ৱিকিপিডিয়া:সাঁচ বাৰ্তাসমূহ/প্ৰবন্ধৰ উৎস

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চমুপথ:
WP:CTT

Is the article actually worthy of inclusion?[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Before placing templates on a page it is worthwhile to consider whether it should in fact be included in Wikipedia according to Wikipedia:What Wikipedia is not. Some articles can be tagged for speedy deletion or marked as an article for deletion.

Dates[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

It is useful to add the date of the request (or sometimes, a bot will assist by doing it automatically) by appending |date=month year to the template code, like this: {{Unreferenced|date=August 2019}} to produce this:


Requesting sources[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

ৱিকিপিডিয়া:Template messages/Cleanup/Verifiability and sources

Including third-party content[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

United States government attribution templates[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

These templates can be added to articles (close to the end of the article, in the References or External links section, for example). Before adding the template to an article, check the details of the usage—some templates require parameters such as a URL. Most of these templates add the articles to the category Wikipedia articles incorporating text from public domain works of the United States Government.

Template Display
{{Air Force}} Talk সাঁচ:Air Force
{{AFHRA}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.
{{Bioguide}} Talk সাঁচ:Bioguide
{{CDC}} Talk সাঁচ:CDC
{{CIA World Factbook}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the CIA World Factbook.
{{USCG}} Talk সাঁচ:USCG
{{DADS}} Talk সাঁচ:DADS
{{DANFS}} Talk সাঁচ:DANFS
{{DHS}} Talk সাঁচ:DHS
{{DoE}} Talk সাঁচ:DoE
{{FJC Bio}} Talk সাঁচ:FJC Bio
{{FS1037C}} Talk সাঁচ:FS1037C
{{FS1037C MS188}} Talk সাঁচ:FS1037C MS188
{{GHR}} Talk সাঁচ:GHR
{{Loc}} Talk  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies.
{{Marine Corps}} Talk সাঁচ:Marine Corps
{{NARA}} Talk সাঁচ:NARA
{{Include-NASA}} Talk সাঁচ:Include-NASA
{{NCBI-handbook}} Talk সাঁচ:NCBI-handbook
{{NCBI-scienceprimer}} Talk সাঁচ:NCBI-scienceprimer
{{NCI-cancer-dict}} Talk সাঁচ:NCI-cancer-dict
{{NHC}} Talk সাঁচ:NHC
{{NIMH}} Talk সাঁচ:NIMH
{{NIST-PD}} Talk সাঁচ:NIST-PD
{{NLM content}} Talk সাঁচ:NLM content
{{NPS}} Talk সাঁচ:NPS
{{NPS.Gov}} Talk সাঁচ:NPS.Gov
{{NTSB}} Talk সাঁচ:NTSB
{{NVR}} Talk সাঁচ:NVR
{{OSGguide}} Talk সাঁচ:OSGguide
{{Recreation.Gov}} Talk সাঁচ:Recreation.Gov
{{StateDept}} Talk সাঁচ:StateDept
{{US Army}} Talk সাঁচ:US Army
{{USACE.Army.Mil}} Talk সাঁচ:USACE.Army.Mil
{{USDA}} Talk সাঁচ:USDA
{{USDHHS-PD}} Talk সাঁচ:USDHHS-PD
{{USGS}} Talk সাঁচ:USGS
{{USGovernment}} Talk সাঁচ:USGovernment
{{USGovernment-Navy}} Talk সাঁচ:USGovernment-Navy
{{USGovernment-courts}} Talk সাঁচ:USGovernment-courts
{{Usgs-gazetteer}} Talk সাঁচ:Usgs-gazetteer

Other[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Some of the reference types below use named fields (such as Title=Electric Power Monthly). In these references, you must use the exact field name (capitalization matters). Fields are separated with pipe (|) characters. The order of the fields does not matter.

Public domain[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

What to type What it makes Where it goes
{{1728}}
Talk
সাঁচ:1728 Articles
near bottom
{{1771 Britannica}}
Talk
সাঁচ:1771 Britannica Articles
near bottom
{{1911}}
Talk
সাঁচ:1911 Articles
near bottom
{{Sect1911}}
Talk
সাঁচ:Sect1911 Articles
at the end of a section
{{1913}}
Talk
সাঁচ:1913 Articles
near bottom
{{A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature}}
Talk
সাঁচ:A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature Articles
near bottom
{{Catholic}}
Talk
সাঁচ:Catholic Articles
near bottom
{{DCBL}}
Talk
সাঁচ:DCBL Articles
near bottom
{{DNB}}
Talk
সাঁচ:DNB Articles
near bottom
{{Eastons}}
Talk
সাঁচ:Eastons Articles
at top
{{Etude}}
Talk
সাঁচ:Etude Articles
near bottom
{{Gray's}}
Talk
সাঁচ:Gray's Articles
near bottom
{{Grocers}}
Talk
সাঁচ:Grocers Articles
near bottom
{{GSE}}
Talk
সাঁচ:GSE Articles
near bottom
{{JargonFile}}
Talk
সাঁচ:JargonFile Articles
near bottom
{{JewishEncyclopedia}}
Talk
সাঁচ:JewishEncyclopedia Articles
near bottom
{{KeyTarot}}
Talk
সাঁচ:KeyTarot Articles
near bottom
{{NHC}}
Talk
সাঁচ:NHC Articles
near bottom
{{Owl}}
Talk
সাঁচ:Owl Articles
near bottom
{{pg}}
Talk
সাঁচ:Pg Articles
near bottom
{{RBD}}
Talk
সাঁচ:RBD Articles
near bottom
{{Schaff-Herzog}}
Talk
সাঁচ:Schaff-Herzog Articles
near bottom
{{SeyffertDCA}}
Talk
সাঁচ:SeyffertDCA Articles
near bottom
{{SmithDGRA}}
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সাঁচ:SmithDGRA Articles
near bottom
{{DGRBM}}
Talk
সাঁচ:DGRBM Articles
near bottom
{{DGRG}}
Talk
সাঁচ:DGRG Articles
near bottom
{{Vectorsite}}
Talk
সাঁচ:Vectorsite Articles
Reference

Wikis[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

For interwiki translation and other copying, see Wikipedia:Copying within Wikipedia.

