পুৰাণ

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১৫-১৮ শতিকাৰ পুৰাণৰ লিপি


পুৰাণসমূহ হ’ল ধৰ্মমূলক উপাখ্যান থকা ওঠৰখন ভাৰতীয় শাস্ত্ৰ। অতি প্ৰাচীনকালৰ প্ৰসিদ্ধ ব্যক্তি আৰু সমাজ, ধৰ্ম আদিৰ অৱলম্বনত পুৰাণৰ কাহিনী সমূহ ৰচনা কৰা হৈছে। বহল ভাষাত, যি গ্ৰন্থত দেৱতা, অসুৰ, গন্ধৰ্ব, যক্ষ, মানুহ আদিৰ বৃত্তান্ত আৰু সৃষ্টি বিৱৰণ, ব্ৰহ্মানুসন্ধান, ব্ৰহ্মৰ আকাৰ আৰু নিৰাকাৰ বিৱৰণ, জ্যোতিৰ্বিজ্ঞান, ৰজা-মহাৰজাৰ বংশাৱলী আদি নানা বিষয়ক সবিশেষ বৰ্ণনা আছে আৰু যাৰ দ্বাৰা ভূত, ভৱিষ্যত আৰু বৰ্তমান অৱস্থাৰ পৰিজ্ঞান, জ্ঞানৰ নিৰ্মলতা আৰু বুদ্ধিৰ প্ৰখৰতা জন্মে, সেয়াই পুৰাণ। অৱশ্যে পুৰাণ আৰু ইতিহাসক সমাৰ্থক বুলি ক’ব নোৱাৰি। পৌৰাণিক আখ্যান সমূহৰ বাস্তৱ ভিত্তি নাই। তথাপিও পুৰাণ বৰ্ণিত আখ্যান সমূহে যুগে যুগে মানুহক নৈতিক দিকদৰ্শন কৰি আহিছে। ভাৰতীয় দৰ্শনত পুৰাণ শাস্ত্ৰৰ গুৰুত্ব অপৰিসীম আৰু সেয়া পুৰাণক পঞ্চম বেদৰ আখ্যাও দিয়া হৈছে। [1]

পুৰাণৰ ৰচয়িতা আৰু পুৰাণৰ ভাগ:[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

পুৰাণ সমূহৰ ৰচয়িতা হিচাপে বেদব্যাসৰ নাম লোকসমাজত প্ৰচলিত। অৱশ্যে কেৱল এজন ব্যক্তিয়েই সমগ্ৰ পুৰাণ ৰচনা কৰিছে বুলি বিশ্বাস কৰিব নোৱাৰি। পুৰাণ মুঠতে ওঠৰখন। সেইসমূহ হ’ল:

