সাঁচ:মুদ্ৰাস্ফীতি

অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ পৰা
নেভিগেশ্যনলৈ যাওক সন্ধানলৈ যাওক

সাঁচ:Inflation/update warning

This template calculates inflation based on several inflation index data sets. The template uses an identification code for an inflation index (usually a country code), an original value, an original start_year and either a specific reference end_year or by default the latest currently available end year,[1] and calculates the equivalent value from historical economic changes between the original and reference years. For example, this template calls the United States inflation table located in the sub-template Template:Inflation/US/dataset to perform the U.S. calculation.

Aside from a convenient way to calculate values from different specified time periods, this template allows a regularly automatically updated calculation of value based on the most recent available inflation data. Whenever inflation tables are updated, potentially annually, all articles using this template have their displayed values updated accordingly.

Usage[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

{{Inflation|index|value|start_year}}
{{Inflation|index|value|start_year|end_year}}
{{Inflation|index|value|start_year|r=decimals|fmt=c}}
{{Inflation|index|value|start_year|r=decimals|fmt=eq}}
{{Inflation|index|value|start_year|r=decimals|fmt=eq|cursign=X}}

The supported countries are listed below, with their index and available data periods:

index Country start_year minimum end_year maximum
AR Argentina[2] সাঁচ:Inflation/AR/startyear 2020
AT Austria[3] সাঁচ:Inflation/AT/startyear 2018
AU Australia[4] সাঁচ:Inflation/AU/startyear 2018
AU-road Australia [...?][5] সাঁচ:Inflation/AU-road/startyear 2018
BD Bangladesh[6] সাঁচ:Inflation/BD/startyear 2014
BE Belgium[7] সাঁচ:Inflation/BE/startyear 2020
BR Brazil[8] সাঁচ:Inflation/BR/startyear 2020
CA Canada[9] সাঁচ:Inflation/CA/startyear 2020
CH Switzerland[10] সাঁচ:Inflation/CH/startyear 2021
CL Chile[11] সাঁচ:Inflation/CL/startyear 2020
CN China[12] সাঁচ:Inflation/CN/startyear 2019
DE Germany[13][সংযোগবিহীন উৎস] সাঁচ:Inflation/DE/startyear 2017
DK Denmark[14] সাঁচ:Inflation/DK/startyear 2007
EG Egypt[15] সাঁচ:Inflation/EG/startyear 2018
ES Spain[16] সাঁচ:Inflation/ES/startyear 2019
FI Finland[17] সাঁচ:Inflation/FI/startyear 2007
FR France[18] সাঁচ:Inflation/FR/startyear 2020
GR Greece[19] সাঁচ:Inflation/GR/startyear 2007
HK Hong Kong[20] সাঁচ:Inflation/HK/startyear 2020
ID Indonesia[21] সাঁচ:Inflation/ID/startyear 2007
IL Israel[22] সাঁচ:Inflation/IL/startyear 2021
IN India[23] সাঁচ:Inflation/IN/startyear 2019
IR Iran[24] সাঁচ:Inflation/IR/startyear 1398
IS Iceland[25] সাঁচ:Inflation/IS/startyear 2020
IT Italy[26] সাঁচ:Inflation/IT/startyear 2020
JP Japan[27] সাঁচ:Inflation/JP/startyear 2019
MX Mexico[28] সাঁচ:Inflation/MX/startyear 2007
NL Netherlands[29] সাঁচ:Inflation/NL/startyear 2016
NO Norway[30] সাঁচ:Inflation/NO/startyear 2017
PE Peru[31] সাঁচ:Inflation/PE/startyear 2017
PH Philippines[32] সাঁচ:Inflation/PH/startyear 2019
PK Pakistan[33] সাঁচ:Inflation/PK/startyear 2019
PL Poland[34] সাঁচ:Inflation/PL/startyear 2007
PT Portugal[35] সাঁচ:Inflation/PT/startyear 2007
RU Russia[36] সাঁচ:Inflation/RU/startyear 2007
SE Sweden[37] সাঁচ:Inflation/SE/startyear 2009
SG Singapore[38] সাঁচ:Inflation/SG/startyear 2020
TH Thailand[39] সাঁচ:Inflation/TH/startyear 2020
TR Turkey[40] সাঁচ:Inflation/TR/startyear 2021
TW Taiwan[41] সাঁচ:Inflation/TW/startyear 2021
UK United Kingdom[42] সাঁচ:Inflation/UK/startyear 2019
UK-GDP United Kingdom GDP deflator[43] সাঁচ:Inflation/UK-GDP/startyear 2019
US United States[44] 1634 2020
US-GDP United States GDP deflator[45] সাঁচ:Inflation/US-GDP/startyear 2019
ZAR South Africa[46] সাঁচ:Inflation/ZAR/startyear 2018
KRW South Korea[47] সাঁচ:Inflation/KRW/startyear 2017