What to type What it makes Where it goes
{{Citizendium}}
Talk
সাঁচ:Citizendium Articles
near bottom
{{from Camerapedia}}
Talk
সাঁচ:From Camerapedia Articles
bottom
{{from Comixpedia}}
Talk
সাঁচ:From Comixpedia Articles
bottom
{{FOLDOC}}
Talk
সাঁচ:FOLDOC Articles
near bottom
{{OpenHistory}}
Talk
সাঁচ:OpenHistory Articles
near bottom
{{Wookieepedia}}
Talk
সাঁচ:Wookieepedia Talk pages
{{WorldCoinGallery}}
Talk
সাঁচ:WorldCoinGallery Articles
Reference

Citations for footnotes and for linking[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The following examples are examples of Wikipedia:Footnotes from {{Ref/examples}} are rendered as a template in the following table. These references can be used with the citations above to create a link from the text to the references. সাঁচ:Ref/examples

Citations of specific sources[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Notes:

What to type What it makes
{{ITIS|ID=|taxon=|accessdate=}}
Talk

"Genus species". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=123456। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 1 January 2004. 

{{FishBase species|genus=|species=|year=|month=}}
Talk

সাঁচ:FishBase species

{{FishBase species alt|ID=|taxon=|year=|month=}}
Talk

সাঁচ:FishBase species alt

{{FishBase_genus|genus=|year=|month=}}
Talk

সাঁচ:FishBase genus

{{FishBase family|family=|year=|month=}}
Talk

সাঁচ:FishBase family

{{IUCN|author=|title=|year=|ID=|IUCN_Year=}}
Talk

Lastname, Firstname Initial (Year). "Title". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version IUCN_Year. International Union for Conservation of Nature. http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/1234. 

{{Gutenberg | no=6656 | name=The Kiltartan Poetry Book}}
Talk
{{MathWorld | urlname=PetersenGraph | title=Petersen Graph}}
Talk
Weisstein, Eric W., "Petersen Graph" মেথৱৰ্ল্ডৰ পৰা.
{{ScienceWorld | urlname=biography/Einstein.html | title=Albert Einstein}}
Talk
সাঁচ:ScienceWorld
{{Wipipedia|Wiki_pagename_with_underscores}}
Talk
সাঁচ:Wipipedia
The Encyclopedia of World History at Bartleby.com

{{worldhistory|section=|quote=}}

  • section – the portion between http://www.bartleby.com/67/ and .html in the URL of the page you wish to cite. For example, if I wished to cite http://www.bartleby.com/67/716.html, the section is 716.
  • quote – What do you want the first part of the included text to read. The default is Citation.

Example: {{worldhistory|section=716|quote=Diderot’s encyclopedia banned in 1751}}
Creates: সাঁচ:Worldhistory

USGS Geographic Names Information System

{{Cite gnis|id|name|type=}}

Example: {{Cite gnis|2410240|Cotati}}
Creates: সাঁচ:Cite gnis

USGS Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature

{{Gpn|id|name}}

Example: {{Gpn|65876|Stickney}}
Creates: "Stickney". Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature. USGS Astrogeology Research Program.

Citations of generic sources[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Citation templates are used to format citations in a consistent way, as an alternative to formatting the citations by hand. The use of citation templates is neither encouraged nor discouraged. Templates may be used or removed at the discretion of individual editors, subject to agreement with other editors on the article. Because templates can be contentious, editors should not add citation templates, or change an article with a consistent citation format to another, without gaining consensus; see WP:CITECONSENSUS and WP:CITEVAR. The various citation templates below may be freely mixed, since they all produce a similar format.

Use in footnotes[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

For a citation to appear in a footnote, it needs to be enclosed in "ref" tags. You can add these by typing <ref></ref> at the front of the citation and <ref></ref> at the end. Alternatively you may notice above the edit box there is a row of "markup" formatting buttons which include a <ref></ref> button to the right—if you highlight your whole citation and then click this markup button, it will automatically enclose your citation in ref tags (i.e. <ref></ref>citation<ref></ref>).

Note, if this is a new page or if there are not already references previously cited, it is necessary to create a section usually named "Notes" or "References" near the end of the page; see WP:FNNR and MOS:APPENDIX for more information on section names:


== Notes ==
<references />

or


== Notes ==
{{Reflist}}

See: Footnotes for more details.

Using the same footnote multiple times[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Optionally, one may add the name attribute by using <ref name=name>details of the citation</ref>. Thereafter, the same footnote may be used multiple times by adding <ref name=name></ref>. Note that named references begin with <ref instead of the usual <ref></ref>. For detailed examples, see WP:REFNAME.

Using multiple pages from the same source[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

When an article cites many different pages from the same source, most Wikipedia editors have chosen to use shortened footnotes (see Shortened footnotes). An alternative method is to use the template {{rp}}.

Creating links to citations[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Wikilinks to citation templates can be created using the templates {{harv}}, {{harvnb}}, {{harvtxt}}, {{sfn}}, etc. For example this "Mumford 1999" links to a citation template below. This is of particular interest for inline citations using parenthetical referencing or when using shortened footnotes.[1] (See the examples below or wikilinks to full references)

Using commas rather than periods[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

{{Citation}} creates a citation in the same format as most of the Citation Style 1 templates, except that the periods are replaced with commas and there is no final period. A complete list of templates that are mimicked by {{citation}} can be found at {{citation/core}}. The parameters |separator= |postscript=(available for most templates) can also be used to affect the punctuation.

