ইতিহাস

অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ পৰা
(বুৰঞ্জীৰ পৰা পুনঃনিৰ্দেশিত)
নিক'লাছ গাইচিছৰ (১৮৯২)
Historia (Historyৰ ৰূপক)

Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.[1]

George Santayana

বুৰঞ্জী (গ্ৰীক ἱστορία - historia, অৰ্থ "অনুসন্ধান, বিচাৰ-খোচাৰ কৰি পোৱা জ্ঞান"[2]) হৈছে পূৰ্বৰ ঘটনাসমূহৰ তথ্যৰ আৱিষ্কাৰ, সংগ্ৰহ, সংগঠন আৰুউপস্থাপন। বুৰঞ্জীয়ে লিখা পদ্ধতি আৱিষ্কাৰ হোৱাৰ পিছৰ সময়ছোৱাকো বুজাব পাৰে। বুৰঞ্জীৰ বিষয়ে লিখা পণ্ডিতসকলক বুৰঞ্জীবিদ বোলা হয়। ই গৱেষণাৰ এক ক্ষেত্ৰ য'ত ঘটনাৱলীৰ ক্ৰম পৰীক্ষা আৰু বিশ্লেষণ কৰা হয় বা কেতিয়াবা বস্তুনিষ্ঠভাৱে সেই ঘটনাৰ কাৰণ আৰু চানেকি ফঁহিয়াই চোৱা হয়।[3][4] বুৰঞ্জীবিদসকলৰ মাজত বুৰঞ্জীৰ প্ৰকৃতি আৰু উপকাৰিতা লৈ তৰ্ক চলি আহিছে। ইয়াৰ ভিতৰত বিষয়টোৰ অধ্যয়ন তাৰ মাজতে সীমাবদ্ধ কৰি ৰখা আৰু বৰ্তমানৰ সমস্যাৰাজীক বুৰঞ্জীমূলক দৃষ্টিকোণৰ পৰা চোৱাও আছে।[3][5][6][7] একো বাহ্যিক উৎসৰে সমৰ্থিত নোহোৱা কোনো সংস্কৃতিত প্ৰচলিত কাহিনীক সাধাৰণতে বুৰঞ্জীৰ নাম দিয়াৰ সলনি সাংস্কৃতিক ঐতিহ্য বুলি শ্ৰেণীবদ্ধ কৰা হয়।[8][9] লিখিত নমুনা থকাৰ আগৰ ঘটনাক প্ৰাক-ইতিহাস বুলি কোৱা হয়।

পশ্চিমীয়া সংস্কৃতিত খ্ৰীষ্টপূৰ্ব পঞ্চম শতিকাৰ গ্ৰীক বুৰঞ্জীবিদ হিৰ'ড'টাছক "বুৰঞ্জীৰ জনক" বুলি অভিহিত কৰা হয়। তেওঁ সমসাময়িক থুচিডাইডিছৰ সৈতে বুৰঞ্জীৰ আধুনিক অধ্যয়নৰ ভেঁটি গঢ়ি তুলিছিল। বিশ্বৰ আন ঠাইৰ বুৰঞ্জীমূলক পৰম্পৰাসমূহ আৰু তেওঁলোকৰ প্ৰভাৱ বুৰঞ্জীৰ প্ৰকৃতিৰ বিভিন্ন ব্যাখ্যাত সাঙোৰ খাই আছে আৰু সেইবোৰ সদায় সলনি হৈ আছে। বুৰঞ্জীৰ আধুনিক অধ্যয়নৰ বিভিন্ন ভাগ আছে; যেনে- কোনো নিৰ্দিষ্ট অঞ্চলক গুৰুত্ব দিয়া অধ্যয়ন, কোনো নিৰ্দিষ্ট বিষয় প্ৰসঙ্গ বিচাৰ কৰা অধ্যয়ন আদি। প্ৰাথমিক অৰু মাধ্যমিক শিক্ষাৰ অংশ হিচাপে বিদ্যালয়সমূহত বুৰঞ্জী পঢ়োৱা হয় আৰু উচ্চ শিক্ষাৰ ক্ষেত্ৰত ইয়াক এটা মূল বিষয়ৰূপে বিবেচনা কৰা হয়।

