|এইটো এটা অনুদিত বা অনুবাদ চলি থকা প্ৰবন্ধ। ইয়াৰ তাৎপৰ্য্য কেইবাটাও হ'ব পাৰে।
|ফেডাৰেটিভ ৰিপাব্লিক অফ্ ব্ৰাজিল
ৰিপাব্লিকা ফেডাৰেটিভা ড’ ব্ৰাজিল (পৰ্টূগীজ)
"Ordem e Progresso"
(অসমীয়া: "শৃংখলা আৰু প্ৰগতি")
(ব্ৰাজিলৰ জাতীয় সংগীত))
(অসমীয়া: ব্ৰাজিলৰ জাতীয় সংগীত)
(ইংৰাজী: "National Seal of Brazil")
|বৃহত্তম নগৰ||চাও পাওল'|
|জনগোষ্ঠীসমূহ (2010)||47.73% শ্বেতাংগ
43.13% Brown (Multiracial)
0.43% আমেৰিকান ইণ্ডিয়ান
|চৰকাৰ||Federal presidential constitutional republic|
|-||ৰাষ্ট্ৰপতি||Dilma Rousseff (PT)|
|-||উপ-ৰাষ্ট্ৰপতি||Michel Temer (PMDB)|
|-||President of the Chamber of Deputies||Marco Maia (PT)|
|-||President of the Senate||José Sarney (PMDB)|
|-||President of the Supreme Federal Court||Ayres Britto|
|Independence||from United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves|
|-||Declared||7 September 1822|
|-||Recognized||29 August 1825|
|-||Republic||15 November 1889|
|-||Current constitution||5 October 1988|
|-||Total||85,14,877 বৰ্গ কিমি (5th)
32,87,597 বৰ্গ মাইল
|-||2010 লোকপিয়ল||190,732,694 (5th)|
|জিডিপি (পিপিপি)||2011 আনুমানিক|
|-||মুঠ||$2.294 trillion (7th)|
|জিডিপি (নামমাত্ৰ)||2011 আনুমানিক|
|-||মুঠ||$2.493 trillion (6th)|
|জিনি সহগ (2012)||▼51.9|
|মানৱ উন্নয়ন সূচক (2011)||0.718 (high) (84th)|
|মুদ্ৰা||Real (R$) (
|সময় স্থান||BRT (ইউটিচি−2 to −4)|
|-||গ্ৰীষ্মকালীন (ডিএছটি)||BRST (ইউটিচি−2 to −4)|
|তাৰিখ বিন্যাস||dd/mm/yyyy (CE)|
|গাড়ী চলোৱা হয়||right|
ব্ৰাজিল i// (পৰ্তুগীজ: Brasil, IPA: [bɾaˈziw]),আধিকাৰিক ভাৱে, “ফেডাৰেটিভ ৰিপাব্লিক অফ ব্ৰাজিল (পৰ্তুগীজ: ৰিপাব্লিকা ফেডাৰেটিভা ড’ ব্ৰাজিল, , শ্ৰব্য (সহায়·তথ্য)),দক্ষিণ আমেৰিকাৰ সৰ্ববৃহৎ দেশ। ভৌগোলিক আকাৰ আৰু জনসংখ্যা দুয়ু দিশ ৰ পৰাই ই পৃথীৱীৰ ৫ম সৰ্ববৃহৎ দেশ, ইয়াৰ জনসংখ্যা ১৯২ মিলিয়ন। মিলিয়ন।তাৰোপৰি ব্ৰাজিল আমেৰিকা মহাদেশদুখনৰ একমাত্ৰ আৰু পৃথিৱীৰ সৰ্ববৃহৎ পৰ্তুগীজ ভাষী দেশ।
পূব দিশত [[আটলাণ্টিক মহাসাগৰেৰে আৱৰা ব্ৰাজিলৰ ততৰেখা ৭৪৯১ কি.মি দীঘল। উত্তৰে ভেনিজুৱেলা, গায়ানা, চুৰিনাম আৰু ফ্ৰেন্স গায়ানাৰ ফৰাছী উপনিবেশ, উত্তৰ পশ্চিমে কলম্বিয়া, পশ্চিমে বলিভিয়া আৰু পেৰু, দক্ষিণ পশ্চিমে আৰ্জেণ্টিনা আৰু পাৰাগুৱে, আৰু দক্ষিণে উৰুগুৱে অৱস্থিত। ইয়াৰ উপৰিও ফাৰ্ণাণ্ড’ডে ন’ৰ’ন্ হা (Fernando de Noronha), ৰ’কাচ এটল(Rocas Atoll), চেণ্ট পিটাৰ আৰু প’ল ৰকচ(Saint Peter and Paul Rock), আৰু ট্ৰিয়াণ্ডে আৰু মাৰ্টিম ৱাজ (Trindade and Martim Vaz) আদি বহুতো দ্বীপপূঞ্জ ব্ৰাজিলৰ অন্তৰ্ভুক্ত। ইকুৱডৰ আৰু চিলিৰ বাদে সকলো দক্ষিণ আমেৰিকীয় দেশৰে সীমা ব্ৰাজিলৰ লগত লাগি আছে।
১৫০০ খ্ৰীষ্টাব্দত পেড্ৰ’ এলভাৰেচ কাব্ৰালে (Pedro Álvares Cabra ) এই ভূখণ্ডত পদাৰ্পন কৰাৰ পাছত ১৮১৫ চনলৈকে ব্ৰাজিল পৰ্তুগালৰ উপনিবেশ আছিল, তাৰ পাছত ইয়াক এখন ৰাজতন্ত্ৰলৈ উন্নীত কৰা হয় আৰু “ পৰ্তুগাল, ব্ৰাজিল, আৰু এলগ্ৰেভচ সংযুক্ত ৰাজতন্ত্ৰ[[en: United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves|( United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves) প্ৰতিষ্ঠা হয়। ১৮০৮ চনত নাপ’লেয়ই পৰ্তুগাল অধিকাৰ কৰাৰ পৰিপ্ৰেক্ষিতত “পৰ্তুগীজ ঔপনিবেশিক সাম্ৰাজ্যৰ” ৰাজধানী লিচবনৰ পৰা ৰিঅ’ ডে জেনিৰ’লৈ স্থানান্তিৰত কৰাত এই ঔপনিবেশীয় জোটবন্ধন ভাগি যায়। ১৮২২ চনত ব্ৰাজিল স্বাধীন হয় আৰু সাংবিধানিক ৰাজতন্ত্ৰ আৰু সংসদ ব্যৱস্থাৰে পৰিচালিত একক দেশ “ব্ৰাজিল সাম্ৰাজ্য” প্ৰতিষ্ঠা হয়। ১৮৮৯ চনত হোৱা এক সামৰিক অভ্যুত্থানৰ যোগে ৰাষ্ট্ৰখনত “ ৰাষ্ট্ৰপতীয় গণতন্ত্ৰ প্ৰতিষ্ঠা হয়, যদিও ইয়াৰ দুইতৰপীয়া সংসদ ব্যৱস্থা (আজিকালিৰ কংগ্ৰেছ) ১৮২৪ চনৰ প্ৰথম সংবিধানৰ দিনৰ পৰা চলি আহিছিল। ১৯৮৮ চনত প্ৰবৰ্তন কৰা বৰ্তমানৰ সংবিধানে ব্ৰাজিলক এক যুক্তৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় প্ৰজাতন্ত্ৰ আখ্যা দিয়ে।২৬ খন প্ৰদেশ আৰু ৫৫৬৪ টা পৌৰ নিগমেৰে এই যুক্তৰাষ্ট্ৰ গঠিত কৰে।
নমিনেল জি.ডি.পি.ৰ হিচাপত ব্ৰাজিলৰ অৰ্থনীতি বিশ্বৰ ভিতৰত ৬ষ্ঠ আৰু ক্ৰয় ক্ষমতা সাম্যৰ( Purchasing Power Parity) আধাৰত ৭ম(২০১১ চনত)। ব্ৰাজিল পৃথিৱীৰ সকলোতকৈ ক্ষীপ্ৰ গতিৰে উন্নতি কৰা বৃহৎ অৰ্থনীতি বিলাকৰ অন্যতম । অৰ্থনৈতিক সংস্কাৰে ব্ৰাজিলক বিশ্বত এক উল্লেযোগ্য স্থানত অধীস্থিত কৰিছে। ব্ৰাজিল ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘ, en:G20, en:CPLP, লেটিন সংঘ (Latin Unin), Organization of Ibero-American States, ‘আমেৰিকীয় দেশসমুহৰ সংগঠন’ (Organization of American States ), মাৰ্কচুল (Mercosul) আৰু দক্ষিণ আমেৰিকীয় জাতিসংঘ আদিৰ প্ৰতিস্থাপক সদস্য হোৱাৰ লগতে ,en: BRICদেশসমুহৰো এখন।ইয়াৰ বাদেও ব্ৰাজিল পৃথিৱীৰ ১৭খন জৈৱ-বিচিত্ৰ দেশৰ এখন, ইয়াত বন্যজীৱ(Wildlife), প্ৰাকৃতিক পৰিবেশ( Natural Environments)ৰ লগতে ব্ৰাজিলৰ বিভিন্ন সংৰক্ষিত বনাঞ্চল বিলাকত অফুৰন্ত প্ৰাকৃতিক সম্পদ পোৱা যায়। নিশ্চিত ভাৱে জনা ৬৭ টা বিচ্ছিন্ন উপজাতিৰে (isolated tribes) ব্ৰাজিল পৃথিৱীৰ ভিতৰত সৰ্বাধিক অসংস্পৰ্শিত লোকৰ (uncontacted peoples)বাসস্থান।
- 1 নামৰ উৎপত্তি
- 2 ইতিহাস
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Bibliography
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
নামৰ উৎপত্তি[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
ব্ৰাজিল শব্দটো ব্ৰাজিলউড নামৰ এবিধ গছৰ পৰা আহিছে, ব্ৰজিলৰ সমুদ্ৰতীৰত এই গছ উভৈনদী কৈ পোৱা যায়।.পৰ্তুগীজ ভাষাত ব্ৰাজিলউডক ‘পউ ব্ৰাচিল’ (pau-brasil) বোলা হয়, এই ব্ৰাচিল শব্দই “ অঙঠাৰ দৰে ৰঙা” বুজায়।. ব্ৰাজিলউডৰ পৰা গভীৰ ৰঙা ডাই বা ৰং প্ৰস্তুত কৰিব পাৰি, গতিকে ইউৰোপীয় বস্ত্ৰ উদ্যোগত ইয়াৰ ই এক বহুমূলীয়া সামগ্ৰী ৰূপে পৰিগণিত হৈছিল। এই ব্ৰাজিলউড ব্ৰাজিলৰ প্ৰথম ব্যৱসায়িক ভাৱে উৎপাদিত সামগ্ৰী। ১৬ শ শতিকাত ব্ৰাজিলৰ থলুৱা লোকসকলে ব্যাপক পৰিমানে সমুদ্ৰতীৰবৰ্তী অঞ্চলসমূহৰ এই ব্ৰাজিলউড আহৰণ কৰি ইউৰোপীয় ব্যৱসায়ী সকলক ( মূলতঃ পৰ্তুগীজসকলক, কেতিয়াবা ফৰাছী সকলকো) বিক্ৰী কৰি তাৰ বিনিময়ত নানান ইউৰোপীয় উদ্যোগজাত সামগ্ৰী ক্ৰয় কৰছিল।
প্ৰাচীন পৰ্তুগীজ অভিলেখসমূহৰ মতে এই দেশৰ আধিকাৰিক নাম “ পৱিত্ৰ ক্ৰুছৰ দেশ( The land of the Holy Cross- Terra da Santa Cruz), কিন্তু ইউৰপোৰ নাৱিক সকলে সাধাৰণতে ইয়াক “ ব্ৰাজিলৰ দেশ”- ( ব্ৰাজিলউডৰ ব্যৱসায়ৰ বাবে) বুলিয়েই কৈছিল। এই জনপ্ৰিয় নামে কালক্ৰমত আধিকাৰিক নামক নাইকিয়া কৰি পেলালে। প্ৰাচীন নাৱিক সকলে কেতিয়াবা ব্ৰাজিলক “ ভাটৌৰ দেশ” বুলিও কৈছিল।
পাৰাগুৱেৰ ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় ভাষা “গুৱাৰানি” ত ব্ৰাজিলক পিণ্ডোৰামা বুলি কোৱা হয়। থলুৱা বাসিন্দা সকলে দিয়া এই নামৰ অৰ্থ হ’ল পাম গছেৰে আৱৰা ভূখণ্ড।
পৰ্তুগীজ উপনিবেশ হিচাপে[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
১৫০০ খ্ৰীষ্টাব্দৰ এপ্ৰিল মাহত,ব্ৰাজিল নামেৰে প্ৰসিদ্ধ এই ভূখণ্ডত, Pedro Álvares Cabral ৰ অধীনস্থ পৰ্তুগীজ জাহাজৰ এটা ফ্লীট প্ৰবেশ কৰে আৰু তাৰ পাছৰ পৰাই ইয়াত এই ভূখণ্ডত পৰ্তুগাল সাম্ৰাজ্যৰ দাবী সাব্যস্ত হয়। পৰ্তুগীজ সকল বিভিন্ন থলুৱা উপজাতি সমূহৰ সম্মুখীন হয়, যি সকলে গুৱাৰানি ভাষা ব্যৱহাৰ কৰিছিল আৰু নিজৰ মাজতে যুদ্ধ বিগ্ৰহত ব্যস্ত আছিল। যদিও থলুৱা লোক সকলৰ লগত ১৫৩২ চনতে সন্ধি স্থাপন হৈছিল, আচলতে ১৫৩৪ চনৰ পৰাহে প্ৰকৃতাৰ্থত ব্ৰাজিলৰ পৰ্তুগীজ উপনিবেশ স্থাপন হয়। কাৰণ সেই বছৰতে পৰ্তুগীজ সম্ৰাট Dom João III য়ে ব্ৰাজিলক বাৰখন উত্তৰাধীকাৰী ৰাজ্যত ভাগ কৰি এক পৰিকল্পিত শাসনধাৰা আৰম্ভ কৰে। পিছে এই শাসনধাৰাত বহু সমস্যাই দেখা দিয়ে আৰু ১৫৪৯ চনত পৰ্তুগীজ সম্ৰাটে এই ভূখ্ণ্ড শাসন কৰিবৰ বাবে এজন গভৰ্ণৰ জেনেৰেল নিযুক্ত কৰে।পৰ্তুগীজ সকলে মাত্ৰ কেইটামান থলুৱা উপজাতিক নিজৰ লগত লয়  আৰু বাকীবোৰক দাস হিচাপে ব্যৱহাৰ কৰে, এই বাকী উপজাতি বিলাক, হয় দীৰ্ঘদিনীয়া যুদ্ধ, নহয় ইউৰোপৰ পৰা অহা নতুন ৰোগ বিলাকৰ বিৰুদ্ধে যুঁজি যুঁজি নিশ্চিহ্ন হোৱাৰ উপক্ৰম হয়। ১৬শ শতিকাৰ মাজভগলৈ চেনী ব্ৰাজিলৰ সকলোতকৈ গুৰুত্বপূৰ্ণ ৰপ্তানি সামগ্ৰী হিচাপে পৰিগণিত হয়  আৰু তেতিয়াই পৰ্তুগীজসকলে বৰ্ধিত আন্তৰ্জাতিক বজাৰৰ মোকাবিলা কৰিবলৈ আফ্ৰিকাৰ পৰা কুঁহিয়াৰ খেতিৰ বাবে দাস অনা আৰম্ভ কৰে।  
ফ্ৰান্সৰ সৈতে একেৰাহে হৈ থকা যুদ্ধৰ পৰিপ্ৰক্ষিততো, পৰ্তুগীজ সকলে লাহে লাহে এই ভূখণ্ডত নিজৰ প্ৰতিপত্তি বিস্তাৰ কৰে আৰু ১৫৬৭ খ্ৰীষ্টাব্দত দক্ষিণ-পূবৰ ৰিঅ’ ডে জেনিৰ’ আৰু ১৬১৫ চনত উত্তৰ পূবৰ চাও লুইচ নিজৰ দখললৈ আনে। তেঁওলোকে আমাজনৰ বৰ্ষাৰণ্যত সামৰিক অভিযান চলাই ইংৰাজ আৰু ডাচ্ছ সকলৰ শক্তিশালী অধিকাৰ থকা অঞ্চলসমুহতো নিজৰ স্থিতি সবল কৰি তোলে।  আৰু ১৬৬৯ চনৰ পৰা বিভিন্ন ঠাইত নিজৰ সৰু সুৰা চহৰ আৰু দুৰ্গ প্ৰতিস্থা কৰে  ১৬৮০ চনত তেঁওলোকে এই ভুখণ্ডৰ দক্ষিণতম সীমালৈকে নিজৰ সাম্ৰাজ্য বিস্তাৰ কৰে আৰু পূব তীৰবৰ্তী অঞ্চলত কলনিয়া ডেল চাক্ৰামাণ্টো চহৰৰ প্ৰতিস্থা কৰে। ১৭ শ শতিকাৰ শেষৰ ফালে চেনীৰ ৰপ্তানি ক্ৰমাগত ভাৱে হ্ৰাস পাবলৈ আৰম্ভ কৰে,  কিন্তু ১৬৯০ৰ আৰম্ভনিতে সোণৰ খনিৰ আৱিষ্কাৰে এই উপনিবেশক আৱশ্যম্ভাৱী ধ্বংসৰ পৰা ৰক্ষা কৰে।. ব্ৰাজিলৰ সকলো স্থানৰ লগতে পৰ্তুগালৰ পৰাও এই খনি বিলাকলৈ প্ৰবজন আৰম্ভ হয়। The Spanish tried to prevent Portuguese expansion into the territory that belonged to them according to the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas, and succeeded in conquering the Eastern Bank in 1777. However, this was in vain as the Treaty of San Ildefonso, signed in the same year, confirmed Portuguese sovereignty over all lands proceeding from its territorial expansion, thus creating most of the current Brazilian borders.