Parameters[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  • |index= (parameter 1), required, an index code for one of several available inflation indexes.
  • |value= (parameter 2), required, original price or value from which to base the inflation calculation on. Will ignore any commas, but must not have a currency symbol.
  • |start_year= (parameter 3), required, original year from which to base the inflation calculation on. Must be a year available in the chosen inflation index. As an exception to this, if the current year is specified and no end_year is specified, the template will output value unchanged, as it can be assumed an inflation of zero.
  • |end_year= (parameter 4), optional, reference year for which to calculate inflation. Must be higher (later) than start_year, but not higher than the highest (most recent) year available in the chosen inflation index, and will default to the highest (most recent) available year if omitted.
  • |r=digit sets the digits to which the value must be rounded. A negative value indicates rounding to an upper significant digit, and a positive value indicates a fractional digit including trailing zeros. Defaults to 0, i.e., without cents.
  • |fmt=c will insert thousands separator commas into the calculated value.
  • |fmt=eq will show an equivalent-to phrase, in the format, "equivalent to cursignend_value in end_year". Uses thousands separator commas.
    • |cursign= will set the currency symbol to be shown. Only functions when |fmt=eq is used. Can use advanced symbol formats, but can only precede the calculated value. Default is $.
    • |orig=yes will display the original value too, with the currency sign provided.

Examples[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  • Green tickY {{Inflation|KRW|100|2000}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=KRW (parameter 1) not a recognized index.
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|DE|100|2000}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=DE (parameter 1) not a recognized index.
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|US|595|1982}}1596
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=eq}}equivalent to $1,596 in 2020
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|US|800|1942|fmt=eq|r=-3}}equivalent to $13,000 in 2020
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|US|100|2010|2012|fmt=eq|r=2}}equivalent to $105.28 in 2012
  • Green tickY US$595 ({{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=eq}})US$595 (equivalent to $1,596 in 2020)
  • Green tickY US$595 ({{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=eq|cursign=[[United States dollar|US$]]}})US$595 (equivalent to US$1,596 in 2020)
  • Green tickY $21 million (equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|21|2005|r=2}} million in {{Inflation/year|US}})$21 million (equivalent to $27.83 million in 2020)
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|UK|1|1209|fmt=eq|cursign=£}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=UK (parameter 1) not a recognized index.
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|AU|100|2021|fmt=eq}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=AU (parameter 1) not a recognized index.
  • Green tickY ${{Inflation|US|100|2021}} in {{Inflation/year|US}}$100 in 2020
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|UK|100|1982|fmt=eq|orig=yes|cursign=£}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=UK (parameter 1) not a recognized index.)

It is possible to use the template in incorrect ways without producing error messages. Please read the warnings and appropriate uses of this template at the beginning of the template description.

  • Red XN {{Inflation|UK|10|1971|fmt=eq}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=UK (parameter 1) not a recognized index. (Omitting the |cursign= parameter will show the $ symbol by default, which is the wrong currency symbol for British currency)
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|UK|10|1971|fmt=eq|cursign=£}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=UK (parameter 1) not a recognized index.
  • Red XN $595 (${{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=c}} today)$595 ($1,596 today) (Misleading time reference)
  • Red XN $595 (${{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=c}} in {{CURRENTYEAR}})$595 ($1,596 in 2021) (Misleading time reference)
  • Red XN $100 (${{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=c}} adjusted for inflation)$100 ($1,596 adjusted for inflation) (Misleading time reference)
  • Green tickY $595 ({{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=eq}})$595 (equivalent to $1,596 in 2020)
  • Green tickY $595 (equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|595|1982|fmt=c}} in {{Inflation/year|US}})$595 (equivalent to $1,596 in 2020)
  • Red XN Jane Doe amassed a fortune of $1 billion in 1975, making her worth ${{Inflation|US|1|1975|fmt=c}} billion in {{Inflation/year|US}}.Jane Doe amassed a fortune of $1 billion in 1975, making her worth $5 billion in 2020. (CPI is not for personal wealth of the wealthy – use GDP deflator instead)
  • Red XN Jane Doe amassed a fortune of $1 billion in 1975, equivalent to ${{Inflation|US|1|1975|fmt=c}} billion in {{Inflation/year|US}}.Jane Doe amassed a fortune of $1 billion in 1975, equivalent to $5 billion in 2020. (CPI is not for personal wealth of the wealthy – use GDP deflator instead)
  • Green tickY Jane Doe amassed a fortune of $1 billion in 1975, equivalent to ${{Inflation|US-GDP|1|1975|fmt=c}} billion in {{Inflation/year|US-GDP}}.Jane Doe amassed a fortune of $1 billion in 1975, equivalent to $Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=US-GDP (parameter 1) not a recognized index. billion in 2019

Entering invalid parameters or omitting required parameters will result in an error message and categorization into Category:Pages with errors in inflation template.