শব্দৰ উৎপত্তি[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

History by Frederick Dielman (1896)

The word history comes from the root *weid- "know" or "see".[2]

Ancient Greek সাঁচ:LSJ means "inquiry" or "knowledge from inquiry", from সাঁচ:LSJ (hístōr) "judge" (from the Proto-Indo-European agent noun *wid-tor: "one who knows").[10] It was in that sense that Aristotle used the word in his Περὶ Τὰ Ζῷα Ἱστορίαι[11] (Perì Tà Zôa Ηistoríai "Inquiries about Animals"). The ancestor word ἵστωρ is attested early on in Homeric Hymns, Heraclitus, the Athenian ephebes' oath, and in Boiotic inscriptions (in a legal sense, either "judge" or "witness", or similar).

It was still in the Greek sense that Francis Bacon used the term in the late 16th century, when he wrote about "Natural History". For him, historia was "the knowledge of objects determined by space and time", that sort of knowledge provided by memory (while science was provided by reason, and poetry was provided by fantasy).

The word entered the English language in 1390 with the meaning of "relation of incidents, story". In Middle English, the meaning was "story" in general. The restriction to the meaning "record of past events" arises in the late 15th century. In German, French, and most Germanic and Romance languages, the same word is still used to mean both "history" and "story". The adjective historical is attested from 1661, and historic from 1669.[12]

Historian in the sense of a "researcher of history" is attested from 1531. In all European languages, the substantive "history" is still used to mean both "what happened with men", and "the scholarly study of the happened", the latter sense sometimes distinguished with a capital letter, "History", or the word historiography.[11]

বিৱৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Historians write in the context of their own time, and with due regard to the current dominant ideas of how to interpret the past, and sometimes write to provide lessons for their own society. In the words of Benedetto Croce, "All history is contemporary history". History is facilitated by the formation of a 'true discourse of past' through the production of narrative and analysis of past events relating to the human race.[12] The modern discipline of history is dedicated to the institutional production of this discourse.

All events that are remembered and preserved in some authentic form constitute the historical record.[13] The task of historical discourse is to identify the sources which can most usefully contribute to the production of accurate accounts of past. Therefore, the constitution of the historian's archive is a result of circumscribing a more general archive by invalidating the usage of certain texts and documents (by falsifying their claims to represent the 'true past').

The study of history has sometimes been classified as part of the humanities and other times as part of the social sciences.[14] It can also be seen as a bridge between those two broad areas, incorporating methodologies from both. Some individual historians strongly support one or the other classification.[15] In the 20th century, French historian Fernand Braudel revolutionized the study of history, by using such outside disciplines as economics, anthropology, and geography in the study of global history.

Traditionally, historians have recorded events of the past, either in writing or by passing on an oral tradition, and have attempted to answer historical questions through the study of written documents and oral accounts. For the beginning, historians have also used such sources as monuments, inscriptions, and pictures. In general, the sources of historical knowledge can be separated into three categories: what is written, what is said, and what is physically preserved, and historians often consult all three.[16] But writing is the marker that separates history from what comes before.

Archaeology is a discipline that is especially helpful in dealing with buried sites and objects, which, once unearthed, contribute to the study of history. But archaeology rarely stands alone. It uses narrative sources to complement its discoveries. However, archaeology is constituted by a range of methodologies and approaches which are independent from history; that is to say, archaeology does not "fill the gaps" within textual sources. Indeed, Historical Archaeology is a specific branch of archaeology, often contrasting its conclusions against those of contemporary textual sources. For example, Mark Leone, the excavator and interpreter of historical Annapolis, Maryland, USA has sought to understand the contradiction between textual documents and the material record, demonstrating the possession of slaves and the inequalities of wealth apparent via the study of the total historical environment, despite the ideology of "liberty" inherent in written documents at this time.