In 1808, the Portuguese royal family and the majority of the Portuguese nobility, fleeing the troops of the French Emperor Napoleon I that were invading Portugal and most of Central Europe, established themselves in the city of Rio de Janeiro, which thus became the seat of the entire Portuguese Empire. In 1815 Dom João VI, then regent on behalf of his incapacitated mother, elevated Brazil from colony to sovereign Kingdom united with Portugal. In 1809 the Portuguese invaded French Guiana (which was returned to France in 1817) and in 1816 the Eastern Bank, subsequently renamed Cisplatina.
Independence and empire[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
After the Portuguese military had successfully repelled Napoleon's invasion, João VI returned to Europe in April 1821, leaving his elder son Prince Pedro de Alcântara as regent to rule Brazil. The Portuguese government, guided by the new political regime imposed by the Liberal Revolution of 1820, attempted to turn Brazil into a colony once again, thus depriving it of its achievements since 1808. The Brazilians refused to yield and Prince Pedro stood by them declaring the country's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822. On 12 October 1822, he was declared the first Emperor of Brazil and crowned Dom Pedro I on 1 December 1822. At that time most Brazilians were in favour of a monarchy and republicanism had little support. The subsequent Brazilian War of Independence spread through almost the entire territory, with battles in the northern, northeastern, and southern regions. The last Portuguese soldiers surrendered on 8 March 1824 and independence was recognized by Portugal on 29 August 1825.
Pedro I abdicated on 7 April 1831 and went to Europe to reclaim his daughter’s crown which had been usurped by his brother, leaving behind his five year old son and heir, who became Dom Pedro II. As the new emperor could not exert his constitutional powers until he reached maturity, a regency was created. Disputes between political factions led to rebellions and an unstable, almost anarchical, regency. The rebellious factions, however, were not in revolt against the monarchy, even though some declared the secession of the provinces as independent republics, but only so long as Pedro II was a minor. Because of this, he was prematurely declared of age and "Brazil was to enjoy nearly half a century of internal peace and rapid material progress."
Despite the loss of Cisplatina in 1828 when it became an independent nation known as Uruguay, Brazil won three international wars during the 58-year reign of Pedro II (the Platine War, the Uruguayan War and the Paraguayan War) and witnessed the consolidation of representative democracy, mainly due to successive elections and unrestricted freedom of the press. Most importantly, slavery was extinguished after a slow but steady process that began with the end of the international traffic in slaves in 1850 and ended with the complete abolition of slavery in 1888. The slave population had been in decline since Brazil's independence: in 1823, 29% of the Brazilian population were slaves but by 1887 this had fallen to 5%. When the monarchy was overthrown on 15 November 1889 there was little desire in Brazil to change the form of government and Pedro II was at the height of his popularity among his subjects. However, he "bore prime, perhaps sole, responsibility for his own overthrow." After the death of his two sons, the Emperor believed that "the imperial regime was destined to end with him." He cared little for the regime's fate and so neither did anything, nor allowed anyone else to do anything, to prevent the military coup, backed by former slave owners who resented the abolition of slavery.
Early republic[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
The "early republican government was little more than a military dictatorship. The army dominated affairs both at Rio de Janeiro and in the states. Freedom of the press disappeared and elections were controlled by those in power". In 1894, following several military and economic crises, the republican civilians rose to power. By 1902, the government was successful in negotiating several treaties that expanded (with the purchase of Acre) and secured the Brazilian boundaries.
In the 1920s the country was plagued by several rebellions caused by young military officers. By 1930, the regime was weakened and demoralized, which allowed the defeated presidential candidate Getúlio Vargas to lead a coup d'état and assume the presidency. Vargas was supposed to assume the presidency temporarily but instead, he closed the National Congress, extinguished the Constitution, ruled with emergency powers and replaced the states' governors with his supporters. In 1935 Communists rebelled across the country and made an unsuccessful bid for power. The communist threat, however, served as an excuse for Vargas to launch another coup d'état in 1937 and Brazil became a full dictatorship. The repression of the opposition was brutal with more than 20,000 people imprisoned, internment camps created for political prisoners in distant regions of the country, widespread torture by the government agents of repression, and censorship of the press.
Brazil remained neutral during the early years of World War II until the government declared war against the Axis powers in 1942. Vargas then forced German, Japanese and Italian immigrants into concentration camps, and, in 1944, sent troops to the battlefields in Italy. With the allied victory in 1945 and the end of the Nazi-fascist regimes in Europe, Vargas's position became unsustainable and he was swiftly overthrown in a military coup. Democracy was reinstated and General Eurico Gaspar Dutra was elected president and took office in 1946. Vargas returned to power in 1951, this time democratically elected, but he was incapable of either governing under a democracy or of dealing with an active opposition, and he committed suicide in 1954.
Contemporary era[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
Several brief interim governments succeeded after Vargas's suicide. Juscelino Kubitscheck became president in 1956 and assumed a conciliatory posture towards the political opposition that allowed him to govern without major crises. The economy and industrial sector grew remarkably, but his greatest achievement was the construction of the new capital city of Brasília, inaugurated in 1960. His successor was Jânio Quadros, who resigned in 1961 less than a year after taking office. His vice-president, João Goulart, assumed the presidency, but aroused strong political opposition and was deposed in April 1964 by a coup that resulted in a military regime.
The new regime was intended to be transitory but it gradually closed in on itself and became a full dictatorship with the promulgation of the Fifth Institutional Act in 1968. The repression of the dictatorship's opponents, including urban guerrillas, was harsh, but not as brutal as in other Latin American countries. Due to the extraordinary economic growth, known as an "economic miracle", the regime reached its highest level of popularity in the years of repression. General Ernesto Geisel became president in 1974 and began his project of re-democratization through a process that he said would be "slow, gradual and safe." Geisel ended the military indiscipline that had plagued the country since 1889, as well as the torture of political prisoners, censorship of the press, and finally, the dictatorship itself, after he extinguished the Fifth Institutional Act. However, the military regime continued, under his chosen successor General João Figueiredo, to complete the transition to full democracy.
The civilians fully returned to power in 1985 when José Sarney assumed the presidency but, by the end of his term, he had become extremely unpopular due to the uncontrollable economic crisis and unusually high inflation. Sarney's unsuccessful government allowed the election in 1989 of the almost unknown Fernando Collor, who was subsequently impeached by the National Congress in 1992. Collor was succeeded by his Vice-President Itamar Franco, who appointed Fernando Henrique Cardoso as Minister of Finance. Cardoso produced a highly successful Plano Real. that granted stability to the Brazilian economy and he was elected as president in 1994 and again in 1998. The peaceful transition of power to Luís Inácio Lula da Silva, who was elected in 2002 and re-elected in 2006, proved that Brazil had finally succeeded in achieving its long-sought political stability. Lula was succeeded in 2011 by the current president, Dilma Rousseff.