Examples[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Below are examples of how to use various templates to cite a book, encyclopedia, journal, website, comic strip, video and editorial comics, etc.

  • For full description of a template and the parameters which can be used with it—click the template name (e.g. {{Citation}} or {{cite xxx}}) in the "template (required)" column of the table below.
  • Required field(s) are indicated in bold
  • Copy and paste the text under "common usage" to use the template.
  • Following each example is the resulting article text.

For a list of tools that can help create some of the templates below, see: Wikipedia:Citation tools.

Citations are commonly embedded in reference templates. For more information, see: Wikipedia:Footnotes.

source template
(required)
common usage Example 1
article text
Example 2
article text
book {{cite book}}
title
{{cite book
 | last =
 | first =
 | authorlink =
 | coauthors =
 | title =
 | publisher =
 | series =
 | volume =
 | edition =
 | date =
 | location =
 | pages =
 | language =
 | url =
 | doi =
 | id =
 | isbn =
 | mr =
 | zbl =
 | jfm = }}
{{cite book
 | last = Mumford
 | first = David
 | authorlink = David Mumford
 | title = The Red Book of V...
 | publisher = [[Springer-Verlag]]
 | series = Lecture Notes ...
 | volume = 1358
 | edition = 2nd expanded
 | location = Berlin
 | date = 1999
 | page = 198
 | doi = 10.1007/b62130
 | isbn = 354063293X
 | mr = 1748380
 | zbl = 0945.14001 }}

Mumford, David (1999). The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes. Lecture Notes in Mathematics. 1358 (2nd expanded সম্পাদনা). প্ৰকাশক Berlin: Springer-Verlag. পৃষ্ঠা. 198. doi:10.1007/b62130. ISBN 354063293X. 

{{cite book
 | last1 = Cordell | first1 = Bruce R.
 | first2 = Jeff | last2 = Grubb
 | first3 =David | last3 = Noonan
 | title = [[Manual of the Planes]]
 | location = Berlin
 | publisher = [[Wizards of the Coast]]
 | year= 2001
 | pages = 198-203
 | month = September
 | isbn = 0-7869-1850-8 }}

Cordell, Bruce R.; Grubb, Jeff; Noonan, David (September 2001). Manual of the Planes. প্ৰকাশক Berlin: Wizards of the Coast. পৃষ্ঠা. 198-203. ISBN 0-7869-1850-8. 

{{Citation}}
{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author2-link =
 | title =
 | place =
 | publisher =
 | series =
 | volume =
 | origyear =
 | year =
 | month=
 | edition =
 | chapter =
 | chapterurl =
 | page =
 | pages =
 | language =
 | url =
 | archiveurl =
 | archivedate =
 | doi =
 | id =
 | isbn =
 | mr =
 | zbl =
 | jfm = }}
{{Citation
 | first = David | last = Mu...
 | author-link = David Mumfo...
 | title = The Red Book of V...
 | place = Berlin
 | publisher = [[Springer-Verlag]]
 | series = Lecture Notes ...
 | volume = 1358
 | edition = 2nd expanded
 | year = 1999
 | page = 198
 | doi = 10.1007/b62130
 | isbn = 354063293X
 | mr = 1748380
 | zbl = 0945.14001 }}

Mumford, David (1999), The Red Book of Varieties and Schemes, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, 1358 (2nd expanded সম্পাদনা), প্ৰকাশক Berlin: Springer-Verlag, p. 198, doi:10.1007/b62130, ISBN 354063293X 

{{Citation
 | last1 = Cordell | first1 = Bruce R.
 | last2 = Grubb | first2 = Jeff
 | last3 = Noonan | first3 = David
 | title = [[Manual of the Planes]]
 | place = Berlin
 | publisher = [[Wizards of the Coast]]
 |pages = 198-203
 | date = September 2001
 | year = 2001
 | isbn = 0-7869-1850-8 }}

Cordell, Bruce R.; Grubb, Jeff; Noonan, David (September 2001), Manual of the Planes, প্ৰকাশক Berlin: Wizards of the Coast, pp. 198-203, ISBN 0-7869-1850-8 

journal
paper
thesis
dissertation
{{cite journal}}
Title
{{cite journal
 | last =
 | first =
 | authorlink =
 | coauthors =
 | title =
 | journal =
 | volume =
 | issue =
 | pages =
 | publisher =
 | location =
 | date =
 | language =
 | url =
 | jstor =
 | issn =
 | doi =
 | id =
 | mr =
 | zbl =
 | jfm =
 | accessdate = }}
{{cite journal
 | authorlink = Stephen Brey...
 | title = Copyright: A Rejo...
 | journal = UCLA Law Review
 | volume = 20
 | pages = 75–83
 | date = October 1972 }}

Breyer, Stephen (October 1972). "Copyright: A Rejoinder". UCLA Law Review খণ্ড 20: 75–83. 

{{cite journal
 | last1 = Bailey | first1 = David H.
 | author1-link = David H. Bailey
 | last2 = Borwein | first2 = Peter
 | author2-link = Peter Borwein
 | last3 = Borwein | first3 = Jonathan M.
 | author3-link = Jonathan Borwein
 | title = The Quest for Pi
 | journal = Mathematical Intelligencer
 | volume = 19
 | issue = 1
 | pages = 50–57
 | publisher = Springer-Verlag
 | location = Berlin
 | date = 25 June 1997
 | year = 1997
 | url = http://crd.lbl.gov/~dhbailey/...
 | issn =0343-6993
 | doi = 10.1007/BF03024340
 | mr = 1439159
 | zbl = 0878.11002 }}

Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Peter; Borwein, Jonathan M. (25 June 1997). "The Quest for Pi". Mathematical Intelligencer (Berlin: Springer-Verlag) খণ্ড 19 (1): 50–57. doi:10.1007/BF03024340. ISSN 0343-6993. http://crd.lbl.gov/~dhbailey/dhbpapers/pi-quest.pdf. 

