Kamakhya Temple, which is situated at the top of the Nilachal Hill at about 800 feet above the sea level. The entire temple complex not only comprises of many other temples but also a whole set of people connected with them. Apart from the main devi temple, it also comprises of some other major temples of devi Kali, Tara, Bagala, Chinnamasta, Bhuvanesvari, Bhairavi and Dhumavati.
There are some other temples of various goddess can be seen in the complex. They are the Sitala Temple, the Lalita Kanta Temple, The jaya Durga Temple, the Vana Durga Temple, the Rajarajesvari Temple, the Smasanakali temple, the kail temple of Abhayananda dharmashala and the Sankhesvari temple. There are five temples of Lord Shiva in the Kamakhya complex. They belongs to different forms of Lord Shiva like Kamesvara (Umananda), Siddhesvara, Amratokesvara (Heruka), Aghpra, and kotilinga (Tatpurusa).
The complex also contains three temples of Lord Visnu. They are as the Kedara (Kamalesvara), situated near the northern side of the main temple, as the Gadadhara, situated in the north-western direction of the Kamakhya temple, and as Pandunath, which is situated in the eastern foothills of Nilachal also kinown as Pandu.
The temple was built in first millennium during the time of Kamarupa. Allahabad rock inscriptions of Samudragupta mentioned about it. Temple was destroyed during the middle of second millennium and revised temple structure was constructed in 1565 by Chilarai of the Koch dynasty in the style of medieval temples. The current structure has a beehive-like shikhara with delightful sculptured panels and images of Ganesha and other Hindu gods and goddesses on the outside . The temple consists of three major chambers. The western chamber is large and rectangular and is not used by the general pilgrims for worship. The middle chamber is a square, with a small idol of the Goddess, a later addition. The walls of this chamber contain sculpted images of Naranarayana, related inscriptions and other gods. The middle chamber leads to the sanctum sanctorum of the temple in the form of a cave, which consists of no image but a natural underground spring that flows through a yoni-shaped cleft in the bedrock. During the Ambuvaci festival each summer,the menstruation of the Goddess Kamakhya is celebrated. During this time, the water in the main shrine runs red with iron oxide resembling menstrual fluid.
Kamakhya Temple in Himachal Pradesh.
The Kamakhya temple in the forest region of Polian Purohitan in Una District of Himachal State is situated at about 600 mt above sea level. The Pindi,was brought over by the Rajpurohits of Brahaminical - Aryan descent of the sage Vatsayan some 800 years ago after the invasion of the Shans in 1200C, with the destruction of the first tantric ritual site. The worshippers escaped in mass migration from the Garo-Khasi hill region of Assam, via the Tibet Himalaya silk route to Kashmir .While some left for the north west frontiers, a few families of the Brahamin Vatsayan Rajpurohits sanctified the tantric Kamakhyakuldevi in the wilderness of an isolated forest hill in Polian Purohitan.
The first tantric Kamakhya Temple was destroyed during the Mongol invasion in the Nilachal hills in the 12 BC, so was the fate of the second tantric temple destroyed in the Muslim attacks, probably by the Hindu convert Muslim warrior 'Kala Pahad'. The Brahaminical legend of the 'Shakti' in the later period led to the worship of the tantric goddess as Hindu 'Shakti' goddess. The worship of all female deity in Assam symbolizes the "fusion of faiths and practices" of Aryan and non-Aryan elements in Assam. The different names associated with the goddess are names of local Aryan and non-Aryan goddesses (Kakati 1989, p38). The Yogini Tantra mentions that the religion of the Yogini Pitha is of Kirata origin. According to Banikanta Kakati, there existed a tradition among the priests established by Naranarayana that the Garos, a matrilineal people, offered worship at the earlier Kamakhya site by sacrificing pigs (Kakati 1989, p37).
The goddess is worshiped according to both the Vamachara (Left-Hand Path) as well as the Dakshinachara (Right-Hand Path) modes of worship (Kakati, 1989 p45). Offerings to the goddess are usually flowers, but might include animal sacrifices. In general female animals are exempt from sacrifice, a rule that is relaxed during mass sacrifices (Kakati 1989, p65).
Vatsayana,a Vedic Sage in Varanasi during the later first Century was approached by the King in the Himalayan region (now Nepal) to find a solution to convert the tribals and their rituals of human sacrifice to a more socially accepted worship. The Sage suggested the worship of a tantric goddess Tara that spread towards the eastern Himalayan belt till the Garo Hills where the tribals worshipped a fertility 'yoni' goddess 'Kameke'. It was much later in the later Brahaminical period Kalika Purana that most tantric goddess were related to the legend of 'Shakti' and began to be erroneously worshipped as a 'devi' by the Hindus.
According to the Kalika Purana, Kamakhya Temple denotes the spot where Sati used to retire in secret to satisfy her amour with Shiva, and it was also the place where her yoni fell after Shiva danced with the corpse of Sati. This is not corroborated in the Devi Bhagavata, which lists 108 places associated with Sati's body, though Kamakhya finds a mention in a supplementary list. The Yogini Tantra, a latter work, ignores the origin of Kamakhya given in Kalika Purana and associates Kamakhya with the goddess Kali and emphasizes the creative symbolism of the yoni.
Kamakhya during Ahom era[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
According to a legend the Koch Bihar royal family was banned by Devi herself from offering puja at the temple. In fear of this curse, to this day no descendants of that family dares to even look upward towards the Kamakhya hill while passing by.