Brazil occupies a large area along the eastern coast of South America and includes much of the continent's interior, sharing land borders with Uruguay to the south; Argentina and Paraguay to the southwest; Bolivia and Peru to the west; Colombia to the northwest; and Venezuela, Suriname, Guyana and the French overseas department of French Guiana to the north. It shares a border with every country in South America except for Ecuador and Chile. It also encompasses a number of oceanic archipelagos, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz. Its size, relief, climate, and natural resources make Brazil geographically diverse. Including its Atlantic islands, Brazil lies between latitudes 6°N and 34°S, and longitudes 28° and 74°W.
Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world, and third largest in the Americas, with a total area of ৮৫,১৪,৮৭৬.৫৯৯ km2 (৩২,৮৭,৬১২ sq mi), including ৫৫,৪৫৫ km2 (২১,৪১১ sq mi) of water. It spans three time zones; from UTC-4 in the western states, to UTC-3 in the eastern states (and the official time of Brazil) and UTC-2 in the Atlantic islands. Brazil is the only country in the world that lies on the equator while having contiguous territory outside the tropics.
Brazilian topography is also diverse and includes hills, mountains, plains, highlands, and scrublands. Much of the terrain lies between ২০০ metre (৬৬০ ft) and ৮০০ metre (২,৬০০ ft) in elevation. The main upland area occupies most of the southern half of the country. The northwestern parts of the plateau consist of broad, rolling terrain broken by low, rounded hills.
The southeastern section is more rugged, with a complex mass of ridges and mountain ranges reaching elevations of up to ১,২০০ metre (৩,৯০০ ft). These ranges include the Mantiqueira and Espinhaço mountains and the Serra do Mar. In the north, the Guiana Highlands form a major drainage divide, separating rivers that flow south into the Amazon Basin from rivers that empty into the Orinoco River system, in Venezuela, to the north. The highest point in Brazil is the Pico da Neblina at ২,৯৯৪ metre (৯,৮২৩ ft), and the lowest is the Atlantic Ocean.
Brazil has a dense and complex system of rivers, one of the world's most extensive, with eight major drainage basins, all of which drain into the Atlantic. Major rivers include the Amazon (the world's second-longest river and the largest in terms of volume of water), the Paraná and its major tributary the Iguaçu (which includes the Iguazu Falls), the Negro, São Francisco, Xingu, Madeira and Tapajós rivers.
The climate of Brazil comprises a wide range of weather conditions across a large area and varied topography, but most of the country is tropical. According to the Köppen system, Brazil hosts five major climatic subtypes: equatorial, tropical, semiarid, highland tropical, temperate, and subtropical. The different climatic conditions produce environments ranging from equatorial rainforests in the north and semiarid deserts in the northeast, to temperate coniferous forests in the south and tropical savannas in central Brazil. Many regions have starkly different microclimates.
An equatorial climate characterizes much of northern Brazil. There is no real dry season, but there are some variations in the period of the year when most rain falls. Temperatures average ২৫ °C (৭৭ °F), with more significant temperature variation between night and day than between seasons.
Over central Brazil rainfall is more seasonal, characteristic of a savanna climate. This region is as extensive as the Amazon basin but has a very different climate as it lies farther south at a higher altitude. In the interior northeast, seasonal rainfall is even more extreme. The semiarid climatic region generally receives less than ৮০০ millimetre (৩১.৫ in) of rain, most of which generally falls in a period of three to five months of the year and occasionally less than this, creating long periods of drought. Brazil's 1877–78 Grande Seca (Great Drought), the most severe ever recorded in Brazil, caused approximately half a million deaths. The one from 1915 was devastating too.
South of Bahia, near the coasts, and more southerly most of the state of São Paulo, the distribution of rainfall changes, with rain falling throughout the year. The south enjoys temperate conditions, with cool winters and average annual temperatures not exceeding ১৮ °C (৬৪.৪ °F); winter frosts are quite common, with occasional snowfall in the higher areas. Other kinds of solid precipitation happen in a wider area, including cities as Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Fall of snow grains and ice pellets, deemed as not dissimilar from true hail, are popularly called granizo.
Brazil's large territory comprises different ecosystems, such as the Amazon Rainforest, recognized as having the greatest biological diversity in the world, with the Atlantic Forest and the Cerrado, sustaining the greatest biodiversity. In the south, the Araucaria pine forest grows under temperate conditions. The rich wildlife of Brazil reflects the variety of natural habitats. Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in Brazil could approach four million.
Larger mammals include pumas, jaguars, ocelots, rare bush dogs, and foxes; peccaries, tapirs, anteaters, sloths, opossums, and armadillos are abundant. Deer are plentiful in the south, and many species of New World monkeys are found in the northern rain forests. Concern for the environment has grown in response to global interest in environmental issues.
The natural heritage of Brazil is severely threatened by cattle ranching and agriculture, logging, mining, resettlement, oil and gas extraction, over-fishing, wildlife trade, dams and infrastructure, water contamination, climate change, fire, and invasive species. In many areas of the country, the natural environment is threatened by development. Construction of highways has opened up previously remote areas for agriculture and settlement; dams have flooded valleys and inundated wildlife habitats; and mines have scarred and polluted the landscape. At least 70 dams are said to be planned for the Amazon region, including controversial Belo Monte hydroelectric dam.
The Brazilian Federation is the "indissoluble union" of three distinct political entities: the States, the Municipalities and the Federal District. The Union, the states and the Federal District, and the municipalities, are the "spheres of government." The Federation is set on five fundamental principles: sovereignty, citizenship, dignity of human beings, the social values of labour and freedom of enterprise, and political pluralism. The classic tripartite branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial under the checks and balances system), is formally established by the Constitution. The executive and legislative are organized independently in all three spheres of government, while the judiciary is organized only at the federal and state/Federal District spheres.
All members of the executive and legislative branches are directly elected. Judges and other judicial officials are appointed after passing entry exams. For most of its democratic history, Brazil has had a multi-party system, proportional representation. Voting is compulsory for the literate between 18 and 70 years old and optional for illiterates and those between 16 and 18 or beyond 70. Together with several smaller parties, four political parties stand out: Workers' Party (PT), Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), and Democrats (DEM). Fifteen political parties are represented in Congress. It is common for politicians to switch parties, and thus the proportion of congressional seats held by particular parties changes regularly. Almost all governmental and administrative functions are exercised by authorities and agencies affiliated to the Executive.
The form of government is that of a democratic republic, with a presidential system. The president is both head of state and head of government of the Union and is elected for a four-year term, with the possibility of re-election for a second successive term. The current president is Dilma Rousseff who was inaugurated on 1 January 2011. The President appoints the Ministers of State, who assist in government. Legislative houses in each political entity are the main source of law in Brazil. The National Congress is the Federation's bicameral legislature, consisting of the Chamber of Deputies and the Federal Senate. Judiciary authorities exercise jurisdictional duties almost exclusively.
Brazilian law is based on Roman-Germanic traditions and civil law concepts prevail over common law practice. Most of Brazilian law is codified, although non-codified statutes also represent a substantial part, playing a complementary role. Court decisions set out interpretive guidelines; however, they are seldom binding on other specific cases. Doctrinal works and the works of academic jurists have strong influence in law creation and in law cases.
The legal system is based on the Federal Constitution, which was promulgated on 5 October 1988, and is the fundamental law of Brazil. All other legislation and court decisions must conform to its rules. As of এপ্ৰিল 2007[update], there have been 53 amendments. States have their own constitutions, which must not contradict the Federal Constitution. Municipalities and the Federal District have "organic laws" (leis orgânicas), which act in a similar way to constitutions. Legislative entities are the main source of statutes, although in certain matters judiciary and executive bodies may enact legal norms. Jurisdiction is administered by the judiciary entities, although in rare situations the Federal Constitution allows the Federal Senate to pass on legal judgments. There are also specialized military, labor, and electoral courts. The highest court is the Supreme Federal Court.
This system has been criticised over the last few decades for the slow pace of decision making. Lawsuits on appeal may take several years to resolve, and in some cases more than a decade elapses before definitive rulings. Nevertheless, the Supreme Federal Tribunal was the first court in the world to transmit its sessions on television, and also via YouTube. More recently, in December 2009, the Supreme Court adopted Twitter to display items on the day planner of the ministers, to inform the daily actions of the Court and the most important decisions made by them.
Brazil continues to have high crime rates in a number of statistics, despite recent improvements. More than 500,000 people have been killed by firearms in Brazil between 1979 and 2003, according to a new report by the United Nations. In 2010, there were 473,600 people incarcerated in Brazilian prisons and jails.
Foreign relations and military[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
Brazil is a political and economic leader in Latin America. However, social and economic problems have prevented it from becoming an effective global power. Between 1945 and 1990, both democratic and military governments sought to expand Brazil's influence in the world by pursuing a state-led industrial policy and an independent foreign policy. More recently, the country has aimed to strengthen ties with other South American countries, and engage in multilateral diplomacy through the United Nations and the Organization of American States.
Brazil's current foreign policy is based on the country's position as a regional power in Latin America, a leader among developing countries, and an emerging world power. In general, current Brazilian foreign policy reflects multilateralism, peaceful dispute settlement, and nonintervention in the affairs of other countries. The Brazilian Constitution also determines that the country shall seek the economic, political, social and cultural integration of the nations of Latin America.
An increasingly well-developed tool of Brazil's foreign policy is providing aid as a donor to other developing countries. Brazil does not just use its growing economic strength to provide financial aid, but it also provides high levels of expertise and most importantly of all, a quiet non-confrontational diplomacy to improve governance levels. Total aid is estimated to be around $1 billion per year that includes:
- technical cooperation of around $480 million ($30 million in 2010 provided directly by the Brazilian Cooperation Agency (ABC))
- an estimated $450 million for in-kind expertise provided by Brazilian institutions specialising in technical cooperation
In addition, Brazil manages a peacekeeping mission in Haiti ($350 million) and makes in-kind contributions to the World Food Programme ($300 million). This is in addition to humanitarian assistance and contributions to multilateral development agencies. The scale of this aid places it on par with China and India and ahead of many western donors. The Brazilian South-South aid has been described as a "global model in waiting."
The armed forces of Brazil consist of the Brazilian Army, the Brazilian Navy, and the Brazilian Air Force. With a total of 371,199 active personnel, they constitute the largest armed force in Latin America. The Army is responsible for land-based military operations and has 235,978 active personnel.
The Military Police (States' Military Police) is described as an ancillary force of the Army by the constitution, but is under the control of each state's governor. The Navy is responsible for naval operations and for guarding Brazilian territorial waters. It is the oldest of the Brazilian armed forces and the only navy in Latin America to operate an aircraft carrier, the NAe São Paulo (formerly FS Foch of the French Navy). The Air Force is the aerial warfare branch of the Brazilian armed forces, and the largest air force in Latin America, with about 700 manned aircraft in service.
Administrative divisions[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
Brazil is a federation composed of 26 States, one Federal district (which contains the capital city, Brasília) and Municipalities. States have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Federal government. They have a governor and a unicameral legislative body elected directly by their voters. They also have independent Courts of Law for common justice. Despite this, states have much less autonomy to create their own laws than in the United States. For example, criminal and civil laws can only be voted by the federal bicameral Congress and are uniform throughout the country.
The states and the federal district may be grouped into regions: Northern, Northeast, Central-West, Southeast and Southern. The Brazilian regions are merely geographical, not political or administrative divisions, and they do not have any specific form of government. Although defined by law, Brazilian regions are useful mainly for statistical purposes, and also to define the distribution of federal funds in development projects.
Municipalities, as the states, have autonomous administrations, collect their own taxes and receive a share of taxes collected by the Union and state government. Each has a mayor and an elected legislative body, but no separate Court of Law. Indeed, a Court of Law organized by the state can encompass many municipalities in a single justice administrative division called comarca (county).
Brazil is the largest national economy in Latin America, the world's sixth largest economy at market exchange rates and the seventh largest in purchasing power parity (PPP), according to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. Brazil has a mixed economy with abundant natural resources. The Brazilian economy has been predicted to become one of the five largest in the world in the decades to come, the GDP per capita following and growing. Its current GDP (PPP) per capita is $10,200, putting Brazil in the 64th position according to World Bank data. It has large and developed agricultural, mining, manufacturing and service sectors, as well as a large labor pool.
