এডৱাৰ্ড জেনাৰ

অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ পৰা
Edward Jenner

Edward Jenner by James Northcote
জন্ম Edward Anthony Jenner
17 May 1749
Berkeley, Gloucestershire
মৃত্যু জানুৱাৰী ২৬ , ১৮২৩ (৭৩ বছৰ)
Berkeley, Gloucestershire
বাসস্থান Berkeley, Gloucestershire
জাতীয়তা English
ক্ষেত্ৰ Microbiology
শিক্ষানুষ্ঠান St George's, University of London University of St. Andrews
ডক্তৰেল পৰামৰ্শদাতা John Hunter
জনা যায় Smallpox vaccine; Vaccination

এডৱাৰ্ড এন্থনী জেনাৰ (Edward Anthony Jenner) (১৭ মে' ১৭৪৯ – ২৬ জানুৱাৰী ১৮২৩) বাৰ্কলে, গ্ল'চেষ্টাশ্বায়াৰৰ এজন ইংৰাজ চিকিৎসক আৰু বিজ্ঞানী আছিল। বৰআই ছিটাৰ উদ্ভাৱনৰ বাবে তেওঁ বিখ্যাত।[1] তেওঁক প্ৰায়েই "প্ৰতিৰোধ বিজ্ঞানৰ জনক" (the father of immunology) বুলি অভিহিত কৰা হয় আৰু তেওঁৰ কামে "আন যিকোনো মানুহৰ কৰ্মতকৈ বেছি মানুহৰ জীৱন ৰক্ষা কৰা" বুলি কোৱ হয়[2][3][4]

প্ৰাৰম্ভিক জীৱন[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

১৭৪৯ চনৰ ১৭ মে'ত[5] (পৰণি তাৰিখ ৰীতি অনুসৰি ৬ মে') গ্ল'চেষ্টাশ্বায়াৰৰ বাৰ্কলে'ত এডৱাৰ্ড জেনাৰৰ জন্ম হয়। বাৰ্কলে'ৰ ভিকাৰ ৰেভাৰেণ্ড ষ্টিফেন জেনাৰ আৰু ছাৰাৰ তেওঁ আছিল অষ্টম সন্তান।[6]

জেনাৰে ৱটন-আণ্ডাৰ-এজ আৰু চাইৰেনচেষ্টাৰৰ বিদ্যালয়লৈ গৈছিল। এই সময়তে তেওঁৰ বৰআই হয় যি তেওঁৰ স্বাস্থ্যৰ ওপৰত গোতেই জীৱন প্ৰভাৱ পেলায়।[7] ১৪ বছৰ বয়সত তেওঁ দক্ষিণ গ্ল'চেষ্টাশ্বায়াৰৰ শল্য চিকিৎসক ডেনিয়েল লুড্‌ল'ৰ সহায়কাৰী হিচাপে নিযুক্ত হয়। সাত বছৰ ইয়াত কাম কৰি নিজে শল্য চিকিৎসক হ'বৰ জোখাৰে অভিজ্ঞতা সঞ্চয় কৰে।[7]

১৭৭০ চনত জেনাৰে ছেইণ্ট জৰ্জ চিকিৎসালয়ত চিকিৎসক জন হাণ্টাৰৰ অধীনত শল্য চিকিৎসা আৰু শৰীৰস্থানৰ প্ৰশিক্ষণ আৰম্ভ কৰে।[8] ৱিলিয়াম অছলাৰে লিখি গৈছে যে হাণ্টাৰে জেনাৰক চিকিৎসা জগতত অতি জনপ্ৰিয় ৱিলিয়াম হাৰ্ভিৰ এটা উপদেশ দিছিল, "নাভাবিবা; চেষ্টা কৰিবা (Don't think; try)।"[9] প্ৰাকৃতিক ইতিহাস বিষয়ত পিছলৈও হাণ্টাৰে জেনাৰৰ সৈতে যোগাযোগ ৰাখিছিল আৰু তেওঁৰ নাম ৰয়েল ছচাইটীলৈ প্ৰস্তাৱ কৰিছিল। ১৭৭৩ চনত নিজৰ ঠাইলৈ ঘূৰি আহি জেনাৰ এজন সফল পাৰিবাৰিক আৰু শল্য চিকিৎসক হৈ পৰে।

