কুন্দ

অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ পৰা
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১৯১১ চনৰ এটা কুন্দ যন্ত্ৰৰ বিভিন্ন অংশ সমূহ

a – bed

b – carriage (with cross-slide and toolpost)

c – headstock

d – back gear (other geartrain nearby drives leadscrew)

e – cone pulley for a belt drive from an external power source

f – faceplate mounted on spindle

g – tailstock

h – leadscrew
এজন ঘড়ী নিৰ্মাতাই কুন্দা যন্ত্ৰ ব্যৱহাৰ কৰি কপাৰৰ পৰা ঘড়ীৰ অংশ তৈয়াৰ কৰিছে।

কুন্দ বা লেথ (/lð/) হৈছে এটা যন্ত্ৰ য'ত বস্তু এটা এক অক্ষত ঘূৰাই কাটি, ফুটা কৰি ধুনীয়াকৈ অক্ষৰ সমমিত কৰি বনোৱা হয়[1]

ব্যৱহাৰ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

কাঠৰ কামত, ধাতুৰ বস্তু বনোৱাৰ কামত, ৰং স্প্ৰে কৰা, কাচৰ বস্তু, মাটিৰৰ বস্তু বনোৱা কামত কুন্দ ব্যৱহাৰ কৰা হয়। যিটো বস্তুঅৰ ওপৰত কাম কৰা হয় তাক তাৰ দুযোফাল ধৰি ৰাখি এটাফাল ঘূৰোৱা হয় আৰু কামবোৰ কৰা হয়।

কুন্দত তৈয়াৰ কৰা বস্তু[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

কুন্দত তৈয়াৰ কৰা বস্তুসমূহ হ'ল স্ক্ৰু, মমৰ মাৰি, বেচবল বেট, খুটা, বাৱল, বাদ্যযন্ত্ৰ আদি।

ইতিহাস[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Lathe turned pillars at Chennakeshava temple in Belur

The lathe is an ancient tool. The earliest evidence of a lathe dates back to Ancient Egypt around 1300 BC.[2] There is also tenuous evidence for its existence at a Mycenaean Greek site, dating back as far as the 13th or 14th century BC.[3]

Clear evidence of turned artifacts have been found from the 6th century BC: fragments of a wooden bowl in an Etruscan tomb in Northern Italy as well as two flat wooden dishes with decorative turned rims from modern Turkey.[4]

During the Warring States period in China, c. 400 BCE, the ancient Chinese used rotary lathes to sharpen tools and weapons on an industrial scale.[5]

The first known painting showing a lathe dates to the 3rd century BC in ancient Egypt.[6]

The lathe was very important to the Industrial Revolution. It is known as the mother of machine tools, as it was the first machine tool that led to the invention of other machine tools.[7] The first fully documented, all-metal slide rest lathe was invented by Jacques de Vaucanson around 1751. It was described in the Encyclopédie.

An important early lathe in the UK was the horizontal boring machine that was installed in 1772 in the Royal Arsenal in Woolwich. It was horse-powered and allowed for the production of much more accurate and stronger cannon used with success in the American Revolutionary War in the late 18th century. One of the key characteristics of this machine was that the workpiece was turning as opposed to the tool, making it technically a lathe. Henry Maudslay, who later developed many improvements to the lathe, worked at the Royal Arsenal from 1783, being exposed to this machine in the Verbruggen workshop.[8] A detailed description of Vaucanson's lathe was published decades before Maudslay perfected his version. It is likely that Maudslay was not aware of Vaucanson's work, since his first versions of the slide rest had many errors that were not present in the Vaucanson lathe.

During the Industrial Revolution, mechanized power generated by water wheels or steam engines was transmitted to the lathe via line shafting, allowing faster and easier work. Metalworking lathes evolved into heavier machines with thicker, more rigid parts. Between the late 19th and mid-20th centuries, individual electric motors at each lathe replaced line shafting as the power source. Beginning in the 1950s, servomechanisms were applied to the control of lathes and other machine tools via numerical control, which often was coupled with computers to yield computerized numerical control (CNC). Today manually controlled and CNC lathes coexist in the manufacturing industries.

বিৱৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

অংশসমূহ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

A lathe may or may not have legs also known as a nugget, which sit on the floor and elevate the lathe bed to a working height. A lathe may be small and sit on a workbench or table, not requiring a stand.

মুখ্য ভাগসমূহ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

কাঠৰ কাম কৰা এটা আধুনিক কুন্দ

Woodworking lathes are the oldest variety. All other varieties are descended from these simple lathes. An adjustable horizontal metal rail – the tool rest – between the material and the operator accommodates the positioning of shaping tools, which are usually hand-held. After shaping, it is common practice to press and slide sandpaper against the still-spinning object to smooth the surface made with the metal shaping tools. The tool rest is usually removed during sanding, as it may be unsafe to have the operators hands between it and the spinning wood.[1]

Duplicating lathes[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Water-powered Blanchard lathe used for duplicating gun stocks from 1850's. Harpers Ferry Armory.

One type of specialized lathe is duplicating or copying lathe also known as Blanchard lathe after its inventor Thomas Blanchard. This type of lathe was able to create shapes identical to a standard pattern and it revolutionized the process of gun stock making in 1820's when it was invented.[9]

Examples of work produced from a lathe[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

তথ্যসূত্ৰ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. 1.0 1.1 "What is a wood lathe & How to use it?". https://www.beinglist.com/what-is-a-wood-lathe-how-to-use-it.html.  উদ্ধৃতি ত্ৰুটি: Invalid <ref> tag; name ":0" defined multiple times with different content
  2. "What is a Lathe Machine? History, Parts, and Operation". http://www.brighthubengineering.com/manufacturing-technology/59033-what-is-a-lathe-machine-history-parts-and-operation/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 26 March 2018. 
  3. Clifford. "A brief history of woodturning". http://www.turningtools.co.uk.wgo.ca/history2/history-turning2.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2018-07-24. 
  4. Clifford, Brian. "A brief history of woodturning". http://www.turningtools.co.uk.wgo.ca/history2/history-turning2.html. 
  5. Emperor's Ghost Army. 
  6. Clifford, Brian. "A brief history of woodturning". Woodturners' Guild of Ontario. http://www.turningtools.co.uk.wgo.ca/history2/history-turning2.html. "The earliest information on the lathe dates from the 3rd century BC. This is a bas-relief carving on the wall of the grave of an Egyptian called Petrosiris." 
  7. Murthy, S. Trymbaka. Textbook of Elements of Mechanical Engineering. ISBN 978-9380578576. 
  8. Tomiyama, Testuo (2016-02-16). "Development of Production Technology and Machine Tools (presentation notes)" (PDF). TUDelft. পৃষ্ঠাসমূহ: 18–21. https://ocw.tudelft.nl/wp-content/uploads/ED2011_2_Fabrikagetechnologie.pdf. "1770 Jan Verbruggen Escaped to England with his Son Pieter Verbruggen (1734-1786) and Became Master Founder at Woolwich Arsenal"  Tomiyama, Testuo (2011). 02. Ontwikkeling Fabricagetechnologie. TUDelft. 
  9. Smith (2015). Harpers Ferry Armory and the New Technology: The Challenge of Change. https://books.google.com/books?id=D\_RqBgAAQBAJ। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 30 June 2016.