Brazilian exports are booming, creating a new generation of tycoons. Major export products include aircraft, electrical equipment, automobiles, ethanol, textiles, footwear, iron ore, steel, coffee, orange juice, soybeans and corned beef. The country has been expanding its presence in international financial and commodities markets, and is one of a group of four emerging economies called the BRIC countries.
Brazil pegged its currency, the real, to the U.S. dollar in 1994. However, after the East Asian financial crisis, the Russian default in 1998 and the series of adverse financial events that followed it, the Central Bank of Brazil temporarily changed its monetary policy to a managed-float scheme while undergoing a currency crisis, until definitively changing the exchange regime to free-float in January 1999.
Brazil received an International Monetary Fund rescue package in mid-2002 of $30.4 billion, then a record sum. Brazil's central bank paid back the IMF loan in 2005, although it was not due to be repaid until 2006. One of the issues the Central Bank of Brazil recently dealt with was an excess of speculative short-term capital inflows to the country, which may have contributed to a fall in the value of the U.S. dollar against the real during that period. Nonetheless, foreign direct investment (FDI), related to long-term, less speculative investment in production, is estimated to be $193.8 billion for 2007. Inflation monitoring and control currently plays a major part in the Central bank's role of setting out short-term interest rates as a monetary policy measure.
Between 1993 and 2010, 7012 mergers & acquisitions with a total known value of $707 billion with the involvement of Brazlian firms have been announced. The year 2010 was a new record in terms of value with 115 billion USD of transactions. The largest transaction with involvement of Brazilian companies has been: Cia Vale do Rio Doce acquired Inco in a tender offer valued at $18.9 billion USD.
Components and energy[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
Brazil's economy is diverse, encompassing agriculture, industry, and many services. The recent economic strength has been due in part to a global boom in commodities prices with exports from beef to soybeans soaring. Agriculture and allied sectors like forestry, logging and fishing accounted for 5.1% of the gross domestic product in 2007, a performance that puts agribusiness in a position of distinction in terms of Brazil's trade balance, in spite of trade barriers and subsidizing policies adopted by the developed countries.[vague]
The industry — from automobiles, steel and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft, and consumer durables— accounted for 30.8% of the gross domestic product. Industry, which is often technologically advanced, is highly concentrated in metropolitan São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Campinas, Porto Alegre, and Belo Horizonte.
Brazil is the world's tenth largest energy consumer with much of its energy coming from renewable sources, particularly hydroelectricity and ethanol; nonrenewable energy is mainly produced from oil and natural gas. A global power in agriculture and natural resources, Brazil experienced tremendous economic growth over the past three decades. It is expected to become a major oil producer and exporter, having recently made huge oil discoveries. The governmental agencies responsible for the energy policy are the Ministry of Mines and Energy, the National Council for Energy Policy, the National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels, and the National Agency of Electricity.
Science and technology[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
Technological research in Brazil is largely carried out in public universities and research institutes, and more than 73% of funding for basic research comes from government sources. Some of Brazil's most notable technological hubs are the Oswaldo Cruz Institute, the Butantan Institute, the Air Force's Aerospace Technical Center, the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation and the INPE. The Brazilian Space Agency has the most advanced space program in Latin America.
Uranium is enriched at the Resende Nuclear Fuel Factory to fuel the country's energy demands and plans are underway to build the country's first nuclear submarine. Brazil is one of the three countries in Latin America with an operational Synchrotron Laboratory, a research facility on physics, chemistry, material science and life sciences. And Brazil is the only Latin American country to have a semiconductor company with its own fab, the CEITEC.
Brazil has a large and diverse transport network. Roads are the primary carriers of freight and passenger traffic. The road system totalled 1.98 million km (1.23 million mi) in 2002. The total of paved roads increased from 35,496 km (22,056 mi) in 1967 to 184,140 km (114,425 mi) in 2002.
Brazil's railway system has been declining since 1945, when emphasis shifted to highway construction. The total length of railway track was 30,875 km (19,186 mi) in 2002, as compared with 31,848 km (19,789 mi) in 1970. Most of the railway system belongs to the Federal Railroad Corp., with a majority government interest. The government also privatized seven lines in 1997. The São Paulo Metro was the first underground transit system in Brazil. The other metro systems are in Rio de Janeiro, Porto Alegre, Recife, Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Teresina, Fortaleza, and Salvador.
There are about 2,500 airports in Brazil, including landing fields: the second largest number in the world, after the United States. São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport, near São Paulo, is the largest and busiest airport, handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic of the country and connecting the city with virtually all major cities across the world.
Coastal shipping links widely separated parts of the country. Bolivia and Paraguay have been given free ports at Santos. Of the 36 deep-water ports, Santos, Itajaí, Rio Grande, Paranaguá, Rio de Janeiro, Sepetiba, Vitória, Suape, Manaus and São Francisco do Sul are the most important.
The population of Brazil, as recorded by the 2008 PNAD, was approximately 190 million (22.31 inhabitants per square kilometer), with a ratio of men to women of 0.95:1 and 83.75% of the population defined as urban. The population is heavily concentrated in the Southeastern (79.8 million inhabitants) and Northeastern (53.5 million inhabitants) regions, while the two most extensive regions, the Center-West and the North, which together make up 64.12% of the Brazilian territory, have a total of only 29.1 million inhabitants.
The first census in Brazil was carried out in 1872 and recorded a population of 9,930,478. From 1880 to 1930, 4 million Europeans arrived. Brazil's population increased significantly between 1940 and 1970, due to a decline in the mortality rate, even though the birth rate underwent a slight decline. In the 1940s the annual population growth rate was 2.4%, rising to 3.0% in the 1950s and remaining at 2.9% in the 1960s, as life expectancy rose from 44 to 54 years and to 72.6 years in 2007. It has been steadily falling since the 1960s, from 3.04% per year between 1950–1960 to 1.05% in 2008 and is expected to fall to a negative value of –0.29% by 2050  thus completing the demographic transition.
In 2008, the illiteracy rate was 11.48% and among the youth (ages 15–19) 1.74%. It was highest (20.30%) in the Northeast, which had a large proportion of rural poor. Illiteracy was high (24.18%) among the rural population and lower (9.05%) among the urban population.
Race and ethnicity[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
||This section's factual accuracy is disputed. Please help to ensure that disputed facts are reliably sourced. (August 2012)|
According to the National Research by Household Sample (PNAD) of 2008, 48.43% of the population (about 92 million) described themselves as White; 43.80% (about 83 million) as Brown (Multiracial), 6.84% (about 13 million) as Black; 0.58% (about 1.1 million) as Asian; and 0.28% (about 536 thousand) as Amerindian (officially called indígena, Indigenous), while 0.07% (about 130 thousand) did not declare their race.
In 2007, the National Indian Foundation reported the existence of 67 different uncontacted tribes, up from 40 in 2005. Brazil is believed to have the largest number of uncontacted peoples in the world.
Since the arrival of the Portuguese in 1500, considerable miscegenation between these groups has taken place, in all regions of the country (with European ancestry being dominant nationwide according to the vast majority of all autosomal studies undertaken covering the entire population, accounting for between 65% to 77%).
Brazilian society is more markedly divided by social class lines, although a high income disparity is found between race groups, so racism and classism can be conflated. Socially significant closeness to one racial group is taken in account more in the basis of appearance (phenotypes) rather than ancestry, to the extent that full siblings can pertain to different "racial" groups. Socioeconomic factors are also significant, because a minority of pardos are likely to start declaring themselves White or Black if socially upward. Skin color and facial features do not line quite well with ancestry (usually, Afro-Brazilians are evenly mixed and European ancestry is dominant in Whites and pardos with a significant non-European contribution, but the individual variation is great).
The brown population (as multiracial Brazilians are officially called; pardo in Portuguese, also colloquially moreno, or swarthy) is a broad category that includes caboclos (assimilated Amerindians in general, and descendants of Whites and Natives), mulatos (descendants of primarily Whites and Afro-Brazilians) and cafuzos (descendants of Afro-Brazilians and Natives). People of considerable Amerindian ancestry form the majority of the population in the Northern, Northeastern and Center-Western regions. Higher percents of Blacks, mulattoes and tri-racials can be found in the eastern coast of the Northeastern region from Bahia to Paraíba and also in northern Maranhão, southern Minas Gerais and in eastern Rio de Janeiro. From the 19th century, Brazil opened its borders to immigration. About five million people from over 60 countries migrated to Brazil between 1808 and 1972, most of them of Portuguese, Italian, Spaniard, German, Japanese and Middle Eastern origin.
Brazil possesses a richly spiritual society formed from the meeting of the Roman Catholic Church with the religious traditions of African slaves and indigenous peoples. This confluence of faiths during the Portuguese colonization of Brazil led to the development of a diverse array of syncretistic practices within the overarching umbrella of Brazilian Roman Catholicism, characterized by traditional Portuguese festivities, and in some instances, Allan Kardec's Spiritism (most Brazilian Spiritists are also Christians). Religious pluralism increased during the 20th century, and a Protestant community has grown to include over 15% of the population. The most common Protestant denominations are Pentecostal, Evangelical, Baptist, Seventh-day Adventist, Lutheran and the reformed churches.
Roman Catholicism is the country's predominant faith. Brazil has the world's largest Catholic population. According to the 2000 Demographic Census (the PNAD survey does not inquire about religion), 73.57% of the population followed Roman Catholicism; 15.41% Protestantism; 1.33% Kardecist spiritism; 1.22% other Christian denominations; 0.31% Afro-Brazilian religions; 0.13% Buddhism; 0.05% Judaism; 0.02% Islam; 0.01% Amerindian religions; 0.59% other religions, undeclared or undetermined; while 7.35% have no religion.
However, in the last ten years Protestantism, particularly Pentecostal and/or Evangelical Protestantism, has spread in Brazil, while the proportion of Catholics has dropped significantly. After Protestantism, individuals professing no religion are also a significant group, exceeding 7% of the population in the 2000 census. The cities of Boa Vista, Salvador and Porto Velho have the greatest proportion of Irreligious residents in Brazil. Teresina, Fortaleza, and Florianópolis were the most Roman Catholic in the country. Greater Rio de Janeiro, not including the city proper, is the most Irreligious and least Roman Catholic Brazilian periphery, while Greater Porto Alegre and Greater Fortaleza are in the opposite sides of the lists respectively.
According to IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) urban areas already concentrate 84.35% of the population, while the Southeast region remains the most populated one, with over 80 million inhabitants. The largest metropolitan areas in Brazil are São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Belo Horizonte — all in the Southeastern Region — with 19.5, 11.5, and 5.1 million inhabitants respectively. Almost all of the state capitals are the largest cities in their states, except for Vitória, the capital of Espírito Santo, and Florianópolis, the capital of Santa Catarina. There are also non-capital metropolitan areas in the states of São Paulo (Campinas, Santos and the Paraíba Valley), Minas Gerais (Steel Valley), Rio Grande do Sul (Sinos Valley) and Santa Catarina (Itajaí Valley).
ব্ৰাজিলৰ প্ৰধান মহানগৰ
2010 Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics estimate
|স্থান||মহানগৰৰ নাম||State||জনসংখ্যা||স্থান||মহানগৰৰ নাম||State||জনসংখ্যা|
|1||São Paulo||São Paulo||11,316,149||11||Belém||Pará||1,402,056||
|2||Rio de Janeiro||Rio de Janeiro||6,355,949||12||Goiânia||Goiás||1,318,148|
|4||Brasília||Distrito Federal||2,609,997||14||Campinas||São Paulo||1,088,611|
|6||Belo Horizonte||Minas Gerais||2,385,639||16||São Gonçalo||Rio de Janeiro||1,008,064|
|8||Curitiba||Paraná||1,764,540||18||Duque de Caxias||Rio de Janeiro||861,157|
|10||Porto Alegre||Rio Grande do Sul||1,413,094||20||Natal||Rio Grande do Norte||810,780|
The official language of Brazil is Portuguese (Article 13 of the Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil), which almost all of the population speaks and is virtually the only language used in newspapers, radio, television, and for business and administrative purposes. The most famous exception to this is a strong sign language law that was passed by the National Congress of Brazil. Legally recognized in 2002, the law was regulated in 2005. The law mandates the use of the Brazilian Sign Language, more commonly known by its Portuguese acronym LIBRAS, in education and government services. The language must be taught as a part of the education and speech and language pathology curricula. LIBRAS teachers, instructors and translators are recognized professionals. Schools and health services must provide access ("inclusion") to deaf people.