জেনাৰ আৰু কেইবাজনেও মিলি Fleece Medical Society বা Gloucestershire Medical Society গঠন কৰি নিয়মীয়াকৈ চিকিৎসা বিষয়ক পত্ৰ পাঠ কৰিছিল। জেনাৰে এঞ্জাইনা পেক্টৰিছ, অফ্‌থাল্‌মিয়া, গো-বসন্ত আদি বিষয়ৰ পত্ৰত অৰিহণা যোগাইছিল। ব্ৰিষ্টলৰ ওচৰৰ আল্‌ৱেষ্টনত মিলিত হোৱা একেধৰণৰ এটা গোটৰো তেওঁ সদস্য আছিল।[10]

বিবাহ আৰু কৰ্মজীৱন[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

পৰ্যবে‌ক্ষণ, পৰীক্ষা আৰু ব্যৱচ্ছেদনৰ পিছত জেনাৰে কুলি চৰাইৰ জীৱনৰ বিষয়ে প্ৰকাশ কৰা পত্ৰৰ বাবে তেওঁ ১৭৮৮ চনত ৰয়েল ছচাইটীলৈ নিৰ্বাচিত হয়।

সাধাৰণ কুলি চৰাই

ন-কৈ উপজা কুলিয়ে আন চৰাইৰ কণী আৰু পোৱালি সঁজাৰ বাহিৰলৈ পেলাই দিয়া কথাটো (আগতে প্ৰাপ্তবয়স্ক কুলিয়ে এনে কৰে বুলি ভবা হৈছিল) ফটোগ্ৰাফী পোৱাৰ পিছত বিংশ শতিকাতহে নিশ্চিত হৈছিল।[11] Having observed this behaviour, Jenner demonstrated an anatomical adaptation for it—the baby cuckoo has a depression in its back, not present after 12 days of life, that enables it to cup eggs and other chicks. The adult does not remain long enough in the area to perform this task. Jenner's findings were published in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society in 1788.[12][13]

"The singularity of its shape is well adapted to these purposes; for, different from other newly hatched birds, its back from the scapula downwards is very broad, with a considerable depression in the middle. This depression seems formed by nature for the design of giving a more secure lodgement to the egg of the Hedge-sparrow, or its young one, when the young Cuckoo is employed in removing either of them from the nest. When it is about twelve days old, this cavity is quite filled up, and then the back assumes the shape of nestling birds in general." (Letter to Hunter at the Royal Society, as above)

Jenner's nephew assisted in the study.

Jenner married Catherine Kingscote (died 1815 from tuberculosis) in March 1788 after meeting her while he and other Fellows were experimenting with balloons. Jenner's trial balloon descended into Kingscote Park, Gloucestershire, owned by Anthony Kingscote, one of whose daughters was Catherine.

Jenner earned his MD from the University of St Andrews in 1792.

Jenner is also credited with advancing understanding of angina pectoris.[14] In his correspondence with Heberden, he wrote, "How much the heart must suffer from the coronary arteries not being able to perform their functions."

Inoculation was already a standard practice, but involved serious risks. In 1721, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu had imported variolation to Britain after having observed it in Istanbul, where her husband was the British ambassador. Voltaire, writing of this, estimates that at this time 60% of the population caught smallpox and 20% of the population died of it.[15] Voltaire also states that the Circassians used the inoculation from times immemorial, and the custom may have been borrowed by the Turks from the Circassians.[16]

In 1765, Dr John Fewster published a paper in the London Medical Society entitled "Cow pox and its ability to prevent smallpox", but he did not pursue the subject further.[17]

In the years following 1770, at least five investigators in England and Germany (Sevel, Jensen, Jesty 1774, Rendell, Plett 1791) successfully tested a cowpox vaccine in humans against smallpox.[18] For example, Dorset farmer Benjamin Jesty[19] successfully vaccinated and presumably induced immunity with cowpox in his wife and two children during a smallpox epidemic in 1774, but it was not until Jenner's work some 20 years later that the procedure became widely understood. Indeed, Jenner may have been aware of Jesty's procedures and success.[20]

Noting the common observation that milkmaids were generally immune to smallpox, Jenner postulated that the pus in the blisters that milkmaids received from cowpox (a disease similar to smallpox, but much less virulent) protected them from smallpox. He may already have heard of Benjamin Jesty's success.

