ঝিলী

অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ পৰা
Cicada
ঝিলী
ঝিলীৰ মাত
জীৱবৈজ্ঞানিক শ্ৰেণীবিভাজন
জগৎ/ৰাজ্য: Animalia
পৰ্ব: Arthropoda
শ্ৰেণী: Insecta
বৰ্গ: Hemiptera
উপবৰ্গ: Auchenorrhyncha
অনুবৰ্গ: Cicadomorpha
মহাপৰিয়াল: Cicadoidea
পৰিয়াল: Cicadidae
Westwood, 1840
Subfamilies

Cicadinae
Tibiceninae
Cicadettinae
Tettigadinae
See also article text.

ঝিলী এবিধ হেমিপটেৰা (Hemiptera) বৰ্গৰ আউশনোৰহাইনছা(Auchenorrhyncha) উপবৰ্গৰ পতঙ্গ । ঝিলী ছিকাডোইডিয়া মহাশ্ৰেণীৰ অন্তঃৰ্গত। চকুৰে সহজে দেখা পোৱা সীৰাৰে সৈতে, ইয়াৰ পাখিহাল ভালদৰে বিকশিত। কিছুমান প্ৰজাতিৰ আকৌ পাখিৰ আৱৰণ স্বচ্ছ হোৱাও দেখা যায়। জীৱবিজ্ঞানীসকলে প্ৰায় ২,৫০০ বিধ বিভিন্ন প্ৰজাতিৰ ঝিলীৰ বৰ্ণনা কৰি উলিয়াইছে, যদিও আৰু বহুত প্ৰজাতিৰ বৰ্ণনা কৰিবলৈ এতিয়াও বাকী আছে। কোনো কোনোৱে ইংৰাজীত ঝিলীক ভূলকৈ কাকতী ফৰিং (locusts) বুলিও ভূলকৈ কোৱা দেখা যায়। আছলতে এই দুবিধ কীট সম্পূৰ্ণৰূপে ভিন্ন জাতিৰহে।
[1]


সাধাৰন অবস্থাত ঝিলীয়ে মানুহক নাকামোৰে নাইবা অন্য একো অনিষ্টও নকৰে কিন্তু কেতিয়াবা ইহতে মানুহৰ দেহৰ হাত ভৰি আদি অংগক কোনো গা-গছ বা গছৰ ডাল আদি বুলি ভুল কৰি খাবলৈ বুলি কামোৰ মাৰাও দেখা যায়। [2] ঝিলৰ মুখখনত গছৰ ডাল বিন্ধা কৰি ৰস আহৰণ কৰিব পৰাকৈ এডাল দীঘল শুং থাকে। ই ঠিক মহৰ মুখত থকা শুংডালৰ দৰেই কাম কৰে। ঝিলিয়ে কাচিৎহে মানুহক কামোৰে, কিন্তু কেতিয়াবা কামোৰিলে চাল ফাটি যোৱাৰ ফলত অতিপাত বিষ অনুভৱ হব পাৰে।

বহুত ধৰনৰ খেতি-বাতি, গছ-গছনী আৰু গুল্মজাতীয় উদ্ভিদ ঝিলিৰ দ্বাৰা আক্ৰান্ত হব পাৰে। এনে গছৰ চালত বিন্ধা কৰি ৰসপাণ কৰা নাইবা কণী পাৰাৰ ফলত গছজোপাৰ ক্ষতিসাধন হব পাৰে। [3][4][5]

পৃথিবীৰ বহুঠাইত ঝিলীক মানুহে খাদ্যৰূপে ব্যৱহাৰ কৰে। প্ৰাচীনকালত গ্ৰীছ, অাৰু আধুনিক যুগৰ চীনদেশ, মালয়চীয়া, বাৰ্মা, কোংগো অথবা লেটিন আমেৰিকা আদি অঞ্চলত ঝিলীক খাদ্যৰূপে পৰিবেশন কৰা হয় বুলি জনা যায়। [6] মতা ঝিলীতকৈ মাইকী ঝিলীক খাদ্যহিচাপে বেছি গুৰুত্ব দিয়া হয়, কিয়নো মাইকী ঝিলী মতাটোতকৈ শকত হয়। [6] ঝিলীৰ খোলাটোক চীনদেশীয় পাৰম্পৰিক সিকিৎসাৰ কামতো ব্যবহাৰ কৰা হয়। [7]