Brazilian Portuguese has had its own development, mostly similar to 16th century Central and Southern dialects of European Portuguese (despite a very substantial number of Portuguese colonial settlers, and more recent immigrants, coming from Northern regions, and in minor degree Portuguese Macaronesia), with some influences from the Amerindian and African languages, especially West African and Bantu. As a result, the language is somewhat different, mostly in phonology, from the language of Portugal and other Portuguese-speaking countries (the dialects of the other countries, partly due to the more recent end of Portuguese colonialism in these regions, have a closer connexion to contemporary European Portuguese). These differences are comparable to those between American and British English.
Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas, making the language an important part of Brazilian national identity and giving it a national culture distinct from those of its Spanish-speaking neighbors.
In 1990, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), which included representatives from all countries with Portuguese as the official language, reached an agreement on the reform of the Portuguese orthography to unify the two standards then in use by Brazil on one side and the remaining lusophone countries on the other. This spelling reform went into effect in Brazil on 1 January 2009. In Portugal, the reform was signed into law by the President on 21 July 2008 allowing for a 6-year adaptation period, during which both orthographies will co-exist. The remaining CPLP countries are free to establish their own transition timetables.
Minority languages are spoken throughout the nation. One hundred and eighty Amerindian languages are spoken in remote areas and a significant number of other languages are spoken by immigrants and their descendants. In the municipality of São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Nheengatu (a currently endangered South American creole language – or an 'anti-creole', according to some linguists – with mostly Indigenous Brazilian languages lexicon and Portuguese-based grammar that, together with its southern relative língua geral paulista, once was a major lingua franca in Brazil, being replaced by Portuguese only after governmental prohibition led by major political changes), Baniwa and Tucano languages had been granted co-official status with Portuguese. There are significant communities of German (mostly the Brazilian Hunsrückisch, a High German language dialect) and Italian (mostly the Talian, a Venetian dialect) origins in the Southern and Southeastern regions, whose ancestors' native languages were carried along to Brazil, and which, still alive there, are influenced by the Portuguese language. Talian is officially a historic patrimony of Rio Grande do Sul, and two German dialects possess co-official status in a few municipalities.
Learning at least one second language (generally English and/or Spanish) is mandatory for all the 12 grades of the mandatory education system (primary and secondary education, there called ensino fundamental and ensino médio respectively). Brazil is the first country in South America to offer Esperanto to secondary students.
The core culture of Brazil is derived from Portuguese culture, because of its strong colonial ties with the Portuguese empire. Among other influences, the Portuguese introduced the Portuguese language, Roman Catholicism and colonial architectural styles. The culture was, however, also strongly influenced by African, indigenous and non-Portuguese European cultures and traditions.[ত্ৰুটিপূৰ্ণ উদ্ধৃতি] Some aspects of Brazilian culture were influenced by the contributions of Italian, German and other European as well Japanese and Arab immigrants who arrived in large numbers in the South and Southeast of Brazil.[ত্ৰুটিপূৰ্ণ উদ্ধৃতি] The indigenous Amerindians influenced Brazil's language and cuisine; and the Africans influenced language, cuisine, music, dance and religion.
Brazilian art has developed since the 16th century into different styles that range from Baroque (the dominant style in Brazil until the early 19th century) to Romanticism, Modernism, Expressionism, Cubism, Surrealism and Abstractionism.
|1 x 0|
|Choro "1 x 0" ("Um a zero"), recorded by Pixinguinha and Benedito Lacerda. Choro is a brazilian genre of instrumental music.|
|এই ফাইলটো শুনাত অসুবিধা পাইছে? মিডিয়া সাহাৰ্য চাওক|
Brazilian music encompasses various regional styles influenced by African, European and Amerindian forms. It developed distinctive styles, among them samba, MPB, choro, Sertanejo, brega, forró, frevo, maracatu, bossa nova, and axé.
Brazilian literature dates back to the 16th century, to the writings of the first Portuguese explorers in Brazil, such as Pêro Vaz de Caminha, filled with descriptions of fauna, flora and natives that amazed Europeans that arrived in Brazil.[ত্ৰুটিপূৰ্ণ উদ্ধৃতি] Brazil produced significant works in Romanticism — novelists like Joaquim Manuel de Macedo and José de Alencar wrote novels about love and pain. Alencar, in his long career, also treated Indigenous people as heroes in the Indigenist novels O Guarany, Iracema, Ubirajara.
Brazilian cuisine varies greatly by region, reflecting the country's mix of native and immigrant populations. This has created a national cuisine marked by the preservation of regional differences. Examples are Feijoada, considered the country's national dish; and regional foods such as vatapá, moqueca, polenta and acarajé.
Brazil has a variety of candies such as brigadeiros (chocolate fudge balls), cocada (a coconut sweet), beijinhos (coconut truffles and clove) and romeu e julieta (cheese with a guava jam known as goiabada). Peanut is used to make paçoca, rapadura and pé-de-moleque. Local common fruits like açaí, cupuaçu, mango, papaya, cocoa, cashew, guava, orange, passionfruit, pineapple, and hog plum are turned in juices and used to make chocolates, popsicles and ice cream.
Popular snacks are pastel (a pastry), coxinha (chicken croquete), pão de queijo (cheese bread and cassava flour / tapioca), pamonha (corn and milk paste), esfirra (Lebanese pastry), kibbeh (from Arabic cuisine), empanada (pastry) and empada little salt pies filled with shrimps or hearth of palm.
But the everyday meal consist mosty of rice and beans with beef and salad. Its common to mix it with cassava flour (farofa). Fried potatoes, fried cassava, fried banana, fried meat and fried cheese are very often eaten in lunch and served in most typical restaurants.
The most popular sport in Brazil is football. The Brazilian national football team is ranked among the best in the world according to the FIFA World Rankings, and has won the World Cup tournament a record five times.
Volleyball, basketball, auto racing, and martial arts also attract large audiences. Brazil men's national volleyball team, for example, currently holds the titles of the World League, World Grand Champions Cup, World Championship and the World Cup.
Others sports practiced in Brazil are tennis, team handball, swimming, and gymnastics have found a growing number of enthusiasts over the last decades. Some sport variations have their origins in Brazil: beach football, futsal (indoor football) and footvolley emerged in Brazil as variations of football. In martial arts, Brazilians developed Capoeira, Vale tudo, and Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu. In auto racing, three Brazilian drivers have won the Formula One world championship eight times.
Brazil has hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including UFC 134, the 1950 FIFA World Cup and has been chosen to host the 2014 FIFA World Cup. The São Paulo circuit, Autódromo José Carlos Pace, hosts the annual Grand Prix of Brazil.
São Paulo organized the IV Pan American Games in 1963, and Rio de Janeiro hosted the XV Pan American Games in 2007. On 2 October 2009, Rio de Janeiro was selected to host the 2016 Olympic Games, the first to be held in South America and second in Latin America after Mexico City. Further, the country hosted the FIBA Basketball World Cups in 1954 and 1963. At the 1963 event, the Brazil national basketball team won one of its two world championship titles.
In May 2010 Brazil launched TV Brasil Internacional, an international television station, initially broadcasting to 49 countries. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, former President of Brazil, described its aim as "presenting Brazil to the world."
See also[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
- Outline of Brazil
- Index of Brazil-related articles
- International rankings of Brazil
- List of Brazilians
- "Demographics". Brazilian Government. 2011. http://www.brasil.gov.br/sobre/brazil/brazil-in-numbers/demographics। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2011-10-08. (ইংৰাজী)
- "Caracteristicas da População e dos Domicílios do Censo Demográfico 2010 — Cor ou raça" (PDF). http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/censo2010/caracteristicas_da_populacao/tabelas_pdf/tab3.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2012-04-07.
- IBGE. Censo 2010: população do Brasil é de 190.732.694 pessoas.
- IBGE. 2011 Population Projection
- "Brazil". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2012/01/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=48&pr.y=11&sy=2009&ey=2012&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=223&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2012-04-17.
- Country Comparison to the World: Gini Index – Brazil The World Factbook. Retrieved on 2012-04-03.
- UNDP Human Development Report 2011. "Table 1: Human development index 2011 and its components" (PDF). UNDP. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Table1.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2011-12-04.
- The European Portuguese pronunciation is IPA: [bɾɐˈziɫ]
- As on for example the national website.
- Mugnier, Clifford (January 2009). Grids & Datums – Federative Republic of Brazil. Archived from the original on 2009-06-21. http://web.archive.org/web/20090621192851/http://www.asprs.org/resources/grids/01-2009-brazil.pdf.
- "Geography of Brazil". Central Intelligence Agency. 2008. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-03.
- "People of Brazil". Central Intelligence Agency. 2008. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-03.
- "Introduction of Brazil". Central Intelligence Agency. 2008. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-03.
- "Brazilian Federal Constitution" (in Portuguese ভাষাত). Presidency of the Republic. 1988. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/Constituicao/Constituiçao.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-03. "Brazilian Federal Constitution". v-brazil.com. 2007. http://www.v-brazil.com/government/laws/titleI.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-03. "Unofficial translate"
- "Territorial units of the municipality level" (in Portuguese ভাষাত). Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. 2008. http://www.sidra.ibge.gov.br/bda/territorio/tabunit.asp?n=6&t=2&z=t&o=4। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-03.
- "World Development Indicators database" (PDF file), World Bank, 7 October 2009.
- "CIA – The World Factbook – Country Comparisons – GDP (purchasing power parity)". Cia.gov. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2001rank.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 25 January 2011.
- Clendenning, Alan (2008-04-17). "Booming Brazil could be world power soon". USA Today – The Associated Press. পৃষ্ঠা 2. http://www.usatoday.com/money/economy/2008-04-17-310212789_x.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-12-12.
- "Brazil sees traces of more isolated Amazon tribes", Reuters
- CNRTL – Centre National de Ressources Textuelles et Lexicales (ফৰাছী )
- Michaelis – Moderno Dicionário da Língua Portuguesa (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- iDicionário Aulete (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- (পৰ্টূগীজ) Eduardo Bueno, Brasil: uma História (São Paulo: Ática, 2003; ISBN 85-08-08213-4), p.36.
- Boxer, p. 98.
- Boxer, p. 100.
- Boxer, pp. 100–101.
- Skidmore, p. 27.
- Boxer, p. 101.
- Boxer, p. 108
- Boxer, p. 102.
- Skidmore, pp. 30, 32.
- Skidmore, p. 36.
- Boxer, p. 110
- Skidmore, p. 34.
- Skidmore, pp. 32–33.
- Bueno, pp. 80–81.
- Facsimiles of multiple original documents relating about the events in Brazil in the 17th century that led to a Dutch influence and their final defeat
- Calmon, p. 294.
- Bueno, p. 86.
- Boxer, p. 164.
- Boxer, pp. 168, 170.
- Boxer, p. 169.
- Boxer, p. 207.
- Boxer, p. 213.
- Bueno, p. 145.
- Calmon (2002), p. 191.
- Lustosa, pp. 109–110
- Lustosa, pp. 117–119
- Lustosa, pp. 150–153
- Vianna, p. 418
- Hendrik Kraay apud Lorenzo Aldé, Revista de História da Biblioteca Nacional, issue 50, year 5 (Rio de Janeiro: SABIN, 2009), p. 20
- Sérgio Buarque de Holanda, O Brasil Monárquico: o processo de emancipação, 4th ed. (São Paulo: Difusão Européia do Livro, 1976), p. 403
- Diégues 2004, pp. 168, 164, 178
- Diégues 2004, pp. 179–180
- Lustosa, p. 208
- Lyra (v.1), p. 17
- Carvalho 2007, p. 21
- Miriam Dohlnikoff, Pacto imperial: origens do federalismo no Brasil do século XIX (São Paulo: Globo, 2005), p. 206
- Carvalho (2007), p. 43
- Souza, p. 326
- Janotti, pp. 171–172
- Munro, p. 273
- Barman (1999), pp.18, 27
- Lyra (v.1), pp. 164, 225, 272
- Carvalho (2007), pp. 9, 222
- Lyra (v.1), p. 166
- Lyra (v.3), p. 62
- Vainfas, p. 18
- Munro, p. 280
- George Ermakoff, Rio de Janeiro – 1840–1900 – Uma crônica fotográfica (Rio de Janeiro: G. Ermakoff Casa Editorial, 2006), p. 189
- Schwarcz, p. 444
- Vainfas, p. 201
- Barman (1999), p. 399
- Barman (1999), p. 130
- Lyra (v.3), p. 126
- Barman (1999), p. 361
- Ricardo Salles, Nostalgia Imperial (Rio de Janeiro: Topbooks, 1996), p. 194 – However, the monarchist reaction after the fall of the empire and the subsequent exile of the Imperial Family "was not small and even less was its repression".