On 14 May 1796, Jenner tested his hypothesis by inoculating James Phipps, an eight-year-old boy who was the son of Jenner's gardener. He scraped pus from cowpox blisters on the hands of Sarah Nelmes, a milkmaid who had caught cowpox from a cow called Blossom,[21] whose hide now hangs on the wall of the St George's medical school library (now in Tooting). Phipps was the 17th case described in Jenner's first paper[22] on vaccination.

Jenner inoculated Phipps in both arms that day, subsequently producing in Phipps a fever and some uneasiness, but no full-blown infection. Later, he injected Phipps with variolous material, the routine method of immunization at that time. No disease followed. The boy was later challenged with variolous material and again showed no sign of infection.

Donald Hopkins has written, "Jenner's unique contribution was not that he inoculated a few persons with cowpox, but that he then proved [by subsequent challenges] that they were immune to smallpox. Moreover, he demonstrated that the protective cowpox pus could be effectively inoculated from person to person, not just directly from cattle.[23] Jenner successfully tested his hypothesis on 23 additional subjects.

Jenner continued his research and reported it to the Royal Society, which did not publish the initial paper. After revisions and further investigations, he published his findings on the 23 cases. Some of his conclusions were correct, some erroneous; modern microbiological and microscopic methods would make his studies easier to reproduce. The medical establishment, cautious then as now, deliberated at length over his findings before accepting them. Eventually, vaccination was accepted, and in 1840, the British government banned variolation – the use of smallpox – and provided vaccination – using cowpox – free of charge. (See Vaccination acts). The success of his discovery soon spread around Europe and, for example, was used en masse in the Spanish Balmis Expedition,[24] a three-year-long mission to the Americas, the Philippines, Macao, China, and Saint Helena Island led by Dr. Francisco Javier de Balmis with the aim of giving thousands the smallpox vaccine. The expedition was successful, and Jenner wrote, "I don’t imagine the annals of history furnish an example of philanthropy so noble, so extensive as this."

1802 caricature of Jenner vaccinating patients who feared it would make them sprout cowlike appendages.

Jenner's continuing work on vaccination prevented him continuing his ordinary medical practice. He was supported by his colleagues and the King in petitioning Parliament, and was granted £10,000 for his work on vaccination. In 1806, he was granted another £20,000 for his continuing work in microbiology.

In 1803 in London, he became involved with the Jennerian Institution, a society concerned with promoting vaccination to eradicate smallpox. In 1808, with government aid, this society became the National Vaccine Establishment. Jenner became a member of the Medical and Chirurgical Society on its founding in 1805 and presented a number of papers there. The society is now the Royal Society of Medicine. In 1806, Jenner was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Returning to London in 1811, Jenner observed a significant number of cases of smallpox after vaccination. He found that in these cases the severity of the illness was notably diminished by previous vaccination. In 1821, he was appointed Physician Extraordinary to King George IV, a great national honour, and was also made Mayor of Berkeley and Justice of the Peace. He continued to investigate natural history, and in 1823, the last year of his life, he presented his "Observations on the Migration of Birds" to the Royal Society.

hair cut from Jenner's body after his death

Jenner was found in a state of apoplexy on 25 January 1823, with his right side paralysed. He never fully recovered and eventually died of an apparent stroke, his second, on 26 January 1823, aged 73. He was survived by one son and one daughter, his elder son having died of tuberculosis at the age of 21.

His original report is in the Royal College of Surgeons (London)

ঐতিহ্য[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

In 1979, the World Health Organization declared smallpox an eradicated disease.[25] This was the result of coordinated public health efforts by many people, but vaccination was an essential component. And although the disease was declared eradicated, some pus samples still remain in laboratories in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia, in the United States and State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR in Koltsovo, Novosibirsk Oblast, Russia.

Jenner's vaccine also laid the foundation for contemporary discoveries in immunology, and the field he began may someday lead to cures for arthritis, AIDS, and many other diseases.[26]

An illustrated history of smallpox eradication, Smallpox Zero,[27] was published with the support of Sanofi Pasteur and distributed on 17 May 2010, in Geneva during an event sponsored by the World Health Organization.[28][29] Smallpox Zero includes President Thomas Jefferson's letter of congratulations to Edward Jenner.

In 2002, Jenner was named in the BBC's list of the 100 Greatest Britons following a UK-wide vote.[30]

The lunar crater Jenner is named in his honor.

Monuments and buildings[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Dr Jenner's House, The Chantry, Church Lane, Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England
Bronze in Kensington Gardens, London

Publications[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  • 1798 An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolæ Vaccinæ[34]
  • 1799 Further Observations on the Variolæ Vaccinæ, or Cow-Pox.[35]
  • 1800 A Continuation of Facts and Observations relative to the Variolæ Vaccinæ 40pgs[36]
  • 1801 The Origin of the Vaccine Inoculation 12pgs

In popular culture[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

See also[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

References[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. Stefan Riedel, MD, PhD (January 2005). Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination. 18. Baylor University Medical Center. pp. 21–25. PMID 16200144. 
  2. "Edward Jenner - (1749–1823)". Sundaytimes.lk. 1 June 2008. http://sundaytimes.lk/080601/FunDay/famous.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 28 July 2009. 
  3. "History - Edward Jenner (1749 - 1823)". BBC. 1 November 2006. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/jenner_edward.shtml। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 28 July 2009. 
  4. "Edward Jenner - Smallpox and the Discovery of Vaccination". http://www.dinweb.org/dinweb/DINMuseum/Edward%20Jenner.asp। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 28 July 2009. 
  5. The Jenner Institute
  6. "About Edward Jenner". The Jenner Institute. http://www.jenner.ac.uk/edwardjenner। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 25 February 2012. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 "About Edward Jenner". The Jenner Institute. http://www.jenner.ac.uk/edwardjenner। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 12 January 2013. 
  8. "Young Edward Jenner, Born in Berkeley". Edward Jenner Museum. http://www.jennermuseum.com/Jenner/youngedward.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 4 September 2012. 
  9. Loncarek K (April 2009). "Revolution or reformation". Croatian Medical Journal খণ্ড 50 (2): 195–7. doi:10.3325/cmj.2009.50.195. PMID 19399955. 
  10. Papers at the Royal College of Physicians summarised at http://www.aim25.ac.uk/cgi-bin/search2?coll_id=7135&inst_id=8
  11. http://www.jennermuseum.com/ej/cuckoo.shtml[সংযোগবিহীন উৎস]
  12. Observations on the Natural History of the Cuckoo. By Mr. Edward Jenner. In a Letter to John Hunter, Esq. F. R. S Jenner, E Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London (1776-1886). 1788-01-01. 78:219–237 (Text at http://www.archive.org/details/philtrans06624558 )
  13. Cuckoo chicks evicting their nest mates: coincidental observations by Edward Jenner in England and Antoine Joseph Lottinger in France Spencer G. Sealy and Mélanie F. Guigueno Department of Biological Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2, Canada (e-mail: sgsealy@cc.umanitoba.ca). Citation Information. Archives of natural history. Volume 38, Page 220-228 DOI 10.3366/anh.2011.0030, ISSN 0260-9541, Available Online October 2011
  14. J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2011; 41:361–5doi:10.4997/JRCPE.2011.416
  15. François Marie Arouet de Voltaire (1778). "Letters on the English or Lettres Philosophiques". http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1778voltaire-lettres.asp#Letter%20XI. 
  16. "Voltaire on Circassian Medicine: Inoculation". Circassian World. http://www.circassianworld.com/new/history/miscelleneous/1202-circassian-medicine.html.  from Voltaire (1733). The Works of Voltaire. Vol. XIX (Philosophical Letters). 
  17. Hopkins, Donald R. (2002). The greatest killer: smallpox in history, with a new introduction. University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-35168-1. http://books.google.com/?id=z2zMKsc1Sn0C&lpg=PA80&pg=PA80&q=dr%20fewster#v=snippet&q=dr%20fewster&f=false. 
  18. Plett PC (2006). "Peter Plett and other discoverers of cowpox vaccination before Edward Jenner [Peter Plett and other discoverers of cowpox vaccination before Edward Jenner]" (German ভাষাত). Sudhoffs Archiv খণ্ড 90 (2): 219–32. PMID 17338405. 
  19. Hammarsten J. F. et al. (1979). "Who discovered smallpox vaccination? Edward Jenner or Benjamin Jesty?". Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association খণ্ড 90: 44–55. PMID 390826. 
  20. Grant, John (2007). Corrupted Science: Fraud, Ideology and Politics in Science. প্ৰকাশক London: Facts, Figures & Fun. পৃষ্ঠা. 24. ISBN 978-1-904332-73-2. 
  21. "Edward Jenner & Smallpox". The Edward Jenner Museum. http://www.jennermuseum.com/sv/smallpox2.shtml। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 13 July 2009. [সংযোগবিহীন উৎস]
  22. An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae, Edward Jenner. Retrieved 17 November 2012
  23. Hopkins, Donald R. (2002). The greatest killer: smallpox in history, with a new introduction. প্ৰকাশক Chicago: University of Chicago Press. পৃষ্ঠা. 80. ISBN 978-0-226-35168-1. OCLC 49305765. 
  24. Carlos Franco-Paredes, Lorena Lammoglia, and José Ignacio Santos-Preciado (2005). The Spanish Royal Philanthropic Expedition to Bring Smallpox Vaccination to the New World and Asia in the 19th Century. 41. Clinical Infectious Diseases. pp. 1285–1289. doi:10.1086/496930. http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/41/9/1285.full. 
  25. World Health Organization (2001). "Smallpox". http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/smallpox/en/index.html. 
  26. "Dr. Edward Jenner and the small pox vaccination". Essortment.com. http://www.essortment.com/all/edwardjennersm_rmfk.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 28 July 2009. 
  27. "Smallpox Zero". African Comic Production House, Johannesburg, South Africa. ISBN 978-0-620-43765-3. http://www.avpi.org/statics/flipbooks/SmallpoxEN/sources/. 
  28. "Smallpox". http://www.sanofipasteur.com/sanofi-pasteur2/front/index.jsp?codePage=PAG_29_1252430162114&codeRubrique=29&siteCode=SP_CORP. 
  29. Jonathan Roy (November 2010). Smallpox Zero: An Illustrated History of Smallpox and Its Eradication. 16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. doi:10.3201/eid1611.101145. http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/16/11/10-1145_article.htm. 
  30. "100 great Britons - A complete list". Daily Mail. 21 August 2002. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-134458/100-great-Britons--A-complete-list.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2 August 2012. 
  31. "Edward Jenner - St Mary's Church, Berkeley, Gloucestershire". http://www.stmarys-berkeley.co.uk/history/60-edward-jenner। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-12-15. 
  32. Royal College of Physicians. "JENNER, Edward (1749-1750)". AIM25 Archives. http://www.aim25.ac.uk/cgi-bin/search2?coll_id=7135&inst_id=8. 
  33. St George's, University of London. "Our History". http://www.stgeorges.nhs.uk/aboutourhistory.asp. 
  34. Edward Jenner. (1909–14.). "An Inquiry Into the Causes and Effects of the Variolæ Vaccinæ, Or Cow-Pox. 1798". The Harvard Classics. http://www.bartleby.com/38/4/1.html. 
  35. Edward Jenner. (1909–14.). "Further Observations on the Variolæ Vaccinæ, or Cow-Pox. 1799". The Harvard Classics. http://www.bartleby.com/38/4/1.html. 
  36. Edward Jenner. (1909–14.). "A Continuation of Facts and Observations Relative to the Variolæ Vaccinæ, or Cow-Pox. 1800". The Harvard Classics. http://www.bartleby.com/38/4/3.html. 

