সহায়:IPA for Spanish

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Spanish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

In general, Castilian Spanish is used in IPA transcriptions. Deviations from this may occur in words with /θ/, /ʎ/ and /x/:

See Spanish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Spanish.

Consonants
IPA Examples English approximation
b[1] bestia; embuste; vaca; envidia best
β bebé; obtuso; vivir; curva between baby and bevy
d[1] dedo; cuando; aldaba dead
ð diva; arder; admirar this
f fase; café face
ɡ[1] gato; lengua; guerra got
ɣ trigo; amargo; sigue; signo roughly like go, but without completely blocking air flow on the g
ʝ[1][2] ayuno; poyo; maracuyá roughly like you
k caña; laca; quise; kilo scan
l lino; alhaja; principal lean
ʎ[2] llave; pollo roughly like million; Italian famiglia
m[3] madre; comer; campo; convertir mother
n[3] nido; anillo; anhelo; sin; álbum need
ɲ[3] ñandú; cañón; enyesar roughly like canyon
ŋ[3] cinco; venga; conquista sing
p pozo; topo spouse
r[4] rumbo; carro; honra; subrayo trilled r
ɾ[4] caro; bravo; amor eterno ladder (American English)
s[5] saco; espita; xenón sack
θ[6] cereal; encima; zorro; enzima; paz thing
t tamiz; átomo stand
chubasco; acechar choose
x[7] jamón; eje; reloj general; México[8] German Bach or Scottish loch
z[9] isla; mismo; deshuesar prison
Marginal phonemes
IPA Examples English approximation
ʃ[10] abacaxi; Shakira; show shack
tlapalería; cenzontle; Popocatépetl no English equivalent (from Nāhuatl)
ts Ertzaintza; abertzale; Pátzcuaro[11] cats
Vowels
IPA Examples English approximation
a azahar father
e vehemente set
i dimitir; mío; y[12] see
o boscoso roughly like boring
u cucurucho; dúo pool
 
Semivowels[13]
IPA Examples English approximation
j aliada; cielo; amplio; ciudad yet
w[14] cuadro; fuego; Huila arduo wine
 
Stress and syllabification
IPA Examples English approximation
ˈ ciudad [θjuˈðað] domain
. o [ˈmi.o] Mayan

Notes[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 /b/, /d/, /ɡ/ and /ʝ/ are fricatives or approximants ([β̞, ð̞, ɣ̞, ʝ̞]; represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an /n/ or /m/, or—in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/—after an /l/, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, ɡ, ɟʝ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g, j, except that they are fully voiced in all positions, unlike their English counterparts (Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté 2003:257-8).
  2. 2.0 2.1 Most if not all Spanish speakers no longer distinguish /ʎ/ from /ʝ/; the actual realization depends on dialect, however. In Rioplatense Spanish (roughly southern South America), the ll is typically pronounced [ʃ] or [ʒ]. See yeísmo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. This is partially reflected in the orthography. Except in loanwords and proper nouns, only /n/ (that may also be produced as [ŋ] or nasalization of the preceding vowel, depending on dialect) occurs at the end of a word.
  4. 4.0 4.1 The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /r/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and also represented here as before consonants, and word-finally (positions in which they vary); only [ɾ] is found elsewhere.
  5. Northern and central Spain still distinguish between "s" (/s/) and "soft c"/"z" (/θ/). Almost all other dialects treat the two as identical (which is called seseo) and pronounce them as /s/. There is a small number of speakers, mostly in southern Spain, who pronounce the soft "c", "z" and even "s" as /θ/, a phenomenon called ceceo. See seseo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  6. /θ/ has merged into /s/ in virtually all dialects outside of northern and central Spain. The only other exception is found in some southern communities where ceceo occurs and /s/ has actually merged into /θ/. See seseo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  7. /x/ is generally pronounced [h], as in the English word ham, in South Spain, Canarias and Caribbean countries.
  8. The letter "x" only represents this sound in certain proper nouns in the Americas (Oaxaca, Texas, and others).
  9. Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants.
  10. Only used in loanwords and certain proper nouns. In many dialects, /ʃ/ is replaced by [] or [s]; e.g. show [tʃou]~[sou].
  11. Only used in loanwords and proper nouns from pre-Columbian indigenous languages
  12. The only time that the letter y ever indicates this sound alone is when it is used by itself as a word, meaning "and".
  13. In Spanish, the semivowels [w] and [j] can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs (e.g. aire, rey, auto) are transcribed with /i/ and /u/.
  14. Some speakers may pronounce word initial [w] with an epenthetic /ɡ/; e.g. Huila [ˈɡwila]~[ˈwila].

References[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association খণ্ড 33 (2): 255–259 

External links[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

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