- Lyra (v.3), p. 99
- Schwarcz, pp. 450, 457
- Barman (1999), p. 403
- Barman (1999), p. 404
- Skidmore, p. 153
- Bueno, pp. 296–301
- Skidmore, p. 154
- Skidmore, pp. 155–156
- Bueno, pp. 328 and 331
- Fausto (2005), p. 249
- Fausto (2005), p. 267
- Skidmore, p. 162
- Bueno, p. 336
- Skidmore, p. 164
- Fausto (2005), p. 272
- Dietrich, Ana Maria in História Viva magazine, issue 67, year VI, 2009, p. 61
- Bueno, pp. 343–344
- Skidmore, p. 173
- Fausto (2005), p. 281
- Skidmore, pp. 182–183
- Bueno, pp. 346–347
- Skidmore, pp. 188–194
- Skidmore, p. 201
- Skidmore, pp. 202–203
- Skidmore, p. 204
- Skidmore, pp. 204–205
- Skidmore, pp. 209–210
- Skidmore, p. 210
- Fausto (2005), p. 397
- Gaspari, A Ditadura Envergonhada, pp. 141–142.
- Gaspari, A Ditadura Envergonhada, p. 35.
- Elio Gaspari, A ditadura escancarada (São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002), p. 193.
- Skidmore, p. 239
- Fausto (2005), p. 422
- Bueno, p. 379.
- Fausto (2005), p. 455.
- Gaspari, A Ditadura Envergonhada, pp. 34–35.
- Gaspari, A Ditadura Envergonhada, pp. 35–36.
- Bueno, p. 382.
- Fausto (2005), p. 460.
- Fausto (2005), pp. 464–465.
- Fausto (2005), pp. 465, 475.
- (Skidmore, p. 311).
- Fausto (2005), p. 482.
- Fausto (2005), p. 474.
- Fausto (2005), p. 502.
- "Brazil elects Dilma Rousseff, nation's first woman president". CNN. 2010-10-31. http://articles.cnn.com/2010-10-31/world/brazil.elections_1_voting-machines-president-luiz-inacio-manaus?_s=PM:WORLD। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2011-08-08.
- "Land and Resources". Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwQHrh6l। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-11. [সন্দেহজনক ]
- Official Area (In Portuguese) IBGE: Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. Retrieved 2010-01-08.
- "Hora Legal Brasileira". Observatório Nacional. Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. http://web.archive.org/web/20110722173247/http://pcdsh01.on.br/Fusbr.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2009-02-21.
- "Natural Regions". Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwQHrh6l। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-11. [সন্দেহজনক ]
- "Rivers and Lakes". Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwQHBKyV। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-11. [সন্দেহজনক ]
- "Brazil". Country Guide. BBC Weather. Archived from the original on 2011-02-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20110208034235/http://www.bbc.co.uk/weather/world/country_guides/results.shtml?tt=TT005220। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-11.
- "Natural Regions". Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwQIOd3Z। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-11. [সন্দেহজনক ]
- "Temperature in Brazil". Brazil Travel. http://www.v-brazil.com/information/geography/temperature-graphs.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-11.
- Embrapa. "Annual averages of Mandacaru Agro-meteorological station" (in Portuguese ভাষাত). Archived from the original on 2007-08-20. http://web.archive.org/web/20070820215606/http://www.cpatsa.embrapa.br/servicos/dadosmet/cem-anual.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-10-21.
- "CPD: South America, Site SA19, Caatinga of North-eastern Brazil, Brazil". Botany.si.edu. http://botany.si.edu/projects/cpd/sa/sa19.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2009-10-29.
- "Drought, Smallpox, and Emergence of Leishmania braziliensis in Northeastern Brazil." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
- "Ó Gráda, C.: Famine: A Short History." Princeton University Press.
- "Inland fishery enhancements." FAO.
- "One fifth of the world's freshwater". Amazon. World Wide Fund for Nature. 2007-08-06. http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/where_we_work/amazon/about_the_amazon/ecosystems_amazon/rivers/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-12.
- "Plant and Animal Life". Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwQIOd3Z। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-12. [সন্দেহজনক ]
- "Atlantic Forest, Brazil". Map: Biodiversity hotspots (BBC News). 2004-10-01. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/3707888.stm#brazil। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-12.
- "Environmental Issues". Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwQIOd3Z। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-12. [সন্দেহজনক ]
- "Under threat". Greenpeace. http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/campaigns/forests/south-america/under-threat/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-12.
- "Amazon destruction: six football fields a minute". Greenpeace. Archived from the original on 2008-04-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20080405192352/http://www.greenpeace.org/international/news/amazon-destruction। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-12.
- "Brazil grants environmental licence for Belo Monte dam." BBC News. 2 February 2010.
- "Embassy of Brazil — Ottawa". Archived from the original on 2011-07-25. http://web.archive.org/web/20110725100724/http://www.brasembottawa.org/en/brazil_in_brief/political_institution.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2007-07-19. "Political Institutions — The Executive"
- "City Mayors". http://www.citymayors.com/government/brazil_government.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2007-07-19. "Brazil federal, state and local government"
- "JSTOR". "Brazilian Politics"
- "Government – Brazil". Southtravels.com. 1988-10-05. http://www.southtravels.com/america/brazil/government.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-03-17.
- "Leftist Lula wins Brazil election" BBC News. Retrieved 17 May 2007
- "The Brazilian Legal System", Organization of American States. Retrieved 17 May 2007.
- José Afonso da Silva, Curso de Direito Constitucional Positivo (Malheiros, 2004; ISBN 85-7420-559-1), p. 46.
- Silva, Curso de Direito Constitucional Positivo, p. 592.
- "Government structure"[সংযোগবিহীন উৎস] Brazilian Government. Retrieved 17 May 2007.
- Miguel Glugoski and Odete Medauar, "Nossos direitos nas suas mãos," USP Journal, 24–30 November 2003. Retrieved 17 May 2007.
- Diego Abreu, "Primeira Corte do mundo a ter canal de vídeo no YouTube é o STF," G1. (পৰ্টূগীজ) Accessed 12 October 2009.
- "STF: Primeira corte do mundo no Youtube." ESMA-PB. (পৰ্টূগীজ) Accessed 12 October 2009.
- "Página do STF no Twitter está no ar" (12/01/009). STF Official Website. (পৰ্টূগীজ) Consulted on 5 December 2009.
- Kingstone, Steve (2005-06-27). "UN highlights Brazil gun crisis". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/4628813.stm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-04-30.
- Diego Abreu Do G1, em Brasília. "Number of people incarcerated in Brazil – 2010". G1.globo.com. http://g1.globo.com/Noticias/Brasil/0,,MUL1500012-5598,00-GOVERNO+LANCA+ESTRATEGIA+PARA+DESARTICULAR+ORGANIZACOES+CRIMINOSAS.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2011-04-16.
- Maria Regina Soares De Lima and Monica Hirst (2006). "Brazil as an intermediate state and regional power: action, choice and responsibilities". International Affairs খণ্ড 82 (1): 21–40. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2346.2006.00513.x. http://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/public/International%20Affairs/Blanket%20File%20Import/inta_513.pdf.
- Luiz Alberto Moniz Bandeira (2006). "Brazil as a Regional Power and Its Relations with the United States". Latin American Perspectives খণ্ড 33 (3): 12–27. doi:10.1177/0094582X06287338.
- Raúl Zibechi, "Difficult Path" Funder's Network on Trade and Globalization. Retrieved 22 June 2007.
- Universia Knowledge at Wharton website, "Can Brazil Play a Leadership Role in the Current Round of Global Trade Talks?" Wharton School, Pennsylvania. Retrieved 22 June 2007.
- Clare Ribando, "US-Brazil relations," Congressional Research Service. Retrieved on 16 August 2007.
- Georges D. Landau, "The Decisionmaking Process in Foreign Policy: The Case of Brazil," Center for Strategic and International Studies: Washington DC: March 2003.
- Raúl Zibechi, "Brazil and the Difficult Path to Multilateralism." IRC Americas. Retrieved on 16 August 2007.
- Cabral and Weinstock 2010. Brazil: an emerging aid player. London: Overseas Development Institute
- Cabral, Lidia 2010. Brazil’s development cooperation with the South: a global model in waiting. London: Overseas Development Institute
- "Pesquisa mostra que Brasil investe pouco em estratégia na FAB" (in Portuguese ভাষাত). G1.com.br. http://g1.globo.com/jornaldaglobo/0,,MUL1412734-16021,00-PESQUISA+MOSTRA+QUE+BRASIL+INVESTE+POUCO+EM+ESTRATEGIA+NA+FAB.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-10-02.
- "Brazil: Military: Introduction". GlobalSecurity.org. http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/brazil/intro.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-10-02.
- "Decreto Nº 5.670 de 10 de Janeiro de 2006" (in Portuguese ভাষাত). Presidência da República. http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/_Ato2004-2006/2006/Decreto/D5670.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-10-02.
- "Perguntas" (in Portuguese ভাষাত). Marinha do Brasil. https://www.mar.mil.br/menu_v/ccsm/perguntas/perguntas_mais_frequentes.htm#44.44। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2007-08-16.
- "Sala de imprensa – FAB em números" (in Portuguese ভাষাত). Força Aérea Brasileira. http://www.fab.mil.br/portal/imprensa/fab_numeros.php। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2007-12-12.
- "UPDATE 1-Embraer sells 10 E-Jets to Brazilian airline Azul". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/02/14/embraer-idUSL2E8DE8CL20120214। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2012-04-07.
- Kandell, Jonathan Is Brazil's Embraer Ready To Take On Boeing. institutionalinvestor.com (2011-07-25)
- The N-11: More Than an Acronym. Goldman Sachs. Archived from the original on 2009-06-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20090611224820/http://www.chicagobooth.edu/alumni/clubs/pakistan/docs/next11dream-march%20'07-goldmansachs.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-03-17.
- "Economy of Brazil". Central Intelligence Agency. 2008. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-03.
- Phillips, Tom (2008-05-10). "The country of the future finally arrives". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/may/10/brazil.oil। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- "The economy of heat". The Economist. 2007-04-12. http://www.economist.com/node/8952496?story_id=8952496। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- O'Neill, Jim. "BRICs". Goldman Sachs. http://www.goldmansachs.com/our-thinking/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- Baig, Taimur; Goldfajn, Ilan (2000). "The Russian default and the contagion to Brazil" (PDF). IMF Working Paper. International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2000/wp00160.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- Fraga, Arminio (2000). "Monetary Policy During the Transition to a Floating Exchange Rate: Brazil's Recent Experience". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2000/03/fraga.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- "Brasil supera Canadá e se torna o terceiro maior exportador agrícola". O Estado de S. Paulo. 2010-03-07. http://www.estadao.com.br/noticias/impresso,brasil-supera-canada-e-se-torna-o-terceiro-maior-exportador-agricola,520620,0.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-03-07.
- Wheatley, Jonathan (2002-09-02). "Brazil: When an IMF Bailout Is Not Enough". Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/02_35/b3797071.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- "Brazil to pay off IMF debts early". BBC News. 2005-12-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4527438.stm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- "Economic Quarterly" (PDF). Institute of Applied Economic Research. 2007-03-01. pp. 171. http://www.ipea.gov.br/sites/000/2/publicacoes/eqb/ieq11.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- "Capital Flows to Emerging Markets Set at Close to Record Levels" (Press release). The Institute of International Finance. 2007-05-31. http://www.iif.com/press/press+32.php। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- "IPCA, IPC-FIPE and IPC-BR: Methodological and Empirical Differences" (PDF). Central Bank of Brazil. 2004. http://www.bcb.gov.br/htms/relinf/ing/2004/06/ri200406b2i.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- "Statistics on Mergers & Acquisitions (M&A) – M&A Courses | Company Valuation Courses | Mergers & Acquisitions Courses". Imaa-institute.org. http://www.imaa-institute.org/statistics-mergers-acquisitions.html#MergersAcquisitions_Brazil। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2011-04-16.
- "Rousseff Crisis Spurred by Lula Debts as Brazil Boom Diminishes- Bloomberg". Mobile.bloomberg.com. 2011-09-27. http://mobile.bloomberg.com/news/2011-09-27/rousseff-crisis-spurred-by-lula-debts-as-brazil-boom-diminishes। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2012-04-07.
- "Brazil's shares at all-time high". BBC News. 2008-04-30. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/7376539.stm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-09.