{{Citation}}
journal (or periodical)
{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author2-link =
 | title =
 | journal =
 | volume =
 | issue =
 | pages =
 | date =
 | origyear =
 | year =
 | month =
 | language =
 | url =
 | jstor =
 | archiveurl =
 | archivedate =
 | doi =
 | id =
 | mr =
 | zbl =
 | jfm = }}
{{Citation
 | last = Breyer
 | first = Stephen
 | author-link = Stephen Bre...
 | title = Copyright: A Rejo...
 | journal = UCLA Law Review
 | volume = 20
 | pages = 75–83
 | date = October 1972
 | year = 1972 }}

Breyer, Stephen (October 1972), "Copyright: A Rejoinder", UCLA Law Review খণ্ড 20: 75–83 

{{Citation
 | last1 = Bailey | first1 = David H.
 | author1-link = David H. Bailey
 | last2 = Borwein | first2 = Peter
 | author2-link = Peter Borwein
 | last3 = Borwein | first3 = Jonathan M.
 | author3-link = Jonathan Borwein
 | title = The Quest for Pi
 | journal = Mathematical Intelligencer
 | volume = 19
 | issue = 1
 | pages = 50–57
 | publisher = Springer-Verlag
 | location = Berlin
 | date = 25 June 1997
 | year = 1997
 | url = http://crd.lbl.gov/~dhbailey/...
 | issn =0343-6993
 | doi = 10.1007/BF03024340
 | mr = 1439159
 | zbl = 0878.11002 }}

Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Peter; Borwein, Jonathan M. (25 June 1997), "The Quest for Pi", Mathematical Intelligencer (Berlin: Springer-Verlag) খণ্ড 19 (1): 50–57, doi:10.1007/BF03024340, ISSN 0343-6993, http://crd.lbl.gov/~dhbailey/dhbpapers/pi-quest.pdf 

website {{cite web}}
title
url
{{cite web
 | last =
 | first =
 | authorlink =
 | coauthors =
 | title =
 | work =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | url =
 | format =
 | doi =
 | accessdate = }}
{{cite web
 | last = Spiegel
 | first = Rachel
 | title = Research: Thalido...
 | url=http://science-educat...
 | accessdate = 30 April 2006 }}

Spiegel, Rachel. "Research in the News: Thalidomide". http://science-education.nih.gov/nihHTML/ose/snapshots/multimedia/ritn/Thalidomide/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 30 April 2006. 

{{cite web
| title =
| url =
| dateformat = mdy
| accessdate = }}

(Write date as Month Day Year; e.g., July 22 2009. Comma will be added automatically.)

{{cite web
 | last = Hansen
 | first = James E.
 | authorlink = James E. Hansen
 | last2 = Ruedy | first2 = R.
 | last3 = Sato | first3 = M.
 | last4 = Lo | first4 = K.
 | title = GISS Surface Temperature An...
 | work =
 | publisher = [[Goddard Institute for...
| date = December 15, 2005
 | url = http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gis...
 | format =
 | doi =
 | accessdate = September 28, 2006 }}

Hansen, James E.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Lo, K. (December 15, 2005). "GISS Surface Temperature Analysis Global Temperature Trends: 2005 Summation". NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies. http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/2005/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: September 28, 2006. 

{{Citation}}
title
url
{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author2-link =
 | title =
 | date =
 | year =
 | url =
 | accessdate = }}
{{Citation
 | last = Spiegel
 | first = Rachel
 | title = Research: Thalido...
 | url=http://science-educat...
 | accessdate = 30 April 2006 }}

Spiegel, Rachel, Research in the News: Thalidomide, http://science-education.nih.gov/nihHTML/ose/snapshots/multimedia/ritn/Thalidomide/index.html, r কৰা হৈছে: 30 April 2006 

{{Citation
 | last1 = Hansen | first1 = James E.
 | author1-link = James Hansen
 | last2 = Ruedy | first2 = R.
 | last3 = Sato | first3 = M.
 | last4 = Lo | first4 = K.
 | title = GISS Surface Temperature An...
 | publisher = [[Goddard Institute for ...
| date = December 15, 2005
 | year = 2005
 | url = http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gis...
 | accessdate = September 28, 2006 }}

Hansen, James E.; Ruedy, R.; Sato, M.; Lo, K. (December 15, 2005), GISS Surface Temperature Analysis Global Temperature Trends: 2005 Summation, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies, http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/2005/, r কৰা হৈছে: September 28, 2006 

comic {{cite comic}}[2]
{{cite comic
 | writer=
 | penciller=
 | inker=
 | story=
 | title=
 | volume=
 | issue=
 | date=
 | publisher=
 | page=
 | panel= }}
{{cite comic
| writer=[[Stan Lee|Lee, Stan]]
| penciller=[[Jack Kirby|Kirby, Jack]]
| inker=[[Christopher Rule|Rule, Christopher]]
| story=The Fantastic Four!
| title=[[Fantastic Four|The Fantastic Four]]
| volume=1
| issue=1
| date=November, 1961
| publisher=[[Marvel Comics]]
| page=3
| panel=2 }}

Lee, Stan (w), Kirby, Jack (p), Rule, Christopher (i). "The Fantastic Four!" The Fantastic Four 1: 3/2 (November, 1961), Marvel Comics

comic strip {{comic strip reference}}[3]
{{comic strip reference
 | cartoonist=
 | strip=
 | paper=
 | location=
 | date=
 | supplement=
 | syndicate=
 | page= }}
{{comic strip reference
 | cartoonist=[[Milton Caniff|Caniff, Milton]]
 | strip=[[Steve Canyon]]
 | paper=Journal Herald
 | location=Dayton, OH
 | date=July 15, 1967
 | supplement=Color Comics Supplement
 | syndicate=Newspaper Syndicate
 | page=1 }}

Caniff, Milton (c). Steve CanyonJournal Herald (Dayton, OH). July 15, 1967, [Color Comics Supplement], Newspaper Syndicate

 1.
conference
report
or paper
{{cite conference}}
title
booktitle
{{cite conference
 | first =
 | last =
 | authorlink =
 | coauthors =
 | title =
 | booktitle =
 | pages =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | location =
 | url =
 | doi =
 | id =
 | accessdate = }}
{{cite conference
 | first = M.
 | last = Turk
 | authorlink =
 | coauthors = Pentland, A.
 | title = Face recognition ...
 | booktitle = Proc IEEE Con...
 | place = Maui, Hawaii
 | pages = 586–591
 | year = 1991 }}

Turk, M.; Pentland, A. (1991). "Face recognition using eigenfaces". Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. প্ৰকাশক Maui, Hawaii. pp. 586–591. 