Description[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Head of Magicicada septendecim showing red eyes and ocelli

The adult insect, known as an imago, is Lua error in Module:Convert at line 696: attempt to index local 'utable' (a nil value). in total length in most species, although the largest, the empress cicada (Megapomponia imperatoria), has a head-body length of about Lua error in Module:Convert at line 696: attempt to index local 'utable' (a nil value). and its wingspan is Lua error in Module:Convert at line 696: attempt to index local 'utable' (a nil value)..[8][9] Cicadas have prominent eyes set wide apart on the sides of the head, short antennae protruding between or in front of the eyes, and membranous front wings. Also, commonly overlooked, cicadas have three small eyes, or ocelli, located on the top of the head between the two large eyes that match the colour of the large eyes.

Physiology and adaptations[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Some species of desert cicadas such as Diceroprocta apache are unusual among insects in that they have been shown to cool themselves by evaporative cooling, analogous to sweating in mammals. When their temperature rises above about Lua error in Module:Convert at line 696: attempt to index local 'utable' (a nil value). they suck excess sap from the food plants and extrude the excess water through pores in the tergum, at a modest cost in energy. Such a rapid loss of water can only be sustained by feeding on water rich xylem sap. At lower temperatures, feeding cicadas would normally need to excrete the excess water. By evaporative cooling desert cicadas can reduce their bodily temperature by some 5 °C (9 °F).[10][11]

Some non-desert cicada species such as Magicicada tredecem also cool themselves by such a mechanism, but less dramatically.[12]

Conversely, many other cicadas can voluntarily raise their body temperatures as much as Lua error in Module:Convert at line 696: attempt to index local 'utable' (a nil value). above ambient temperature.[13]

Cicada song[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The "singing" of male cicadas is not stridulation such as many familiar species of insects produce — for example crickets. Instead male cicadas have a noisemaker called a tymbal below each side of the anterior abdominal region. The tymbals are structures of the exoskeleton formed into complex membranes with thin, membranous portions and thickened ribs. Contraction of internal muscles buckles the tymbals inwards, producing a click; on relaxation of the muscles the tymbals return to their original position, producing another click. The male abdomen is largely hollow, and acts as a sound box. By rapidly vibrating these membranes a cicada combines the clicks into apparently continuous notes, and enlarged chambers derived from the tracheae serve as resonance chambers, with which it amplifies the sound. The cicada also modulates the song by positioning its abdomen toward or away from the substrate. Partly by the pattern in which it combines the clicks, each species produces its own distinctive mating songs and acoustic signals, ensuring that the song attracts only appropriate mates.[1]

Average temperature of the natural habitat for the South American species Fidicina rana is approximately Lua error in Module:Convert at line 696: attempt to index local 'utable' (a nil value).. During sound production, the temperature of the tymbal muscles was found to be significantly higher.[14] Cicadas sing most actively in hot weather and do their most spirited singing during the hotter hours of a summer day, in a roughly 24-hour cycle.

Although only males produce the cicadas' distinctive sound, both sexes have tympana, membranous structures by which they detect sounds. They are the cicadas' equivalent of ears. Males disable their own tympana while calling, thereby preventing damage to their hearing;[15] this is necessary partly because some cicadas produce sounds up to 120 dB (SPL),[15] among the loudest of all insect-produced sounds.[16] The song is loud enough to cause permanent hearing loss in humans should the cicada sing just outside the listener's ear. In contrast, some small species have songs so high in pitch that the noise is inaudible to humans.[6]

To the human ear, it often is difficult to tell where a cicada song is coming from; the pitch is nearly constant, the song sounds continuous to the human ear, and cicadas sing in scattered groups. If a singing male becomes alarmed on the approach of a possible enemy, it softens its song so that the attention of the listener gets distracted to neighbouring louder singers, creating a confusing ventriloqual effect.