- Alves, Fabio; Caminada, Carlos (2008-04-30). "Brazilian Debt Raised to Investment Grade by S&P". Reuters. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=a86v4f6_W2Jg। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-09.
- Warner, Jeremy (2008-05-02). "Jeremy Warner's Outlook: Brazil secures investment grade". প্ৰকাশক London: The Independent. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/comment/jeremy-warner/jeremy-warners-outlook-brazil-secures-investment-grade-819744.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-09.
- Colitt, Raymond (2008-05-13). "Sleeping giant Brazil wakes, but could stumble". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/2008/05/13/brazil-economy-idUSNOA33289320080513। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-09.
- "Field Listing – GDP – composition by sector". Central Intelligence Agency. 2008. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2012.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-09.
- "Agriculture and Cattle-raising". Brazil by Topics. Brazilian Government official website. http://www.brasil.gov.br/ingles/about_brazil/brasil_topics/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-09. [সংযোগবিহীন উৎস]
- "Agriculture". Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwQKc5zk। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-09. [সন্দেহজনক ]
- "Manufacturing". Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwQKc5zk। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-09. [সন্দেহজনক ]
- "Energy". Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwQLDx9v। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-09. [সন্দেহজনক ]
- Moffett, Matt (2008-05-13). "Brazil Joins Front Rank Of New Economic Powers". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB121063846832986909.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-09.
- "An economic superpower, and now oil too". The Economist. 2008-04-17. http://www.economist.com/node/11052873?story_id=11052873। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-09.
- Schneyer, Joshua (2007-11-09). "Brazil, the New Oil Superpower". Business Week. http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/content/nov2007/db20071115_045316.htm?chan=top+news_top+news+index_businessweek+exclusives। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-09.
- "More bounty". The Economist. 2008-04-17. http://www.economist.com/node/11049391?story_id=11049391। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-09.
- "Focus on Brazil" (PDF). World Energy Outlook. International Energy Agency. 2006. Archived from the original on 2008-12-17. http://web.archive.org/web/20081217054733/http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/docs/weo2006/brazil.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-12-14.
- "Project Closing Report. Natural Gas Centre of Excellence Project. Narrative" (PDF). 20 March 2005. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927192628/http://www.ctgas.com.br/conteudo/img_upload/Project_cloling_report_Narrative_Mar_20_05.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2007-05-12.
- Brazilian Government. "Skills training for growth". http://www.brasil.gov.br/ingles/about_brazil/brasil_topics/science/categoria_view। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2007-08-10. [সংযোগবিহীন উৎস]
- "Brazil — The Space Program". country-data.com. April 1997. http://www.country-data.com/cgi-bin/query/r-1826.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-05-24.
- "Confirmed: Agreement with France Includes the Brazilian Nuclear Submarine". Nonproliferation for Global Security Foundation. 2008-12-23. http://npsglobal.org/eng/news/139-peaceful-uses/490-confirmed-agreement-with-france-includes-the-brazilian-nuclear-submarine.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-12-23.
- "Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität". Elsa.physik.uni-bonn.de. 2008-08-18. http://www-elsa.physik.uni-bonn.de/accelerator_list.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-10-30.
- "CEITEC – Portal Brasil". Brasil.gov.br. http://www.brasil.gov.br/sobre/science-and-technology/the-digital-electronics-industry/ceitec/br_model1?set_language=en। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2011-08-08.
- "Road system in Brazil". Nationsencyclopedia.com. http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/Americas/Brazil-TRANSPORTATION.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-10-30.
- "Brazil – Transportation," Encyclopedia of the Nations (nationsencyclopedia.com).[সন্দেহজনক ]
- "Ociosidade atinge 70% dos principais aeroportos." globo.com, 12 August 2007. (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- "Aeroporto Internacional de São Paulo/Guarulhos-Governador André Franco Montoro[সংযোগবিহীন উৎস]," infraaero.gov.br. (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- "Mercado Brasileiro Terminais de Contêineres," Santos Brasil. (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- 2008 PNAD, IBGE. "População residente por situação, sexo e grupos de idade"
- 2008 PNAD, IBGE. "População residente por situação, sexo e grupos de idade"
- 2008 PNAD, IBGE. "População residente por situação, sexo e grupos de idade."
- "Brazil population reaches 190.8 million[সংযোগবিহীন উৎস]". Brasil.gov.br.
- "Shaping Brazil: The Role of International Migration". Migration Policy Institute.
- José Alberto Magno de Carvalho, "Crescimento populacional e estrutura demográfica no Brasil[সংযোগবিহীন উৎস]" Belo Horizonte: UFMG/Cedeplar, 2004 (PDF file), p. 5.
- "Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística". IBGE. 1999-11-29. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/presidencia/noticias/noticia_visualiza.php?id_noticia=1275&id_pagina=1। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-01-25.
- "Projeção da População do Brasil – Brazil's populational projection". IBGE. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/presidencia/noticias/noticia_impressao.php?id_noticia=1272। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-01-25.
- Magno de Carvalho, "Crescimento populacional e estrutura demográfica no Brasil[সংযোগবিহীন উৎস]," pp. 7–8.
- PNAD 2008, IBGE. "Pessoas de 5 anos ou mais de idade por situação, sexo, alfabetização e grupos de idade e grupos de idade."
- PNAD 2008, IBGE. "Pessoas de 5 anos ou mais de idade por situação, sexo, alfabetização e grupos de idade"
- PNAD 2008, IBGE. "Pessoas de 5 anos ou mais de idade por situação, sexo e alfabetização."
- 2008 PNAD, IBGE. "População residente por cor ou raça, situação e sexo."
- "In Amazonia, Defending the Hidden Tribes," The Washington Post (2007-07-08).
- "Tendências Demográficas: Uma análise da população com base nos resultados dos Censos Demográficos 1940 e 2000". Ibge.gov.br. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/tendencia_demografica/analise_populacao/1940_2000/default.shtm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2012-04-07.
- Antonio Carlos Lacerda (2011-04-05). "Demographical census reveals Brazil as older and less white". Port.pravda.ru. http://web.archive.org/web/20110607201813/http://port.pravda.ru/sociedade/curiosas/04-05-2011/31548-censo_demografico-0/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2012-04-07.
- "Self-declared White Brazilians decrease in number, says IBGE". Fatimanews.com.br. http://www.fatimanews.com.br/noticias/populacao-que-se-declara-branca-diminui-diz-ibge_116224/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2012-04-07.
- De Assis Poiares, Lilian; De Sá Osorio, Paulo; Spanhol, Fábio Alexandre; Coltre, Sidnei César; Rodenbusch, Rodrigo; Gusmão, Leonor; Largura, Alvaro; Sandrini, Fabiano et al. (2010). "Allele frequencies of 15 STRs in a representative sample of the Brazilian population". Forensic Science International: Genetics খণ্ড 4 (2): e61. doi:10.1016/j.fsigen.2009.05.006. http://www.alvaro.com.br/pdf/trabalhoCientifico/ARTIGO_BRASIL_LILIAN.pdf.
- Brazilian DNA is nearly 80% European, indicates study.
- NMO Godinho O impacto das migrações na constituição genética de populações latino-americanas. PhD Thesis, Universidade de Brasília (2008).
- Pena, Sérgio D. J.; Di Pietro, Giuliano; Fuchshuber-Moraes, Mateus; Genro, Julia Pasqualini; Hutz, Mara H.; Kehdy, Fernanda de Souza Gomes; Kohlrausch, Fabiana; Magno, Luiz Alexandre Viana et al. (2011). Harpending, Henry. ed. "The Genomic Ancestry of Individuals from Different Geographical Regions of Brazil Is More Uniform Than Expected". PLoS ONE খণ্ড 6 (2): e17063. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017063. PMID 21359226.
- Parra et alli, Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC140919/#id2601616
- RIBEIRO, Darcy. O Povo Brasileiro, Companhia de Bolso, fourth reprint, 2008 (2008).
- Negros de origem européia. afrobras.org.br
- Guerreiro-Junior, Vanderlei; Bisso-Machado, Rafael; Marrero, Andrea; Hünemeier, Tábita; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria Cátira (2009). "Genetic signatures of parental contribution in black and white populations in Brazil". Genetics and Molecular Biology খণ্ড 32 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1590/S1415-47572009005000001. PMID 21637639.
- Pena, S.D.J.; Bastos-Rodrigues, L.; Pimenta, J.R.; Bydlowski, S.P. (2009). "Genetic heritage variability of Brazilians in even regional averages, 2009 study". Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research খণ্ড 42 (10): 870–6. doi:10.1590/S0100-879X2009005000026. PMID 19738982.
- Coelho (1996), p. 268.
- Vesentini (1988), p. 117.
- Adas, Melhem Panorama geográfico do Brasil, 4th ed (São Paulo: Moderna, 2004), p. 268 ISBN 8516043363
- Azevedo (1971), pp. 2–3.
- Moreira (1981), p. 108.
- Enciclopédia Barsa, vol. 4, pp. 254–55, 258, 265.
- Azevedo (1971), pp. 74–75.
- Enciclopédia Barsa, vol. 10 (Rio de Janeiro: Encyclopaedia Britannica do Brasil, 1987), p. 355.
- Azevedo (1971), p. 74.
- Azevedo (1971), p. 161.
- Maria Stella Ferreira-Levy (1974). "O papel da migração internacional na evolução da população brasileira (1872 a 1972)". Revista de Saúde Pública খণ্ড 8 (supl.): 49–90. doi:10.1590/S0034-89101974000500003. , Table 2, p. 74. (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- "Brazil". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. http://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/resources/countries/brazil। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2011-12-07.
- "Brazil". International Religious Freedom Report. U.S. Department of State. 2005-11-08. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/irf/2005/51629.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-08.
- IBGE, População residente, por sexo e situação do domicílio, segundo a religião, Censo Demográfico 2000. Acessado em 13 de dezembro de 2007
- "Brazil". Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. http://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/resources/countries/brazil। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2011-12-07. See drop-down essay on "The Growth of Religious Pluralism"
- Do G1, em São Paulo (2011-08-23). "G1 – País tem menor nível de adeptos do catolicismo desde 1872, diz estudo – notícias em Brasil". G1.globo.com. http://g1.globo.com/brasil/noticia/2011/08/pais-tem-menor-nivel-de-adeptos-do-catolicismo-desde-1872-diz-estudo.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2012-04-07.
- "IDBGE". IBGE. 2011. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/censo2010/default.shtm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2011-10-08. (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- 2008 PNAD, IBGE. "População residente por situação, sexo e grupos de idade."
- "Principal Cities". Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwQIvYDr। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-10. [সন্দেহজনক ]
- "2010 Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics estimate". Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. 29 November 2011. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/estatistica/populacao/censo2010/primeiros_resultados/populacao_por_municipio_zip.shtm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 22 January 2011.
- LEI Nº 10.436, DE 24 DE ABRIL DE 2002. Presidência da República, Casa Civil, Subchefia para Assuntos Jurídicos. Retrieved on 2012-05-19.
- Brazilian decree nº 5626, 22 December 2005. Planalto.gov.br (2005-12-23). Retrieved on 2012-05-19.
- "Learn About Portuguese Language". Sibila.com.br. http://www.sibila.com.br/index.php/world-map-of-portuguese/424। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2012-04-07.
- "Languages of Brazil". Ethnologue. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=br। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-09.
- "Portuguese language and the Brazilian singularity". http://countrystudies.us/brazil/39.htm.
- Nash, Elizabeth (2008-05-02). "Portugal pays lip service to Brazil's supremacy". প্ৰকাশক London: The Independent. Archived from the original on 2011-06-24. http://web.archive.org/web/20110624131043/http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/portugal-pays-lip-service-to-brazils-supremacy-819728.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-09.
- Rohter, Larry (2005-08-28). "Language Born of Colonialism Thrives Again in Amazon". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2005/08/28/international/americas/28amazon.html?ex=1282881600&en=2dbb31357d010164&ei=5090। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-07-14.
- "O alemão lusitano do Sul do Brasil". DW-World.de. http://www.dw.de/dw/article/0,,1174391,00.html.
- "O talian". http://www.labeurb.unicamp.br/elb/europeias/talian.htm.
- "Approvato il progetto che dichiara il 'Talian' come patrimonio del Rio Grande del Sud – Brasile". Sitoveneto. http://www.sitoveneto.org/talian_patrimonio_de_rio_grando_do_sul.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 9 March 2012.
- Pomerano!?. Lpniceia.wordpress.com (2008-12-27). Retrieved on 2012-05-19.