Further reading[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  • Papers at the Royal College of Physicians
  • Baron, John M.D. F.R.S., "The Life of Edward Jenner MD LLD FRS", Henry Colburn, London, 1827.
  • Baron, John, "The Life of Edward Jenner with illustrations of his doctrines and selections from his correspondence". Two volumes. London 1838.
  • Edward Jenner, the man and his work. BMJ 1949 E Ashworth Underwood
  • Fisher, Richard B., "Edward Jenner 1749-1823," Andre Deutsch, London, 1991.
  • Cartwright K (October 2005). "From Jenner to modern smallpox vaccines". Occupational Medicine খণ্ড 55 (7): 563–563. doi:10.1093/occmed/kqi163. PMID 16251374. 
  • Riedel S (January 2005). "Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination". Proceedings খণ্ড 18 (1): 21–5. PMID 16200144. 
  • Tan SY (November 2004). "Edward Jenner (1749-1823): conqueror of smallpox". Singapore Medical Journal খণ্ড 45 (11): 507–8. PMID 15510320. http://www.sma.org.sg/smj/4511/4511ms1.pdf. 
  • van Oss CJ (November 2000). "Inoculation against smallpox as the precursor to vaccination". Immunological Investigations খণ্ড 29 (4): 443–6. PMID 11130785. 
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  • Ordnance Survey showing reference to Smallpox Hil: http://explore.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/os_routes/show/1539
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