{{cite conference
 | last1 = Evans | first1 = N. R.
 | last2 = Schaefer | first2 = G.
 | last3 = Bond | first3 = H.
 | last4 = Karovska | first4 = M.
 | last5 = Nelan | first5 = E.
 | last6 = Sasselov | first6 = D.
 | title = Direct detection of the ...
 | booktitle = American Astronomical Society 207th ...
 | publisher = AAS
 | date = January 9, 2006
 | url = http://www.aas.org/ ... 30.htm }}

Evans, N. R.; Schaefer, G.; Bond, H.; Karovska, M.; Nelan, E.; Sasselov, D. (January 9, 2006). "Direct detection of the close companion of Polaris with the Hubble Space Telescope". American Astronomical Society 207th Meeting. AAS. http://www.aas.org/publications/baas/v37n4/aas207/1130.htm. 

{{Citation}}
{{Citation
 | first =
 | last =
 | author-link =
 | first2 =
 | last2 =
 | author2-link =
 | editor-last =
 | editor-first =
 | editor2-last =
 | editor2-first =
 | contribution =
 | contribution-url =
 | series =
 | year =
 | pages =
 | place =
 | publisher =
 | url =
 | doi =
 | id = }}
{{Citation
 | last1 = Turk | first1 = M.
 | last2 = Pet... | first2 = A.
 | contribution = Face recog...
 | series = Proc IEEE Confere...
 | place = Maui, Hawaii
 | pages = 586–591
 | year = 1991 }}

Turk, M.; Petland, A. (1991), "Face recognition using eigenfaces", Proc. IEEE Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, প্ৰকাশক Maui, Hawaii, pp. 586–591 

{{Citation
 | last1 = Evans | first1 = N. R.
 | last2 = Schaefer | first2 = G.
 | last3 = Bond | first3 = H.
 | last4 = Karovska | first4 = M.
 | last5 = Nelan | first5 = E.
 | last6 = Sasselov | first6 = D.
 | contribution = Direct detection of ...
 | series = American Astronomical...
 | publisher = AAS
 | date = January 9, 2006
 | contribution-url = http://...30.htm }}

Evans, N. R.; Schaefer, G.; Bond, H.; Karovska, M.; Nelan, E.; Sasselov, D. (January 9, 2006), "Direct detection of the close companion of Polaris with the Hubble Space Telescope", American Astronomical Society 207th Meeting, AAS, http://www.aas.org/publications/baas/v37n4/aas207/1130.htm 

court case (legal decision) {{cite court}}
{{cite court
 |litigants =
 |vol =
 |reporter =
 |opinion =
 |pinpoint =
 |court =
 |date =
 |url= }}
{{cite court
 |litigants=Roe v. Wade
 |vol=410
 |reporter=U.S.
 |opinion=113
 |pinpoint=
 |court=
 |date=1973
 |url=http://www.law.corn... }}

Roe v. Wade, 410 U.S. 113 (1973).

encyclopedia,
edited collection
{{cite encyclopedia}}
Title
encyclopedia
{{cite encyclopedia
 | title =
 | encyclopedia =
 | volume =
 | pages =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | id =
 | accessdate = }}
{{cite encyclopedia
 | title = Kirkegaard...
 | encyclopedia = Grote Winkler Pri...
 | editor-last = Winkler Pri...
 | editor-first = Anthony
 | editor-link = Anthony Win...
 | volume = 9
 | publisher = Elsevier
 | year = 1882 }}

Winkler Prins, Anthony, ed (1882). "Kirkegaard, Ole Lund". Grote Winkler Prins. 9. Elsevier. 

{{cite encyclopedia
 | last = Kramer
 | first = Martin
 | authorlink = Martin Kramer
 | editor-last = Boyd
 | editor-first = Kelley
 | title = Bernard Lewis
 | encyclopedia = Encyclopedia of Hist...
 | volume = 1
 | pages = 719–720
 | publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
 | location = London
 | date = 1999
 | url = http://www.oocities.com/mart... }}

Kramer, Martin (1999). "Bernard Lewis". In Boyd, Kelley. Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing. 1. প্ৰকাশক London: Fitzroy Dearborn. pp. 719–720. http://www.oocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm. 

{{Citation}}
contribution=name of article
{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | contribution =
 | year =
 | title =
 | editor-last =
 | editor-first =
 | volume =
 | pages =
 | place =
 | publisher =
 | id = }}
{{Citation
 | contribution = Kirkegaard...
 | title = Grote Winkler Pri...
 | editor-last = Winkler Pri...
 | editor-first = Anthony
 | editor-link = Anthony Win...
 | volume = 9
 | publisher = Elsevier
 | year = 1882 }}

Winkler Prins, Anthony, ed. (1882), "Kirkegaard, Ole Lund", Grote Winkler Prins, 9, Elsevier 

{{Citation
 | last = Kramer
 | first = Martin
 | author-link = Martin Kramer
 | contribution = Bernard Lewis
 | editor-last = Boyd
 | editor-first = Kelley
 | title = Encyclopedia of Historians ...
 | volume = 1
 | pages = 719–720
 | publisher = Fitzroy Dearborn
 | place = London
 | year = 1999
 | contribution-url = http://...is.htm }}

Kramer, Martin (1999), "Bernard Lewis", in Boyd, Kelley, Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, 1, প্ৰকাশক London: Fitzroy Dearborn, pp. 719–720, http://www.oocities.com/martinkramerorg/BernardLewis.htm 

episode
(television or radio)
{{cite episode}}
title
{{cite episode
| title =
| episodelink =
| url =
| series =
| serieslink =
| credits =
| network =
| station =
| city =
| airdate =
| began =
| ended =
| season =
| seriesno =
| number =
| minutes =
| transcript =
| transcripturl= }}
{{cite episode
| title = BBC-TV Presents: ...
| episodelink = BBC Snooker World ...
| url =
| series = Wide World of Snooker
| serieslink = Wide World of Snooker ...
| credits = Presenters: [[Dennis ...
| network = [[BBC]]
| station = [[BBC Two]]
| city = [[Sheffield]], ...
| airdate = 2008-04-27
| minutes = 2:34}}

"BBC-TV Presents: The 2008 World Snooker Championship Live at The Crucible". Presenters: Dennis Taylor and Clive Everton. Wide World of Snooker. BBC. BBC Two, Sheffield, England. 2008-04-27. 2:34 minutes in.

{{cite episode
 | title = Duet
 | episodelink = Duet (Stargate Atlant...
 | series = Stargate Atlantis
 | serieslink = Stargate Atlantis
 | airdate = August 5, 2005
 | season = 2
 | number = 4 }}

"Duet". Stargate Atlantis. August 5, 2005. No. 4, season 2.

mailing list {{cite mailing list}}
title
url
{{cite mailing list
 | last =
 | first =
 | authorlink =
 | title =
 | mailinglist =
 | date =
 | url =
 | accessdate = }}
{{cite mailing list
 |last=Murdock
 |first=Ian
 |authorlink=Ian Murdock
 |title=Debian GNU/Linux 0.9...
 |mailinglist=debian-announce
 |date=26 October 1995
 |url=http://lists.debian.or...
 |accessdate=20 April 2007 }}

Murdock, Ian (26 October 1995). "Debian GNU/Linux 0.93 Release 6 now available". debian-announce mailing list. http://lists.debian.org/debian-announce/debian-announce-1995/msg00007.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 20 April 2007. 

map {{cite map}}
publisher
title
edition
{{cite map
 |publisher =
 |title =
 |url =
 |edition =
 |section =
 |accessdate = }}
{{cite map
 |publisher=Kansas Departmen...
 |title=Official State Trans...
 |url=http://www.ksdot.org/b...
 |edition=2005-2006
 |section=F9
 |accessdate=March 30, 2007 }}

Kansas Department of Transportation. Official State Transportation Map (Map) (2005-2006 সম্পাদনা). Section F9. http://www.ksdot.org/burtransplan/maps/state-pdf/kansas0708.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: March 30, 2007. 

{{cite map
 |publisher=Skelly Oil Company
 |title=Highway Map of Oklahoma
 |cartography=Diversified Map Co
 |edition=1966
 |section=11C }}

Skelly Oil Company. Highway Map of Oklahoma (Map). Cartography by Diversified Map Co (1966 সম্পাদনা). Section 11C. 

news article {{cite news}}
Title
{{cite news
 | last =
 | first =
 | coauthors =
 | title =
 | newspaper =
 | location =
 | pages =
 | language =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | url =
 | accessdate = }}
{{cite news
 | last = Finn
 | first = Gary
 | title = What a growing lad needs is ...
 | pages =
 | newspaper = The Independent
 | location = London
 | date = 31 August 1998
 | url = http://www.independent.co.uk ...
}}

Finn, Gary (31 August 1998). "What a growing lad needs is a naughty book, says Blair". The Independent (London). http://www.independent.co.uk/news/what-a-growing-lad-needs-is-a-naughty-book-says-blair-1175187.html. 

{{cite news
 | last = Andersen
 | first = David
 | coauthors = Witter, Lameen
 | title = Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO...
 | work = Marine Corps News
 | date = 17 February 2006
 | url = http://www.military.com/Caree...
 | accessdate = 6 June 2006 }}

Andersen, David; Witter, Lameen (17 February 2006). "Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO Talks About His Rise to Success". Marine Corps News. http://www.military.com/Careers/Content1?file=careersArticlesGoDaddy.htm&area=Reference। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 6 June 2006. 

{{Citation}}
newspaper (or magazine, journal, periodical)
{{Citation
 | last =
 | first =
 | author-link =
 | last2 =
 | first2 =
 | author2-link =
 | title =
 | newspaper =
 | pages =
 | year =
 | date =
 | url =
 | archiveurl =
 | archivedate =
 | accessdate = }}
{{Citation
 | last = Finn
 | first = Gary
 | title = What a growing lad needs is ...
 | pages =
 | newspaper = The Independent
 | location = London
 | date = 31 August 1998
 | url =http://www.independent.co.uk ...
 | archiveurl = http://www.webcitation ...
 | archivedate = 2010-03-06
}}

Finn, Gary (31 August 1998), "What a growing lad needs is a naughty book, says Blair", The Independent (London), archived from the original on 2010-03-06, http://www.webcitation.org/5o2QlSnnD 

{{Citation
 | last1 = Andersen | first1 = David
 | last2 = Witter | first2 = Lameen
 | title = Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO...
 | newspaper = Marine Corps News
 | date = 17 February 2006
 | year = 2006
 | url = http://www.military.com/Ca...
 | accessdate = 2 June 2006
}}

Andersen, David; Witter, Lameen (17 February 2006), "Former Marine, Go Daddy CEO Talks About His Rise to Success", Marine Corps News, http://www.military.com/Careers/Content1?file=careersArticlesGoDaddy.htm&area=Reference, r কৰা হৈছে: 2 June 2006 

newsgroup
posting
(DO NOT
USE TO
VERIFY)
{{cite newsgroup}}
Title
{{cite newsgroup
 | title =
 | author =
 | date =
 | newsgroup =
 | id =
 | url =
 | accessdate = }}
{{cite newsgroup
 | author = Gary S. Terhune
 | title = Lost Ctrl-Alt-Del...
 | date = January 11, 2004
 | newsgroup = microsoft.pub...
 | id = uAIVMjC2DHA.2336@TK2...
 | url = http://groups.googl...
 | accessdate = May 16, 2006 }}

Gary S. Terhune (January 11, 2004). "Lost Ctrl-Alt-Del function on W98, 2nd". microsoft.public.win98.gen_discussion. (Web link). সংগ্ৰহ কৰা হৈছে: May 16, 2006.

{{cite newsgroup
 | title = How can helping "Kids in Af...
 | author = Trodel
 | date = June 10, 2006
 | newsgroup= humanities.philosophy.ob...
 | id = 1149950890.204481.35810@h76g20...
 | url = http://groups.google.com/grou...
 | accessdate = July 3, 2006 }}

Trodel (June 10, 2006). "How can helping "Kids in Africa" be in my self interest". humanities.philosophy.objectivism. (Web link). সংগ্ৰহ কৰা হৈছে: July 3, 2006.

patent {{Citation}}
inventor-last
{{Citation
 | inventor-last =
 | inventor-first =
 | inventorlink =
 | inventor2-last =
 | inventor2-first =
 | inventorlink2 =
 | publication-date =
 | issue-date =
 | title =
 | country-code =
 | description =
 | patent-number = }}
{{Citation
 | inventor1-last = Degermark
 | inventor1-first = Mikael
 | inventor2-last = Brodnik
 | inventor2-first = Andrej
 | inventor3-last = Carlsson
 | inventor3-first = Svante
 | inventor4-last = Pink
 | inventor4-first = Stephen
 | title = Fast routing lookup system
using complete prefix tree, bit vector,
and pointers in a routing table for
determining where to route IP datagrams
 | issue-date = 2001
 | patent-number = 6266706
 | country-code = US}}

US 6266706, Degermark, Mikael; Andrej Brodnik & Svante Carlsson et al., "Fast routing lookup system using complete prefix tree, bit vector, and pointers in a routing table for determining where to route IP datagrams", issued 2001 

press release {{cite press release}}
Title
{{cite press release
 | title =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | url =
 | accessdate = }}
{{cite press release
 | title = Nature compares W...
 | publisher = The Wikimedia...
 | date = 15 December 2005
 | url = http://en.wikipedia...
 | accessdate = 3 July 2006 }}

"Nature compares Wikipedia and Britannica" (Press release). The Wikimedia Foundation. 15 December 2005. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Press_releases/Nature_compares_Wikipedia_and_Britannica। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 3 July 2006. 

{{cite press release
 | title = HFPA Announces Timetable fo...
 | publisher = [[Hollywood Foreign P...]]
 | date = May 25, 2006
 | url = http://www.hfpa.org/news/id/32
 | accessdate = June 13, 2006 }}

"HFPA Announces Timetable for 64th Annual Golden Globe Awards" (Press release). Hollywood Foreign Press Association. May 25, 2006. http://www.hfpa.org/news/id/32। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: June 13, 2006. 

video
(movie, television production, documentary, etc.)
{{cite video}}
people
title
{{cite video
 | people =
 | title =
 | medium =
 | publisher =
 | location =
 | date =
 | url = }}
{{cite video
 | people = Al-Issawi, Omar (Director)
 | title = [http://www.imdb...]
 | medium = Television production
 | publisher = Al-Issawi, Om...
 | location = Lebanon
 | date = 2001 }}

Al-Issawi, Omar (Director) (2001). Harab libnan (Television production). Lebanon: Al-Issawi, Omar.  External link in |title= (help)

{{cite video
 | people = Dick Cavett
 | title = The Dick Cavett Show — Rock...
 | medium = DVD
 | publisher = Shout Factory
 | date = 2005 }}

Dick Cavett (2005). The Dick Cavett Show — Rock Icons (1969) (DVD). Shout Factory. 

video game {{cite video game}}
title
developer
{{cite video game
 | title =
 | developer =
 | publisher =
 | date =
 | platform =
 | version =
 | level =
 | language =
 | isolang =
 | quote = }}
{{cite video game
 |title=[[Halo 3]]
 |developer= [[Bungie]]
 |publisher=[[Microsoft Game Studios]]
 |date=September 25, 2007
 |platform=[[Xbox 360]]
 |version=1.0
 |level=The Storm
 |language=English
 |isolang=
 |quote='''Arbiter''': More Brutes? /...

Bungie. Halo 3 (in English). (Microsoft Game Studios). Xbox 360, (v1.0). Level/area: The Storm. (September 25, 2007) "Arbiter: More Brutes? / Master Chief: Worse."


Harvard reference and shortened footnote examples[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

These templates automatically create a one-directional link to the first matching citation template on the same page. All the following templates are supported: {{citation}} · {{cite book}} · {{cite journal}} · {{cite web}} · {{cite conference}} · {{cite encyclopedia}} · {{cite mailing list}} · {{cite manual}} · {{cite news}} · {{cite press release}} · {{cite arXiv}} · {{cite video}} (an up-to-date list is at Template:Citation/core). To use the links, the template must define "Surname" (or "Last") and "Year" and must include |

What to type What it makes
  • Article text.{{sfn|Turner|1851|pp=10-11}} (Shortened footnote template)
  • Article text.{{sfn|Smith|1879|p=289}}

==Notes==
{{reflist}}

  • Article text.[1]
  • Article text.[2]
Notes
  1. ^Turner 1851, পৃষ্ঠা 10-11
  2. ^Smith 1879, পৃষ্ঠা 289
  • {{Harvard citation|Turner|1851|pp=10–11}}
  • {{Harv|Smith|1879|p=289}}
  • {{Harvtxt|Turner|1851}} asserts that ... (author's name part of text)
  • {{Harvnb|Smith|1879}} (no brackets)
  • {{Harv|Lincoln|Washington|Adams|Johnson|2007|pp=88–89}} (multi-author)

Three Harvcol templates are altered to use colons to indicate page numbers.

