The charts below show the way in which the
International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Spanish language pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.
Castilian Spanish is used in IPA transcriptions. Deviations from this may occur in words with /, θ/ / and ʎ/ /:
For terms that are more relevant to regions that have undergone
yeísmo (so that, for example, hoya and holla are pronounced the same), words spelled with সাঁচ:Angle bracket can be transcribed with [ʝ] For terms that are more relevant to regions with
seseo, (so that, for example, caza and casa are pronounced the same), words spelled with সাঁচ:Angle bracket and with soft সাঁচ:Angle bracket (i.e. where সাঁচ:Angle bracket occurs before সাঁচ:Angle bracket or সাঁচ:Angle bracket) can be transcribed with [s] In South Spain, Canarias and Caribbean countries, the phoneme [ ( x] সাঁচ:Angbr, soft সাঁচ:Angbr) is often realized as [ h]
Spanish phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Spanish.
bestia; em buste; vaca; en vidia
bé; o btuso; vi vir; cur va
between ba by and be vy
dedo; cuan do; al daba
diva; ar der; a dmirar
fase; ca fé
gato; len gua; guerra
go; amar go; si gue; si gno
roughly like go, but without completely blocking air flow on the g
yuno; po yo; maracu yá
roughly like you
caña; la ca; quise; kilo
lino; a lhaja; principa l
llave; po llo
roughly like mi llion; Italian fami
madre; co mer; ca mpo; co nvertir
nido; a nillo; a nhelo; si n; álbu m
ñandú; ca ñón; e nyesar
roughly like ca nyon
nco; ve nga; co nquista
pozo; to po
rumbo; ca rro; hon ra; sub rayo
ro; b ravo; amo r eterno
la dder (American English)
saco; e spita; xenón
cereal; en cima; zorro; en zima; pa z
tamiz; á tomo
chubasco; ace char
jamón; e je; relo j general; Mé xico
 German Ba or Scottish ch lo
sla; mi smo; de shuesar
xi; Shakira; show
tlapalería; cenzon tle; Popocatépe tl
no English equivalent ( from )
tzain tza; aber tzale; Pá tzcuaro
 ca ts
az ah ar
eh em ent e
im it ir; m ío; y
 s ee
osc os o
roughly like b oring
uc ur ucho; d úo
iada; c ielo; ampl io; c iudad yet
uadro; f uego; H uila ard uo wine
Stress and syllabification
↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3
/b/, /d/, /ɡ/ and /ʝ/ are fricatives or approximants ( [β̞, ð̞, ɣ̞, ʝ̞]; represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an /n/ or /m/, or—in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/—after an /l/, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, ɡ, ɟʝ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g, j, except that they are fully voiced in all positions, unlike their English counterparts ( Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté 2003:257-8).
↑ 2.0 2.1 Most if not all Spanish speakers no longer distinguish
/ʎ/ from /; the actual realization depends on dialect, however. In ʝ/ Rioplatense Spanish (roughly southern South America), the ll is typically pronounced [ or ʃ] [. See ʒ] and yeísmo Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 The
nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. This is partially reflected in the orthography. Except in loanwords and proper nouns, only /n/ (that may also be produced as [ŋ] or nasalization of the preceding vowel, depending on dialect) occurs at the end of a word.
↑ 4.0 4.1 The
rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /r/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with [ occurring word-initially, after r] /l/, /n/, and /s/, and also represented here as before consonants, and word-finally (positions in which they vary); only [ is found elsewhere. ɾ]
↑ Northern and central Spain still distinguish between "s" (
/) and "soft c"/"z" ( s/ /). Almost all other dialects treat the two as identical (which is called θ/ seseo) and pronounce them as /. There is a small number of speakers, mostly in southern Spain, who pronounce the soft "c", "z" and even "s" as s/ /, a phenomenon called θ/ . See ceceo and seseo Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
/ has merged into θ/ / in virtually all dialects outside of northern and central Spain. The only other exception is found in some southern communities where s/ occurs and ceceo / has actually merged into s/ /. See θ/ and seseo Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
/ is generally pronounced x/ [, as in the English word h] ham, in South Spain, Canarias and Caribbean countries.
↑ The letter "x" only represents this sound in certain proper nouns in the Americas (
Oaxaca, Texas, and others).
↑ Allophone of
/s/ before voiced consonants.
↑ Only used in loanwords and certain proper nouns. In many dialects,
/ʃ/ is replaced by [ or tʃ] [; e.g. s] show [tʃou]~[sou].
↑ Only used in loanwords and proper nouns from pre-Columbian indigenous languages
↑ The only time that the letter
y ever indicates this sound alone is when it is used by itself as a word, meaning "and".
↑ In Spanish, the semivowels
[ and w] [ can be combined with vowels to form j] rising diphthongs (e.g. c, ielo c). uadro Falling diphthongs (e.g. a, ire re, y a) are transcribed with uto / and i/ /. u/
↑ Some speakers may pronounce word initial
[w] with an epenthetic /ɡ/; e.g. H uila [ˈɡwila]~[ˈwila].
Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association খণ্ড 33 (2): 255–259
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