- No Brasil, pomeranos buscam uma cultura que se perde. Gabeira.locaweb.com.br. Retrieved on 2012-05-19.
- Lei dispõe sobre a cooficialização da língua pomerana no município de Santa Maria de Jetibá, no Espírito Santo. Ipol.org.br. Retrieved on 2012-05-19.
- Vila Pavão, uma Pomerânia no norte do Espirito Santo. Secult.es.gov.br. Retrieved on 2012-05-19.
- Pomerode institui língua alemã como co-oficial no Município. Leismunicipais.com.br. Retrieved on 2012-05-19.
- Vereadores propõem ensino da língua pomerana nas escolas do município. Wp.clicrbs.com.br (2011-08-24). Retrieved on 2012-05-19.
- Cooficialização da língua alemã em Antônio Carlos. ipol.org.br. Retrieved on 2012-05-19.
- "Esperanto approved by Brazilian government as optional high school subject, mandatory if justified by demand". Page F30. 2009-09-19. http://www.pagef30.com/2009/09/15-september-2009-esperanto-approved-by.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-10-30.
- "15th–16th Century". History. Brazilian Government official website. http://www.brasil.gov.br/ingles/about_brazil/history/xvi_cent/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-08. [সংযোগবিহীন উৎস]
- "People and Society". Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwQIvYDr। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-10. [সন্দেহজনক ]
- "Population". Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwQIvYDr। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-10. [সন্দেহজনক ]
- Freyre, Gilberto (1986). "The Afro-Brazilian experiment: African influence on Brazilian culture". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30. http://archive.is/vm7Y। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-08.
- Leandro Karnal, Teatro da fé: Formas de representação religiosa no Brasil e no México do século XVI, São Paulo, Editora Hucitec, 1998; available on fflch.usp.br
- "The Brazilian Baroque," Encyclopaedia Itaú Cultural
- "Theater and Film". Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwQK47Yx। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-08. [সন্দেহজনক ]
- "Literature". Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwQK47Yx। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-08.
- "Brazilian Literature: An Introduction." Embassy of Brasil – Ottawa. Visited on 2 November 2009.
- "Way of Life". Encarta. MSN. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwQJT42w। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-08.
- Roger, "Feijoada: The Brazilian national dish" braziltravelguide.com.
- Cascudo, Luis da Câmara. História da Alimentação no Brasil. São Paulo/Belo Horizonte: Editora USP/Itatiaia, l983.
- Freyre, Gilberto. Açúcar. Uma Sociologia do Doce, com Receitas de Bolos e Doces do Nordeste do Brasil. São Paulo, Companhia das Letras, 1997.
- Barbosa, Lívia (2007). "Feijão com arroz e arroz com feijão: o Brasil no prato dos brasileiros". Horizontes Antropológicos খণ্ড 13 (28). doi:10.1590/S0104-71832007000200005.
- Ferraccioli, Patrícia; Silveira, Eliane Augusta da (2010). "Cultural feeding influence on palative memories in the usual brazilian cuisine". Rev. Enferm. UERJ খণ্ড 18 (2): 198–203. http://bases.bireme.br/cgi-bin/wxislind.exe/iah/online/?IsisScript=iah/iah.xis&src=google&base=BDENF&lang=p&nextAction=lnk&exprSearch=18716&indexSearch=ID.
- "Futebol, o esporte mais popular do Brasil, é destaque no Via Legal :: Notícias". Jusbrasil.com.br. http://justica-federal.jusbrasil.com.br/noticias/74894/futebol-o-esporte-mais-popular-do-brasil-e-destaque-no-via-legal। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2011-04-16.
- "Football in Brazil". Goal Programme. International Federation of Association Football. 2008-04-15. http://www.fifa.com/associations/association=bra/goalprogramme/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- "Beach Soccer". International Federation of Association Football. http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/developing/beachsoccer/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- "Futsal". International Federation of Association Football. http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/developing/futsal/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- "The art of capoeira". BBC. 2006-09-20. http://www.bbc.co.uk/northyorkshire/content/articles/2005/09/13/capoeira_feature.shtml। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- "Brazilian Vale Tudo". I.V.C. http://valetudo.com.br/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- "Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Official Website". International Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu Federation. http://www.ibjjf.org/index.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- Donaldson, Gerald. "Emerson Fittipaldi". Hall of Fame. The Official Formula 1 Website. http://www.formula1.com/teams_and_drivers/hall_of_fame/282/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- Donaldson, Gerald. "Nelson Piquet". Hall of Fame. The Official Formula 1 Website. http://www.formula1.com/teams_and_drivers/hall_of_fame/181/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- Donaldson, Gerald. "Ayrton Senna". Hall of Fame. The Official Formula 1 Website. http://www.formula1.com/teams_and_drivers/hall_of_fame/45/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- "1950 FIFA World Cup Brazil". Previous FIFA World Cups. International Federation of Association Football. http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/archive/edition=7/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- "2014 FIFA World Cup Brazil". International Federation of Association Football. http://www.fifa.com/worldcup/preliminarydraw/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- "Formula 1 Grande Premio do Brasil 2008". The Official Formula 1 Website. http://www.formula1.com/races/in_detail/brazil_804/circuit_diagram.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06.
- "Chronological list of Pan American Games". Pan American Sports Organization. http://odepapaso.org/paso/chrono.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-06-06. [সংযোগবিহীন উৎস]
- "Olympics 2016: Tearful Pele and weeping Lula greet historic win for Rio," The Guardian, 2 October 2009.
- "FIBA World Championship History (pdf)". FIBA. 1 January 2007. http://www.fiba.com/downloads/v3_abouFiba/mp/FIBA_world_championships_history.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 24 February 2012.
- "Brazil launches international TV station for Africa". BBC News. 2010-05-25. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/10152301। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-10-30.
- Azevedo, Aroldo. O Brasil e suas regiões. São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional, 1971. (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- Barman, Roderick J. Citizen Emperor: Pedro II and the Making of Brazil, 1825–1891. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-8047-3510-7 (ইংৰাজী)
- Boxer, Charles R.. O império marítimo português 1415–1825. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002. ISBN 85-359-0292-9 (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- Bueno, Eduardo. Brasil: uma História. São Paulo: Ática, 2003. (পৰ্টূগীজ) ISBN 85-08-08213-4
- Calmon, Pedro. História da Civilização Brasileira. Brasília: Senado Federal, 2002. (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- Carvalho, José Murilo de. D. Pedro II. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2007. (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- Coelho, Marcos Amorim. Geografia do Brasil. 4th ed. São Paulo: Moderna, 1996. (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- Diégues, Fernando. A revolução brasílica. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2004. (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- Enciclopédia Barsa. Volume 4: Batráquio – Camarão, Filipe. Rio de Janeiro: Encyclopædia Britannica do Brasil, 1987. (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- Fausto, Boris and Devoto, Fernando J. Brasil e Argentina: Um ensaio de história comparada (1850–2002), 2nd ed. São Paulo: Editoria 34, 2005. ISBN 8573263083 (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- Gaspari, Elio. A ditadura envergonhada. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2002. ISBN 85-359-0277-5 (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- Janotti, Aldo. O Marquês de Paraná: inícios de uma carreira política num momento crítico da história da nacionalidade. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1990. (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- Lyra, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II (1825–1891): Ascenção (1825–1870). v.1. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977. (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- Lyra, Heitor. História de Dom Pedro II (1825–1891): Declínio (1880–1891). v.3. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia, 1977. (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- Lustosa, Isabel. D. Pedro I: um herói sem nenhum caráter. São Paulo: Companhia das letras, 2006. ISBN 85-359-0807-2 (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- Moreira, Igor A. G. O Espaço Geográfico, geografia geral e do Brasil. 18. Ed. São Paulo: Ática, 1981. (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- Munro, Dana Gardner. The Latin American Republics; A History. New York: D. Appleton, 1942. (ইংৰাজী)
- Schwarcz, Lilia Moritz. As barbas do Imperador: D. Pedro II, um monarca nos trópicos. 2nd ed. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 1998. ISBN 85-7164-837-9 (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- Skidmore, Thomas E. Uma História do Brasil. 4th ed. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 2003. (পৰ্টূগীজ) ISBN 85-219-0313-8
- Souza, Adriana Barreto de. Duque de Caxias: o homem por trás do monumento. Rio de Janeiro: Civilização Brasileira, 2008. (পৰ্টূগীজ) ISBN 978-85-200-0864-5
- Vainfas, Ronaldo. Dicionário do Brasil Imperial. Rio de Janeiro: Objetiva, 2002. ISBN 85-7302-441-0 (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- Vesentini, José William. Brasil, sociedade e espaço – Geografia do Brasil. 7th Ed. São Paulo: Ática, 1988. (পৰ্টূগীজ)
- Vianna, Hélio. História do Brasil: período colonial, monarquia e república, 15th ed. São Paulo: Melhoramentos, 1994. (পৰ্টূগীজ)
Further reading[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
- Alves, Maria Helena Moreira (1985). State and Opposition in Military Brazil. প্ৰকাশক Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
- Amann, Edmund (1990). The Illusion of Stability: The Brazilian Economy under Cardoso. World Development (pp. 1805–1819).
- "Background Note: Brazil". US Department of State. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/35640.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2011-06-16.
- Bellos, Alex (2003). Futebol: The Brazilian Way of Life. প্ৰকাশক London: Bloomsbury Publishing plc.
- Bethell, Leslie (1991). Colonial Brazil. প্ৰকাশক Cambridge: CUP.
- Costa, João Cruz (1964). A History of Ideas in Brazil. প্ৰকাশক Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
- Fausto, Boris (1999). A Concise History of Brazil. প্ৰকাশক Cambridge: CUP.
- Furtado, Celso. The Economic Growth of Brazil: A Survey from Colonial to Modern Times. প্ৰকাশক Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
- Leal, Victor Nunes (1977). Coronelismo: The Municipality and Representative Government in Brazil. প্ৰকাশক Cambridge: CUP.
- Malathronas, John (2003). Brazil: Life, Blood, Soul. প্ৰকাশক Chichester: Summersdale.
- Martinez-Lara, Javier (1995). Building Democracy in Brazil: The Politics of Constitutional Change. Macmillan.
- Prado Júnior, Caio (1967). The Colonial Background of Modern Brazil. প্ৰকাশক Los Angeles, CA: University of California Press.
- Schneider, Ronald (1995). Brazil: Culture and Politics in a New Economic Powerhouse. Boulder Westview.
- Skidmore, Thomas E. (1974). Black Into White: Race and Nationality in Brazilian Thought. প্ৰকাশক Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Wagley, Charles (1963). An Introduction to Brazil. প্ৰকাশক New York, New York: Columbia University Press.
- The World Almanac and Book of Facts: Brazil. প্ৰকাশক New York, NY: World Almanac Books. 2006.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Commons:Brasil|
|ব্ৰাজিল প্ৰবন্ধৰ বিষয়ে ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ ভগ্নী প্ৰকল্পসমূহত অধিক তথ্য চাব পাৰে:|
|শব্দৰ অৰ্থ ৱিকিঅভিধানত
|চিত্ৰ আৰু মিডিয়া কমন্সত
|মাধ্যম আৰু কাৰ্যক্ৰম ৱিকিবিশ্ববিদ্যালয়ত
|উক্তিৰ সংগ্ৰহ ৱিকিউক্তিত
|কিতাপ, লিখনি আদি ৱিকিউৎসত
|ৱিকি উৎসত CIA World Fact Book, 2004/Brazil বিষয় সংক্ৰান্তীয় মূল পাঠ্য আছে।|
- Official Tourist Guide of Brazil
- Brazilian Federal Government
- Chief of State and Cabinet Members
- Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics
- Brazil entry at The World Factbook
- Brazil at UCB Libraries GovPubs
- ব্ৰাজিল বিষয়ে অডিপি (মুক্ত নিৰ্দেশিকা প্ৰকল্প)ত থকা তথ্য
- Country Profile from the U.S. Library of Congress (1997)
- Brazil ভ্ৰমণ নিৰ্দেশিকা, ৱিকিট্ৰেভেলৰ পৰা
- Video report on Brazil in 1961
- Brazil from the BBC News
- Brazil at Encyclopædia Britannica
|"অপেন ষ্ট্ৰীট মেপ"-ত ‘ব্ৰাজিল’-ৰ ভৌগোলিক বিষয়ক তথ্য আছে।|
- Key Development Forecasts for Brazil from International Futures
- Democracy in Brazil from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives