সমললৈ যাওক

খোৱাৰ ভাষা

অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ পৰা
Khowar
کھووار

Khowar written in the Khowar alphabet in Nastaliq style.
থলুৱা অঞ্চল Pakistan
অঞ্চল Chitral District
জাতীয়তা Chitrali people
স্থানীয় ভাষিক
প্ৰায় 800,000 (2021)[1]
ভাষা পৰিয়াল
লিখন প্ৰণালী Khowar alphabet (In Nastaliq style.)
আধিকাৰিক স্থিতি
নিয়মাধীন হয়
Association for the Promotion of Khowar[2]
ভাষা সংকেত
ISO 639-3 khw
গ্লোটোলগ khow1242[3]
লিংগোৱাস্ফেয়াৰ 59-AAB-aa
Khowar is a minor language of Pakistan which is mainly spoken in Chitral, it is given a space in this map.
Areas where Khowar is spoken.

খোৱাৰ (کھووار) বা চিত্ৰলী এটি দাৰ্দিক ভাৰতীয়-আৰ্য ভাষা যি মুখ্যতঃ পাকিস্তানৰ চিত্ৰল অঞ্চল আৰু তাৰ ওচৰৰ অঞ্চলসমূহত ব্যৱহাৰ কৰা হয়।[4]

খোৱাৰ চিত্ৰল অঞ্চলৰ মুখ্য ভাষা যি অন্য ভাষা ভাষী লোকেও নিজৰ মাজত কথা পাতিবলৈ ব্যৱহাৰ কৰে।[5] চিত্ৰলৰ উপৰিও এই ভাষা গিলগিট-বালতিস্তানৰ গুপিছ-য়াছিন আৰু ঘিজেৰ জিলাত তথা উজনি স্বাট জিলাত ব্যৱহাৰ কৰা হয়।[6]

খোৱাৰ ভাষী বহুতো লোকে পাকিস্তানৰ মুখ্য মহানগৰ, যেনে পেশ্বাৱাৰ, ইস্লামবাদ, লাহোৰ আৰু কাৰাচী আদিলৈ পৰিভ্ৰমণ কৰিছে। তদুপৰি, কলশ ভাষী লোকেও এই ভাষা প্ৰায় দ্বিতীয় ভাষা হিচাপে ব্যৱহাৰ কৰে।[7]

নাম[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

এই ভাষাৰ নিজা নাম খো-ৱাৰ,[8] যাৰ অৰ্থ হ'ল "খো লোকৰ ভাষা (ৱাৰ)"। ব্ৰিটিছ কালত ইংৰাজী ভাষাত এই ভাষাক চিত্ৰলী নামেৰে জনা গৈছিল (যি চিত্ৰল অঞ্চলৰ নামৰ পৰা অহা)। অন্য এক নাম আছিল কাশ্বকাৰী।[8] পাঠান আৰু বাদাক্শানী লোকৰ মাজত এই ভাষাক কাশ্কাৰ নামেৰে জনা যায়।[9] আন এক নাম লেইটনাৰে ১৮৮০ত ব্যৱহাৰ কৰিছিল: অৰ্ণ্যিয়া[10] বা অৰ্ণিয়া, যি শ্বিনা ভাষাত এটি অঞ্চলৰ যি নাম (য়াছিন), তাৰ পৰা অহা। তাতো খোৱাৰ ভাষা ব্যৱহাৰ কৰা হয়।[8]

ইতিহাস[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

খোৱাৰ ভাষা চিত্ৰল অঞ্চলত তাৰ উত্তৰী ভাগৰ পৰা বিয়পিল, বিশেষকৈ মুলখৌ আৰু টোৱখৌ উপত্যকাদ্বয়ৰ পৰা।[11][12] মৰ্গেনষ্টিয়াৰ্ণৰ মতে, খোৱাৰ ভাষীসকলৰ প্ৰথম ভূমি আছিল মস্তুজৰ ওচৰৰ উপত্যকাসমূহ যি চিত্ৰলৰ উত্তৰ দিশে।[11] চতুৰ্দশ শতিকাৰ আৰম্ভণিত এই ভাষা তাৰ পৰা দক্ষিণ দিশে বিয়পিবলৈ ধৰিল।[11]