  1. ব্ৰহ্মপুৰাণ
  2. পদ্ম পুৰাণ
  3. বিষ্ণুপুৰাণ
  4. অগ্নি পুৰাণ
  5. মাৰ্কণ্ডেয় পুৰাণ
  6. নাৰদ পুৰাণ
  7. বায়ুপুৰাণ
  8. শিৱপুৰাণ
  9. ভাগৱত পুৰাণ
  10. ব্ৰহ্মবৈৱৰ্ত পুৰাণ
  11. লিঙ্গ পুৰাণ
  12. বৰাহ পুৰাণ
  13. স্কন্দ পুৰাণ
  14. বামন পুৰাণ
  15. কুৰ্ম পুৰাণ
  16. মৎস্য পুৰাণ
  17. গৰুড় পুৰাণ
  18. ব্ৰহ্মাণ্ড পুৰাণ
ক্ৰমিক নং পুৰাণৰ নাম শ্লোকৰ সংখ্যা মন্তব্য
অগ্নি ১৫৪০০০ শ্লোক Contains encyclopedic information. Includes geography of Mithila (Bihar and neighboring states), cultural history, politics, education system, iconography, taxation theories, organization of army, theories on proper causes for war, diplomacy, local laws, building public projects, water distribution methods, trees and plants, medicine, Vastu Shastra (architecture), gemology, grammar, metrics, poetry, food, rituals and numerous other topics.[2]
ভাগৱত ১৮০০০ শ্লোক The most studied and popular of the Puranas,[3][4] telling of Vishnu's Avatars, and of Vaishnavism. It contains a controversial genealogical details of various dynasties.[5] Numerous inconsistent versions of this text and historical manuscripts exist, in many Indian languages.[6] Influential and elaborated during Bhakti movement.[7]
ব্ৰহ্মা ১০০০০ শ্লোক Sometimes also called Adi Purana, because many Mahapuranas lists put it first of 18.[8] The text has 245 chapters, shares many passages with Vishnu, Vayu, Markendeya Puranas, and with the Mahabharata. Includes mythology, theory of war, art work in temples, and other cultural topics. Describes holy places in Odisha, and weaves themes of Vishnu and Shiva, but hardly any mention of deity Brahma despite the title.[8]
ব্ৰহ্মাণ্ড ১২০০০ শ্লোক One of the earliest composed Puranas, it contains a controversial genealogical details of various dynasties.[5] Includes Lalita Sahasranamam, law codes, system of governance, administration, diplomacy, trade, ethics. Old manuscripts of Brahmanda Purana have been found in the Hindu literature collections of Bali, Indonesia.[9][10]
ব্ৰহ্মবৈৱৰ্ত ১৭০০০ শ্লোক Discusses Shiva, Parvati, Ganesha, Devis, Vishnu, Krishna and Radha. Primarily mythology, love and seduction stories of gods and goddesses.[11] Mentions geography and rivers such as Ganga to Kaveri.
গৰুড় ১৯০০০ শ্লোক An encyclopedia of diverse topics.[10] Primarily about Vishnu, but praises all gods. Describes how Vishnu, Shiva and Brahma collaborate. Many chapters are a dialogue between Vishnu and the bird-vehicle Garuda. Cosmology, Describes cosmology, relationship between gods. Discusses ethics, what are crimes, good verses evil, various schools of Hindu philosophies, the theory of Yoga, the theory of "heaven and hell" with "karma and rebirth", includes Upanishadic discussion of self-knowledge as a means of moksha.[12] Includes chapters on rivers, geography of Bharat (India) and other nations on earth, types of minerals and stones, testing methods for stones for their quality, various diseases and their symptoms, various medicines, aphrodisiacs, prophylactics, Hindu calendar and its basis, astronomy, moon, planets, astrology, architecture, building home, essential features of a temple, rites of passage, virtues such as compassion, charity and gift making, economy, thrift, duties of a king, politics, state officials and their roles and how to appointment them, genre of literature, rules of grammar, and other topics.[12] The final chapters discuss how to practice Yoga (Samkhya and Advaita types), personal development and the benefits of self-knowledge.[12]
কুৰ্ম ১৭০০০ শ্লোক Is the second of ten major avatars of Lord Vishnu.
লিঙ্গ ১১০০০ শ্লোক Discusses Lingam, symbol of Shiva, and origin of the universe. It also contains many stories of Lingam, one of which entails how Agni Lingam solved a dispute between Vishnu and Brahma.
মাৰ্কণ্ডেয় ৯০০০ শ্লোক Describes Vindhya Range and western India. Probably composed in the valleys of Narmada and Tapti rivers, in Maharashtra and Gujarat.[13] Named after sage Markandeya, a student of Brahma. Contains chapters on dharma and on Hindu epic Mahabharata.[14] The Purana includes Devi Mahatmyam of Shaktism.
১০ মৎস্য ১৪০০০ শ্লোক An encyclopedia of diverse topics.[10] Narrates the story of Matsya, the first of ten major Avatars of Vishnu. Likely composed in west India, by people aware of geographical details of the Narmada river. Includes legends about Brahma and Saraswati.[15] It also contains a controversial genealogical details of various dynasties.[5]
১১ নাৰদ ২৫০০০ শ্লোক Also called Naradiya Purana. Discusses the four Vedas and the six Vedangas. Dedicates one chapter each, from Chapters 92 to 109, to summarize the other 17 Maha Puranas and itself. Lists major rivers of India and places of pilgrimage, and a short tour guide for each. Includes discussion of various philosophies, soteriology, planets, astronomy, myths and characteristics of major deities including Vishnu, Shiva, Devi, Krishna, Rama, Lakshmi and others.[16]
১২ পদ্ম ৫৫০০০ শ্লোক A large compilation of diverse topics. The north Indian manuscripts of Padma Purana are very different than south Indian versions, and the various recensions in both groups in different languages (Devanagari and Bengali, for example) show major inconsistencies.[17] Describes cosmology, the world and nature of life from the perspective of Vishnu. Discusses festivals, numerous legends, geography of rivers and regions from northwest India to Bengal to the kingdom of Tripura, major sages of India, various Avatars of Vishnu and his cooperation with Shiva, the story of Rama-Sita that is different than the Hindu epic Ramayana.[18] Like Skanda Purana, it is a detailed treatise on travel and pilgrimage centers in India.[18][19]
১৩ শিৱ ২৪০০০ শ্লোক Discusses Shiva, and stories about him.
১৪ স্কণ্ড ৮১১০০ শ্লোক Describes the birth of Skanda (or Karthikeya), son of Shiva. The longest Purana, it is an extraordinarily meticulous pilgrimage guide, containing geographical locations of pilgrimage centers in India, with related legends, parables, hymns and stories. Many untraced quotes are attributed to this text.[20]
১৫ বামণ ১০০০০ শ্লোক Describes North India, particularly Himalayan foothills region.
১৬ বৰাহ ২৪০০০ শ্লোক Primarily Vishnu-related worship manual, with large Mahatmya sections or travel guide to Mathura and Nepal.[21] Presentation focuses on Varaha as incarnation of Narayana, but rarely uses the terms Krishna or Vasudeva.[21] Many illustrations also involve Shiva and Durga.[22]
১৭ বায়ু ২৪০০০ শ্লোক Possibly the oldest of all Maha Puranas. Some medieval Indian texts call it Vayaviya Purana. Mentioned and studied by Al Biruni, the 11th century Persian visitor to India. Praises Shiva. Discusses rituals, family life, and life stages of a human being. The content in Vayu Purana is also found in Markandeya Purana. Describes south India, particularly Andhra Pradesh. It contains a controversial genealogical details of various dynasties.[5]
১৮ বিষ্ণু ২৩০০০ শ্লোক One of the most studied and circulated Puranas, it also contains a controversial genealogical details of various dynasties.[5] Better preserved after the 17th century, but exists in inconsistent versions, more ancient pre-15th century versions are very different from modern versions, with some versions discussing Buddhism and Jainism. Some chpaters likely composed in Kashmir and Punjab region of South Asia. A Vaishnavism text, focussed on Vishnu.[23]