In addition to the mating song, many species have a distinct distress call, usually a broken and erratic sound that the insect emits when seized or panicked; at the same time it is likely to squirt waste liquid from the sap that it had been sucking, possibly distracting certain classes of attacker. Some species also have courtship songs, generally quieter, and produced after a female has been drawn by the calling song. Males also produce encounter calls, whether in courtship or to maintain personal space within choruses.[17]

Life cycle[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

left|thumb|Adult cicada emerging

Time sequence photos of a Tibicen cicada moulting
Cicada exuviae
Exuviae of cicada clinging to Tridax procumbens stem

Cicadas live underground as nymphs for most of their lives, at depths ranging from about Lua error in Module:Convert at line 696: attempt to index local 'utable' (a nil value). down to Lua error in Module:Convert at line 696: attempt to index local 'utable' (a nil value).. The nymphs feed on xylem sap from roots and have strong front legs for digging.

In the final nymphal instar, they construct an exit tunnel to the surface and emerge. They then moult (shed their skins) on a nearby plant for the last time and emerge as adults. The exuvia, or abandoned exoskeleton, remains, still clinging to the bark of trees.

After mating, the female cuts slits into the bark of a twig, and into these she deposits her eggs. She may do so repeatedly, until she has laid several hundred eggs. When the eggs hatch, the newly hatched nymphs drop to the ground, where they burrow. Most cicadas go through a life cycle that lasts from two to five years. Some species have much longer life cycles, such as the North American genus, Magicicada, which has a number of distinct "broods" that go through either a 17-year or, in some parts of the world, a 13-year life cycle. These long life cycles perhaps developed as a response to predators, such as the cicada killer wasp and praying mantis.[18][19][20] A predator with a shorter life cycle of at least two years could not reliably prey upon the cicadas.[21]

Diet[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Cicada nymphs suck sap from the xylem of various species of trees, including oak, cypress, willow, ash, and maple. While it is common folklore that adults do not eat, in reality they do have their own sucking mouthparts, and also drink plant sap.[22]

Predation[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Cicadas are commonly eaten by birds and sometimes by squirrels,[23] but Massospora cicadina (a fungal disease) is the biggest enemy of cicadas. Another known predator is the cicada killer wasp. In eastern Australia, the native freshwater fish Australian bass are keen predators of cicadas that crash-land on the surface of streams.

Some species of cicada also have an unusual defense mechanism to protect themselves from predation, known as predator satiation: because so many emerge at once, the number of cicadas in any given area exceeds the amount predators can eat; all available predators are thus satiated, and the remaining cicadas can breed in peace.

Symbolism[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The cicada has represented insouciance since classical antiquity. Jean de La Fontaine began his collection of fables Les fables de La Fontaine with the story La Cigale et la Fourmi (The Cicada and the Ant) based on one of Aesop's fables: in it the cicada spends the summer singing while the ant stores away food, and finds herself without food when the weather turns bitter.[24]

In 2004, "cicada" ranked 6th in Merriam-Webster's Words of the Year.

The cicada is used as the symbol for the group known as Cicada 3301.

Americas[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

In Latin America, the mariachi song "La Cigarra" (lit. "The Cicada") romanticises the insect as a creature that sings until it dies. Brood II is the Cicada that comes every 17 years.

The image of a Brood II Cicada is the unofficial symbol of Solution Architects in the Mid Atlantic states.

Asia[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

China[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

In China, the phrase "to shed off the golden cicada skin"(金蝉脱壳, pinyin: jīnchán tuōké) is the poetic name of the tactic of using deception to escape danger, specifically of using decoys (leaving the old shell) to fool enemies. It became one of the 36 classic Chinese strategems. In the Chinese classic novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms (14th century), Diaochan also got her name from the sable (diāo) tails and jade decorations in the shape of cicadas (chán), which at the time adorned the hats of high-level officials. In the Chinese classic novel Journey to the West (16th century), the protagonist Priest of Tang was named the Golden Cicada; in this context the multiple shedding of shell of the cicada symbolizes the many stages of transformation required of a person before all illusions have been broken and one reaches enlightenment. This is also referred to in Japanese mythical ninja lore, as the technique of utsusemi (i.e., literally cicada), where ninjas would trick opponents into attacking a decoy.