Harvcol templates

Variations[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Wikipedia does not dictate a particular way to insert citations into an article. As a result, there are multiple ways to structure citations in an article; multiple ways to insert individual citations; and multiple ways to link short-form inline citations with the full-form citations in the bibliography, when using a style that calls for short-form citations.

There are three primary ways to format individual citations:

  1. By hand. When using inline citations (see below), these are simply typed directly; however, when using shortened footnotes or parenthetical references, these can be surrounded with {{wikicite}} to ensure that the appropriate shortened references are linked to the full references below.
  2. Using the Citation Style 1 templates, such as {{cite book}}, {{cite web}}, {{cite journal}}, or {{cite news}}.
  3. Using the generic {{Citation}} template.

The main differences between the generic {{Citation}} template and the specific Citation Style 1 templates are:

  1. The Citation Style 1 templates produce citations with individual sections (e.g. title, author, publisher, etc.) separated by periods, with a trailing period, while {{Citation}} separates sections with a comma and has no trailing punctuation. (However, this can be changed using the |separator= and |postscript= parameters.)
  2. Not all Citation Style 1 templates can easily be replaced by the {{Citation}} template. Generally, any Citation Style 1 template of a general nature (e.g. book; web site; journal or newspaper article; article in an edited collection or encyclopedia; etc.) can be replaced, but specialized templates (court cases, comic books, video games, etc.) cannot very easily.
  3. Some of the parameter names differ. For example, citing an article in an edited collection uses the misnamed {{cite encyclopedia}} template, with |title= for the article name and |encyclopedia= for the collection name; the equivalent parameters in {{Citation}} are named ​contribution​ and ​title​, respectively.
  4. When using parenthetical referencing, a Harv templates template that identifies a citation by author and year will automatically link to the appropriate citation elsewhere in the article if created using {{Citation}}. If created using Citation Style 1, however, a |ref=harv parameter must be added.

There are also at least three ways to structure citations as a whole in an article:

  1. Inline citations. These simply place the citation inside of a <ref></ref> reference, which inserts a small bracketed, superscripted number. When clicked on, it links to a correspondingly-numbered footnote (more properly an endnote) placed elsewhere in the article. The footnotes themselves are inserted using {{reflist}}, which is typically placed by itself in a Notes (or References) section near the end of the article. When there are multiple references to the same citation, typing can be saved by using <ref name="foo">...</ref> the first time, and just <ref name="foo"/> elsewhere. When there are citations that differ only in page number, there are two alternatives: write all the citations out in full, including the page number, or use one citation without page numbers along with the {{rp}} template to add an inline page number after the small bracketed footnote number.
  2. Shortened footnotes. Instead of the full-form citation appearing in the footnote, a shortened form appears, giving only the author and year (or in some styles, a shortened version of the article or book title), and page number if appropriate. The full citation appears later on, in a bibliography section. This usually follows directly after the footnotes, is titled "References" or "Bibliography", and contains all relevant citations, listed in alphabetical order. This style is especially appropriate when there are large numbers of references overall and frequent cases of multiple references to the same work, especially in the presence of differing page numbers.
  3. Parenthetical references. These are conceptually similar to shortened footnotes, but the shortened reference appears inline in the text, in parentheses, rather than in a footnote.

When using shortened footnotes or parenthetical references, there are multiple ways to link the shortened and full-form references:

  1. Don't link them. This happens by default when the shortened references are typed in by hand.
  2. Insert manual links. These look like e.g. [[#refPereira2006|Pereira 2006, p. 25]]. The anchor #refPereira2006 is attached to the full-form citation by surrounding it with {{wikicite}} (if inserted by hand), or adding a |ref= parameter to the citation template.
  3. Insert links using a Harv templates template, e.g. {{Harvnb|Pereira|2006|p=25}}. This will insert "Pereira 2006, পৃষ্ঠা 25" into the text and link it to the citation with the corresponding last name and year. As mentioned above, when using a Citation Style 1 template, the parameter |ref=harv must be added, but this is unnecessary for {{Citation}}. When using parenthetical references, the plain {{Harv}} template is used, which automatically inserts parentheses. Other variations format the page number or parentheses differently.
  4. Use the {{sfn}} template for the whole of the footnote. The {{sfn}} template creates its own named <ref></ref> tags: {{sfn|Pereira|2006|p=25}} is exactly equivalent to <ref name=FOOTNOTEPereira200625>[[#CITEREFPereira2006|Pereira 2006]], p. 25.</ref> which is itself equivalent to <ref name=FOOTNOTEPereira200625>{{Harvnb|Pereira|2006|p=25}}</ref>.

See also WP:Footnotes and WP:Citing sources for general information, and WP:CITEX for specific examples of exactly how to write the code for various combinations of the above styles.

Notes[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. In contrast to parenthetical referencing or shortened footnotes, citations using the footnote system don't require wikilinks of course, as the inline citations in this method simply appear as numbers within the text, linking to a list of full citations (and notes) at the end of the article (like this).
  2. Notes on {{cite comic}}:
    • This template allows for a cartoonist field to be used instead of the individual fields if there is a sole creator, as in Bone, or an artist field if the penciller and inker is the same person.
    • The style of this template is based on Allen Ellis' Comic Art in Scholarly Writing: A Citation Guide, 1999.
    • See the talk page for more details and field explanations.
  3. Notes on {{comic strip reference}}