Khowar shares a great number of morphological characteristics with neighbouring Iranian languages of Badakhshan, pointing to a very early location of proto-Khowar in its original abode in Upper Chitral, although from its links with the Gandhari language, it likely came from further south in the first millennium BC, possibly through Swat and Dir.[12]


Georg Morgenstierne noted, "Khowar, in many respects [is] the most archaic of all modern Indian languages, retaining a great part of Sanskrit case inflexion, and retaining many words in a nearly Sanskritic form".[13]:3

Phonology[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Khowar has a variety of dialects, which may vary phonemically.[14] The following tables lay out the basic phonology of Khowar.[15][16][17]

Vowels[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Front Central Back
Close i u
Mid ɛ ɔ
Open ɑ

Khowar may also have nasalized vowels and a series of long vowels /ɑː/, /ɛː/, /iː/, /ɔː/, and /uː/. Sources are inconsistent on whether length is phonemic, with one author stating "vowel-length is observed mainly as a substitute one. The vowel-length of phonological value is noted far more rarely."[14] Unlike the neighboring and related Kalasha language, Khowar does not have retroflex vowels.[15]

Consonants[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Labial Coronal Retroflex Palatal Velar Post-

velar

Glottal
Nasal m n
Stop voiceless p t ʈ k q
voiced b d ɖ Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "g" not found in list
aspirated ʈʰ
Affricate voiceless ts ʈʂ
voiced dz ɖʐ
aspirated tsʰ ʈʂʰ tɕʰ
Fricative voiceless f s ʂ ɕ x h
voiced z ʐ ʑ ɣ
Approximant ʋ l(ʲ) ɫ j (w)
Rhotic ɾ

Allophones of /x ɣ h ʋ ɾ/ are heard as sounds [χ ʁ ɦ w ɹ].[17] /q x ɣ f/ are restricted to Perso-Arabic loanwords in most IA languages but they occur natively in Khowar.[18][Full citation needed]

Tone[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Khowar, like many Dardic languages, has either phonemic tone or stress distinctions.[19]