There are varieties of ways in which history can be organized, including chronologically, culturally, territorially, and thematically. These divisions are not mutually exclusive, and significant overlaps are often present, as in "The International Women's Movement in an Age of Transition, 1830–1975." It is possible for historians to concern themselves with both the very specific and the very general, although the modern trend has been toward specialization. The area called Big History resists this specialization, and searches for universal patterns or trends. History has often been studied with some practical or theoretical aim, but also may be studied out of simple intellectual curiosity.[17]

টোকা[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. George Santayana, The Life of Reason, Volume One, p. 82, BiblioLife, ISBN 978-0-559-47806-2
  2. 2.0 2.1 Joseph, Brian (Ed.); Janda, Richard (Ed.) (2008). The Handbook of Historical Linguistics. Blackwell Publishing (published 30 December 2004). পৃষ্ঠা. 163. ISBN 978-1405127479 
  3. 3.0 3.1 Professor Richard J. Evans (2001). "The Two Faces of E.H. Carr". History in Focus, Issue 2: What is History?. University of London. http://www.history.ac.uk/ihr/Focus/Whatishistory/evans10.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 10 November 2008. 
  4. Professor Alun Munslow (2001). "What History Is". History in Focus, Issue 2: What is History?. University of London. http://www.history.ac.uk/ihr/Focus/Whatishistory/munslow6.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 10 November 2008. 
  5. Tosh, John (2006). The Pursuit of History (4th সম্পাদনা). Pearson Education Limited. ISBN 1-4058-2351-8. p 52
  6. Peter N. Stearns, Peters Seixas, Sam Wineburg (eds.), ed (2000). "Introduction". Knowing Teaching and Learning History, National and International Perspectives. প্ৰকাশক New York & London: New York University Press. পৃষ্ঠা. 6. ISBN 0-8147-8141-1. 
  7. Nash l, Gary B. (2000). "The "Convergence" Paradigm in Studying Early American History in Schools". In Peter N. Stearns, Peters Seixas, Sam Wineburg (eds.). Knowing Teaching and Learning History, National and International Perspectives. প্ৰকাশক New York & London: New York University Press. পৃষ্ঠা. 102–115. ISBN 0-8147-8141-1. 
  8. Seixas, Peter (2000). "Schweigen! die Kinder!". In Peter N. Stearns, Peters Seixas, Sam Wineburg (eds.). Knowing Teaching and Learning History, National and International Perspectives. প্ৰকাশক New York & London: New York University Press. পৃষ্ঠা. 24. ISBN 0-8147-8141-1. 
  9. Lowenthal, David (2000). "Dilemmas and Delights of Learning History". In Peter N. Stearns, Peters Seixas, Sam Wineburg (eds.). Knowing Teaching and Learning History, National and International Perspectives. প্ৰকাশক New York & London: New York University Press. পৃষ্ঠা. 63. ISBN 0-8147-8141-1. 
  10. "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=history। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-05-16. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Ferrater-Mora, José. Diccionario de Filosofia. Barcelona: Editorial Ariel, 1994.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Whitney, W. D. The Century dictionary; an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language. New York: The Century Co, 1889.
  13. WordNet Search – 3.0, "History".
  14. Scott Gordon and James Gordon Irving, The History and Philosophy of Social Science. Routledge 1991. Page 1. ISBN 0-415-05682-9
  15. Ritter, H. (1986). Dictionary of concepts in history. Reference sources for the social sciences and humanities, no. 3. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. Page 416.
  16. Michael C. Lemon (1995).The Discipline of History and the History of Thought. Routledge. Page 201. ISBN 0-415-12346-1
  17. Graham, Gordon (1997). "Chapter 1". The Shape of the Past. Oxford University. 

তথ্যসূত্ৰ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  • Nash l, Gary B. (2000). "The "Convergence" Paradigm in Studying Early American History in Schools". In Peter N. Stearns, Peters Seixas, Sam Wineburg (eds.). Knowing Teaching and Learning History, National and International Perspectives. প্ৰকাশক New York & London: New York University Press. পৃষ্ঠা. 102–115. ISBN 0-8147-8141-1.