ওঠৰ খন পুৰাণৰ উপৰিও আন ওঠৰখন উপ-পুৰাণৰ উল্লেখ পোৱা যায়। পৱিত্ৰ স্থান বা মন্দিৰসমূহৰ মাহাত্ম্যৰ বিষয়ে বৰ্ণনা কৰা বহু সংখ্যক ‘স্থল পুৰাণ’ বা মাহাত্ম্য নামৰ গ্ৰন্থও পুৰোহিত সকলৰ মাজত প্ৰচলিত হৈ আছে। অৱশ্যে এই সমূহক বহুতে পুৰাণ হিচাপে বিবেচনা নকৰে। অধিকাংশৰ দ্বাৰা স্বীকৃত ওঠৰখন উপ-পুৰাণ হ’ল:

  1. সনৎ কুমাৰ
  2. নৰসিংহ
  3. বায়ু
  4. শিৱধৰ্ম
  5. আশ্চৰ্য্য
  6. নাৰদ
  7. নন্দিকেশ্বৰদ্বয়
  8. উপনস
  9. কপিল
  10. বৰুণ
  11. শাম্ব
  12. কালিকা
  13. মহেশ্বৰ
  14. কল্কি
  15. দেৱী
  16. পৰাশৰ
  17. মৰীচি
  18. ভাস্কৰ বা সূৰ্য্য

তথ্যসূত্ৰ:[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. শান্তনু কৌশিক বৰুৱা, সংক্ষিপ্ত অসমীয়া বিশ্বকোষ, প্ৰথম খণ্ড, জ্যোতি প্ৰকাশন, পৃষ্ঠা নং: ১৬৯
  2. Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225, pages 134-137
  3. Thompson, Richard L. (2007). The Cosmology of the Bhagavata Purana 'Mysteries of the Sacred Universe. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers. পৃষ্ঠা. 10. ISBN 978-81-208-1919-1. https://books.google.com/books?id=3TZmDSr-1msC&pg=PA10. 
  4. Monier-Williams 1899, পৃষ্ঠা 752, column 3, under the entry Bhagavata.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 উদ্ধৃতি ত্ৰুটি: অবৈধ <ref> টেগ; ludorocher115 নামৰ refৰ বাবে কোনো পাঠ্য প্ৰদান কৰা হোৱা নাই
  6. Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225, pages 139-149
  7. Hardy 2001
  8. 8.0 8.1 Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225, pages 154-156
  9. H Hinzler (1993), Balinese palm-leaf manuscripts, In: Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Landen Volkenkunde, Manuscripts of Indonesia 149 (1993), No 3, Leiden: BRILL, page 442
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225, page 78-79
  11. Giorgio Bonazzoli (1977), Seduction Stories in the Brahmavaivarta Purana, Purana, Vol. XIX, No. 2, pages 321-341
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 MN Dutt, The Garuda Purana Calcutta (1908)
  13. Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225, pages 70-71
  14. RC Hazra (1987), Studies in the Puranic Records on Hindu Rites and Customs, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120804227, pages 8-11
  15. Catherine Ludvik (2007), Sarasvatī, Riverine Goddess of Knowledge, BRILL, ISBN 978-9004158146, pages 139-141
  16. Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225, pages 202-203
  17. উদ্ধৃতি ত্ৰুটি: অবৈধ <ref> টেগ; ludorocher2021 নামৰ refৰ বাবে কোনো পাঠ্য প্ৰদান কৰা হোৱা নাই
  18. 18.0 18.1 Ludo Rocher (1986), The Puranas, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag, ISBN 978-3447025225, pages 209-215
  19. Klaus Klostermaier (2007), A Survey of Hinduism: Third Edition, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791470824, pages 281-283 with footnotes on page 553
  20. Doniger 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 59–83
  21. 21.0 21.1 RC Hazra (1940), Studies in the Puranic Records on Hindu Rites and Customs, Motilal Banarsidass (1987 Reprint), ISBN 978-8120804227, pages 96-97
  22. Wilson, Horace H. (1864), The Vishṅu Purāṅa: a system of Hindu mythology and tradition Volume 1 of 4, Trübner, p. LXXI, https://books.google.com/books?id=9Xo-AAAAcAAJ&pg=PR71 
  23. Lochtefeld, James G. (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z, The Rosen Publishing Group, p. 760, ISBN 978-0-8239-3180-4, https://books.google.com/books?id=g6FsB3psOTIC&pg=PA760