Without the support of the Koch royal family the temple faced lot of hardship. By the end of 1658, the Ahoms under king Jayadhvaj Singha had conquered the Western Assam and their interests in the temple grew. In the decades that followed the Ahom kings, all who were either devout Shaivite or Shakta continued to support the temple by rebuilding and renovating it.
Rudra Singha (reign 1696 to 1714) was a devout Hindu and as he grew older he decided to formally embrace the religion and become an orthodox Hindu by being initiated or taking sharan of a Guru, who would teach him the mantras and become his spiritual guide. But, he could not bear the thought of humbling himself in front a Brahmin who is his subject. He therefore sent envoys to Bengal and summoned Krishnaram Bhattacharyya, a famous mahant of Shakta sect who lived in Malipota, near Santipur in Nadia district. The mahant was unwilling to come, but consented on being promised to be given the care of the Kamakhya temple to him. Though the king did not take sharan, he satisfied the mahant by ordering his sons and the Brahmins in his entourage to accept him as their spiritual guru.
When Rudra Singha died, his eldest son Siba Singha (reign 1714 to 1744), who became the king, gave the management of the Kamakhya temple and along with it large areas of land (Debottar land) to Mahant Krishnaram Bhattacharyya. The Mahant and his successors came to be known as Parbatiya Gosains, as they resided on top of the Nilachal hill. Many Kamakhya priests and modern Saktas of Assam are either disciples or descendants of the Parbatiya Gosains, or of the Nati and Na Gosains.
Festivals and Pujas[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
Being the centre for Tantra worship this temple attracts thousands of tantra devotees in an annual festival known as the Ambubachi Mela. Another annual celebration is the Manasha Puja. Durga Puja is also celebrated annually at Kamakhya during Navaratri in the autumn. This five day festival attracts several thousand visitors.
Apart from the daily puja offered to the Devi, a number of special pujas are also held round the year in the Kamakhya Temple. These pujas are Durga Puja, Pohan Biya, Durgadeul, Vasanti Puja, Madandeul, Ambuvaci and Manasa Puja. These pujas accompanied by manani pujas are also held according to daksinacara method of Tantric tradition
- Durga Puja : The worship of Goddess Durga is held for sixteen days at a stretch during the month of Asvina.
- Pohan Bia : A symbolic marriage between Lord Kamesvara and Kamesvari during the month of Pausa.
- Durgadeul : During the month of Phalguna, Durgadeul is observed in the kamakhya temple.
- Vasanti Puja : This puja is held at the Kamakhya temple durinh the month of Caitra.
- Madandeul : This deul is observed during the month of Caitra when Lord Kamadeva or Kamesvara is offered special pujas.
- Ambuvaci : Being a mother figure, Devi Kamakhya also undergoes menstruation period on an yearly basis during the early part of the month Ahar, which is observed as Ambuvaci.
- Manasa Puja : Manasa puja is observed from the Sankranti of Sravana and continues upto the second day of Bhadra.
How to Reach[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
The Kamakhya temple is situated at the center of the city. Buses and cabs runs almost all the time right from the morning to the night. The kamakhya temple is about 20 km from the airport. It is about 6 km from the railway station. From the airport as well as from the railway station cars are easily available for rent. So, devotees can hire cars for a trip to kamakhya temple. There are two well maintained staircase from the bottom of the hill to the Kamakhya temple made up of stones is also there, which can also be used to climb to the Kamakhya temple.
তথ্য সংগ্ৰহ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
- "কামাখ্যা মন্দিৰলৈ বিষয়ে". KAMAKHYA TEMPLE. ২০১০. http://www.kamakhyatemple.org/About.aspx। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: October 03, 2012.
- Sarkar 1992 p16. It is said that Viswa Simha revived worship at Kamakhya. According to an inscription in the temple, his son Chilarai built the temple during the reign of Naranarayana, the king of Koch Bihar and the son of Viswa Simha, in the year 1565.
- "Kamakhya temple". Archived from the original on 2006-03-18. http://web.archive.org/web/20060318120241/http://www.indianngos.com/issue/culture&heritage/monuments/kamakhyatemple.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2006-09-12.
- "Kamakhya". http://www.templenet.com/Assam/kamakhya.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2006-09-12.
- "Kamakhya temple". http://www.durga-puja.org/kamakhya-temple.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2006-09-12.
- Satish Bhattacharyya in the Publishers' Note, Kakati 1989.
- Kakati suspects that Kama of Kamakhya is of extra-Aryan origin, and cites correspondence with Austric formations: Kamoi, Kamoit, Komin, Kamet etc.
- Kakati 1989, p9: Yogini Tantra (2/9/13) siddhesi yogini pithe dharmah kairatajah matah.
- Kakati mentions that the list of animals that are fit for sacrifice as given in the Kalika Purana and the Yogini Tantra are made up of animals that are sacrificed by different tribal groups in the region.
- Kakati 1989, p34
- Kakati, 1989, p42
- Kakati, 1989 p35
- Gait,Edward A History of Assam, 1905, pp172-173
- "Kamakhya Temple". http://www.durga-puja.org/kamakhya-temple.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2006-09-12.
- "কামাখ্যা মন্দিৰৰ পূজা". KAMAKHYA TEMPLE. ২০১০. http://www.kamakhyatemple.org/TypeeOfPuja.aspx। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: October 03, 2012.
- "কামাখ্যা মন্দিৰলৈ পৰিবহনৰ সুবিধা". KAMAKHYA TEMPLE. ২০১০. http://www.kamakhyatemple.org/Maps.aspx। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: October 03, 2012.