Further reading[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

References[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. "Khowar language is losing its essence -Faizan Aziz - Chitral Times" (en-US ভাষাত). 2021-12-02. https://chitraltimes.com/en/khowar-language-is-losing-its-essence/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2023-05-01. "Khowar is one of the regional languages of Pakistan. It is spoken in different parts of Pakistan and more than 0.8 million people speak Khowar over in Chitral, Gilgit-Baltistan, and Swat Valley. Meanwhile, in Chitral, Khowar is considered as a lingua franca or the main communicative language of the area." 
  2. Faizi, Inayatullah. "Development of Khowar as a Literacy Language, Results of interaction between linguists and language community: Case study in Chitral, Northern Pakistan". প্ৰকাশক NWFP-Pakistan: Govt Degree College Chitral. https://fli-online.org/site/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Development-of-Khowar-as-a-Literacy-Language.pdf. 
  3. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds (2017). "Khowar". Glottolog 3.0. প্ৰকাশক Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. http://glottolog.org/resource/languoid/id/khow1242. 
  4. Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George (2007-07-26) (en ভাষাত). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. পৃষ্ঠা. 843. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9. https://books.google.com/books?id=OtCPAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA843. 
  5. Jain, Danesh; Cardona, George (2007-07-26) (en ভাষাত). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. পৃষ্ঠা. 843. ISBN 978-1-135-79711-9. https://books.google.com/books?id=OtCPAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA843. 
  6. Cardona, George (2007). The Indo-Aryan Languages. পৃষ্ঠা. 843. 
  7. Heegård Petersen, Jan (30 September 2015). "Kalasha texts – With introductory grammar" (en ভাষাত). Acta Linguistica Hafniensia খণ্ড 47 (sup1): 1–275. doi:10.1080/03740463.2015.1069049. ISSN 0374-0463. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/03740463.2015.1069049. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 সাঁচ:LSI
  9. O'Brien, Donatus James Thomond (1895). Grammar and vocabulary of the K̲h̲owâr dialect (Chitrâli). প্ৰকাশক Lahore: Civil and military gazette press. পৃষ্ঠা. i. 
  10. Leitner, Gottlieb William (1880). Kafiristan. Section 1: the Bashgeli Kafirs and their language. প্ৰকাশক Lahore: Dilbagroy. পৃষ্ঠা. 43. http://purl.ox.ac.uk/uuid/2f566bcfeba54f33bb64106a17a66ca8। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2016-06-06. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Rensch, Calvin Ross (1992) (en ভাষাত). Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan: Languages of Chitral. National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University. পৃষ্ঠা. 28-29, 98-99. https://www.sil.org/system/files/reapdata/27/02/58/27025885940262322544465526417847562858/32850_SSNP05.pdf. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Dani, Ahmad Hasan (2001) (en ভাষাত). History of Northern Areas of Pakistan: Upto 2000 A.D.. Sang-e-Meel Publcations. পৃষ্ঠা. 66. ISBN 978-969-35-1231-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=MOltAAAAMAAJ&q=khos. 
  13. Morgenstierne, Georg (1974). "Languages of Nuristan and surrounding regions". Cultures of the Hindukush: selected papers from the Hindu-Kush Cultural Conference held at Moesgård 1970. Beiträge zur Südasienforschung, Südasien-Institut Universität Heidelberg. Bd. 1. প্ৰকাশক Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner. পৃষ্ঠা. 1–10. ISBN 978-3-515-01217-1. "The main language of Chitral is Khowar, in many respects the most archaic of all modern Indian languages, retaining a great part of Sanskrit case inflexion, and retaining many words in a nearly Sanskritic form." 
  14. 14.0 14.1 Edelman, D. I. (1983). The Dardic and Nuristani Languages. প্ৰকাশক Moscow: Institut vostokovedenii︠a︡ (Akademii︠a︡ nauk SSSR). পৃষ্ঠা. 210. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Bashir, Elena L. (1988), "Topics in Kalasha Syntax: An areal and typological perspective", Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Michigan: 37–40, archived from the original on 2016-03-04, https://web.archive.org/web/20160304120345/http://salc.uchicago.edu/sites/salc.uchicago.edu/files/bashirdissertation.pdf, আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2023-08-01 
  16. Bashir, Elena L.; Nigah, Maula; Baig, Rahmat Karim (2004), A Digital Khowar-English Dictionary with Audio, https://dsal.uchicago.edu/dictionaries/khowar/ 
  17. 17.0 17.1 Liljegren, H.; Khan, A. (2017). "Khowar". Journal of the International Phonetic Association খণ্ড 47 (2): 219–229. doi:10.1017/S0025100316000220. http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:su:diva-145625. 
  18. Cardona, Jain (2003), পৃষ্ঠা. 932.
  19. Baart, Joan L. G. (2003), Tonal features in languages of northern Pakistan, National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics, pp. 3, 6, archived from the original on 2023-11-09, https://web.archive.org/web/20231109204206/http://www.fli-online.org/documents/linguistics/tone_in_np.pdf, আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2023-08-01 

Additional references[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  • Morgenstierne, Georg (1936) "Iranian Elements in Khowar". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, Vol. VIII, London.
  • Badshah Munir Bukhari (2001) Khowar language. University publisher. Pakistan
  • Morgenstierne, Georg (1947) "Some Features of Khowar Morphology". Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap, Vol. XIV, Oslo.
  • Morgenstierne, Georg (1957) Sanskritic Words in Khowar. Felicitation Volume Presented to S. K. Belvalkar. Benares. 84–98 [Reprinted in Morgenstierne (1973): Irano-Dardica, 267–72]
  • Mohammad Ismail Sloan (1981) Khowar-English Dictionary. Peshawar. আই.এচ.বি.এন. 0-923891-15-3.
  • Decker, Kendall D. (1992). Languages of Chitral (Sociolinguistic Survey of Northern Pakistan, 5). National Institute of Pakistani Studies, 257 pp. আই.এচ.বি.এন. 969-8023-15-1.
  • Zeal News

https://www.chitraltoday.net/2015/06/cultural-diversity-of-chitral/#:~:text=Chitral%20is%20also%20the%20most,lived%20together%20peacefully%20for%20centuries.

External links[সম্পাদনা কৰক]