Japan[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

In Japan, the cicada is associated with the summer season. The songs of the cicada are often used in Japanese film and television to indicate the scene is taking place in the summer. The song of Meimuna opalifera, called "tsuku-tsuku boshi", is said to indicate the end of summer, and it is called so because of its particular call. During the summer, it is a pastime for children to collect both cicadas and the shells left behind when moulting.

Since the cicada emerges from the ground to sing every summer, in Japan it is seen as a symbol of reincarnation.[citation needed] Furthermore, the cicada moults, leaving behind an empty shell, but since the cicada lives for only a short time, long enough to attract a mate with its song and complete the process of fertilization, they are seen as a symbol of evanescence.

In the Japanese novel The Tale of Genji, the title character poetically likens one of his many love interests to a cicada for the way she delicately sheds her scarf the way a cicada sheds its shell when molting. A cicada shell also plays a role in the manga Winter Cicada. They are also a frequent subject of haiku, wherein, depending on type, they can indicate spring, summer, or fall.[25]

Java[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Javanese version of cycle of months, called pranata mangsa, uses cicadas sound as an indicator of the beginning of dry season (April–May). Farmers who still depend on rain irrigation will interpret this as time for planting of non-rice crops.

Europe[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

In France, the cicada is used to represent the folklore of Provence and Mediterranean cities (although some species live in Alsace or the Paris Basin).[26]

In the Ancient Greek myth, Tithonus eventually turns into a cicada after being granted immortality, but not eternal youth, by Zeus. The Greeks also used a cicada sitting on a harp as emblematic of music.[27]

In Tuscany, the Italian word for the cicada (cicala) is the euphemism for "vagina" used by children.[28][unreliable source?]

Culinary use[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Deep-fried Cryptotympana atrata in Shandong cuisine

Cicadas have been eaten in China, Burma, Latin America, and the Congo. In North China, cicadas are skewered, deep fried or stir-fried as a delicacy.

In 2011, cicadas were incorporated into a single batch of ice cream in Columbia, Missouri, at Sparky's. The ice creamery was advised by the public health department against making a second batch, a suggestion with which store owners complied.[29] Other creative recipes include banana bread cicadas.[30]

Genera[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Diemeniana frenchi, an Australian species
A Japanese Minminzemi (Oncotympana maculaticollis)

Notes[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

References[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. 
  2. Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. .
  3. Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. .
  4. Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. 
  5. Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. 
  7. Li Shizhen, Bencao Gangmu, Section of Insect.
  8. Flindt, R. (2006).
  9. Burton, M, and Burton, R. (2002).
  10. Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. 
  11. Toolson, Eric C. "Water Profligacy as an Adaptation to Hot Deserts: Water Loss Rates and Evaporative Cooling in the Sonoran Desert Cicada, Diceroprocta apache".
  12. Toolson, Eric C & Toolson Elizabeth K. "Evaporative cooling and endothermy in the 13-year periodical cicada, Magicicada tredecem".
  13. Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. 
  14. Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. 
  16. Craig 2001.
  17. http://eprints.ru.ac.za/1275/1/Villet_et_al_2003.pdf
  18. Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. 
  19. Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. .
  20. Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. 
  21. Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. 
  22. Periodical Cicadas – Genus Magicicada
  23. Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. 
  24. Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. 
  25. Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. .
  26. Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. 
  27. Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. 
  28. Milne, Lorus; Milne, Margery (1992). The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Insects and Spiders. প্ৰকাশক New York: Alfred A Knopf. ISBN 0-394-50763-0. .
  29. http://www.columbiatribune.com/business/saturday_business/cicada-ice-cream-causes-international-buzz/article_f91720ec-a62b-55c3-bd27-64380724bc79.html
  30. http://www.livesummitnj.com/2013/06/01/banana-bread-cicada-recipe/