঠা. 75–80. 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Rasmussen, PC and Anderton, JC (2005). Birds of South Asia: The Ripley Guide. Smithsonian Institution and Lynx Edicions. 
  4. Dickinson, E.C. & R.W.R.J. Dekker (2002). "Systematic notes on Asian birds. 25. A preliminary review of the Pycnonotidae." (PDF). Zool. Verh. Leiden খণ্ড 340: 93–114. http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/document/46723. 
  5. Whistler, H. (1931). "Description of new races". Bull. Brit. Orn. Club খণ্ড 52: 40–41. 
  6. উদ্ধৃতি ত্ৰুটি: অবৈধ <ref> টেগ; florida নামৰ refৰ বাবে কোনো পাঠ্য প্ৰদান কৰা হোৱা নাই
  7. Dickinson, E. C.; Dekker, R.W. R. J. (2002). "Systematic notes on Asian birds. 25. A preliminary review of the Pycnonotidae." (PDF). Zool. Verh. Leiden খণ্ড 340: 93–114. http://www.repository.naturalis.nl/document/46723/. 
  8. Brown, C. Emerson (1928). "Longevity of birds in captivity" (PDF). The Auk খণ্ড 45 (3): 345–348. doi:10.2307/4076026. http://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/auk/v045n03/p0345-p0348.pdf. 
  9. Van Riper, Charles, III; Van Riper, Sandra G.; Berger, Andrew J. (1979). "The Red-Whiskered Bulbul in Hawaii" (PDF). The Wilson Bulletin খণ্ড 91 (2): 323–328. http://sora.unm.edu/sites/default/files/journals/wilson/v091n02/p0323-p0328.pdf. 
  10. Rand, Alison C. (1980). Factors responsible for the successful establishment of exotic avian species in southeastern Florida in Proceedings of the 9th Vertebrate Pest Conference. University of Nebraska, Lincoln. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1031&context=vpc9. 
  11. Prys-Jones, RP, MS Prys-Jones & JC Lawley (1981). "The birds of Assumption Island, Indian Ocean: Past and future" (PDF). Atoll Research Bulletin খণ্ড 248. doi:10.5479/si.00775630.248.1. Archived from the original on 13 September 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060913115138/http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/duffy/arb/242-251/248.pdf. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Philippe, Clergeau; Mandon-Dalger, Isabella (2001). "Fast Colonization of an Introduced Bird: the Case of Pycnonotus jocosus on the Mascarene Islands". Biotropica খণ্ড 33 (3): 542–546. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7429.2001.tb00210.x. 
  13. Rand, Alison C. (1980). Factors responsible for the successful establishment of exotic avian species in southeastern Florida in Proceedings of the 9th Vertebrate Pest Conference (1980). University of Nebraska, Lincoln. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1031&context=vpc9. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Rising, James D. (2001). "Bulbuls". In Elphick, Chris; Dunning, John B., Jr.; Sibley, David Allen. The Sibley Guide to Bird Life and Behavior. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A. Knopf. পৃষ্ঠা. 448–449. ISBN 978-1-4000-4386-6. 
  15. উদ্ধৃতি ত্ৰুটি: অবৈধ <ref> টেগ; jerdon নামৰ refৰ বাবে কোনো পাঠ্য প্ৰদান কৰা হোৱা নাই
  16. Raj, PJ Sanjeeva (1963). "Additions to the list of birds eating the fruit of Yellow Oleander (Thevetia neriifolia )". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. খণ্ড 60 (2): 457–458. 
  17. উদ্ধৃতি ত্ৰুটি: অবৈধ <ref> টেগ; Begbie নামৰ refৰ বাবে কোনো পাঠ্য প্ৰদান কৰা হোৱা নাই
  18. Sotthibandhu, S. (2003). "Territorial defense of the red-whiskered bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus (Pycnonotidae), in a semi-wild habitat of the bird farm" (PDF). Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. খণ্ড 25 (5): 553–563. http://rdo.psu.ac.th/sjstweb/journal/25-5/01territory.pdf. 
  19. De, G (1976). "Communal roosting of Redwhiskered Bulbuls". Newsletter for Birdwatchers খণ্ড 16 (4): 11–12. 
  20. Neelakantan, K. K. (1976). "Communal roosting in the Redwhiskered Bulbul". Newsletter for Birdwatchers খণ্ড 16 (2): 4–5. 
  21. Smith, C. W.. Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal খণ্ড X.: 640. 

লগতে চাওক[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  • Deignan, H. G. (1948) The races of the Red-whiskered Bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus (Linnaeus). J. Washington Acad. Sci. 38(8), 279–281.
  • Fraser, F. C. (1930) Note on the nesting habits of the Southern Red-whiskered Bulbul (Otocompsa emeria fuscicaudata). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 34(1), 250–252.
  • Michael, Bindhu; Amrithraj, M.; Pillai, K. Madhavan (1997). "A note on Isospora infection in a Southern Redwhiskered Bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus fuscicaudatus)". Zoos' Print খণ্ড 12 (12): 5. 
  • Kinloch, A. P. (1922). "Nidification of the Southern Redwhiskered Bulbul Otocompsa emeria fuscicaudata". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society খণ্ড 28 (2): 545. 

বাহ্যিক সংযোগ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]