  • Red XN {{Inflation}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index= (parameter 1), |value= (parameter 2) and |start_year= (parameter 3) must be specified.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|abc}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |value= (parameter 2) and |start_year= (parameter 3) must be specified.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |value= (parameter 2) and |start_year= (parameter 3) must be specified.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |start_year= (parameter 3) must be specified.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|abc|€100|1980}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=abc (parameter 1) not a recognized index.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|DE|€100|1980}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=DE (parameter 1) not a recognized index.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|DE|€100|zzzz|zzzz|r=zzzz}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=DE (parameter 1) not a recognized index.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100|1200|2022}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=AU (parameter 1) not a recognized index.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100|2005|2004}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=AU (parameter 1) not a recognized index. (see the Limitations section below)
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100|2005|2022|fmt=eq}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=AU (parameter 1) not a recognized index.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100|2021|2022|fmt=eq}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=AU (parameter 1) not a recognized index.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100|2021|1905|fmt=eq}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=AU (parameter 1) not a recognized index.
  • Red XN {{Inflation|AU|100|2022|fmt=eq}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=AU (parameter 1) not a recognized index.

Tips & tricks[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Currency conversion[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Many datasets are currency agnostic, which means they doesn't convert between different currencies. Thus, if you wanted to know today's equivalent value of 1,000.00 Austrian schillings in 1960, entering {{Inflation|AT|1000|1960|r=2}} would provide a result (Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=AT (parameter 1) not a recognized index.) still in schillings, not in euros.

Consequently, if you need a result in a currency other than the one in which the original value is stated, for now you must do the conversion manually, as in the following example which uses the defined conversion rate of 13.7603 schillings to one Euro:

  • Green tickY {{#expr:({{Inflation|AT|1000|1960|r=2}} / 0.0726728342) round 2}}এক্সপ্ৰেছন ত্ৰুটী: অবাঞ্চিত < অপাৰেটৰ

Some datasets are not currency agnostic; check the sources for each dataset to determine this.

সাঁচ:ToDo A currency conversion template to ease these conversion tasks is planned. This section will be updated accordingly once it's developed.

Non-decimal inputs[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The template does not accept non-decimal inputs such as £sd; these must be decimalized beforehand. For example, if you wanted to know the value of three shillings and sixpence (3s 6d) Sterling in 1950 in 2018, you must convert to the appropriate decimal value (in this case £0.175) for use in the template:

  • Green tickY {{Inflation|GBP|0.175|1950|2018}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=GBP (parameter 1) not a recognized index.

For £sd specifically {{Pounds, shillings, and pence}} can be used to convert to decimal. For other non-decimal currencies, such as the old Indian rupee, templates can be made for decimalization upon request.

  • Green tickY {{Inflation|GBP|{{Pounds, shillings, and pence|s=3|d=6}}|1950|2018|r=0|fmt=eq|cursign=£}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=UK (parameter 1) not a recognized index.
  • Green tickY {{Inflation|UK|{{Pounds, shillings, and pence|s=10|d=6}}|1865|fmt=eq|cursign=£}}Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=UK (parameter 1) not a recognized index.

Rounding[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

By default the values are calculated to the unit, as for all but very low values cents are undesirable. You can specify rounding with the |r= parameter which determines the number of decimals. To obtain cents use |r=2, but other values can be used, including negative ones: |r=-3, for example, will round to the nearest thousand, |r=-6 to the nearest million, and so on. It is advisable to avoid excessive precision; even if the start value is known to be exact, the template's result will not be because the inflation index tables are rarely accurate to more than about 1%, and a granularity of whole years is used.

Very large results[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Very large results are expressed in scientific notation ("1.2E+14" instead of "120000000000000") which is normally not desirable. A workaround is to express the value to be inflated with fewer digits, adding a multiplier text such as "trillion" after the result, using the "Show preview" button as many times as needed, changing parameters until the best result is found:

  • Green tickY ${{Inflation|US-GDP|1000000000000|1900|r=-11|fmt=c}}$Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=US-GDP (parameter 1) not a recognized index.
  • Red XN ${{Inflation|US-GDP|10000000000000|1900|r=-12|fmt=c}}$Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=US-GDP (parameter 1) not a recognized index.
  • Red XN ${{Inflation|US-GDP|10000000000|1900|r=-9|fmt=c}}&nbsp;thousand$Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=US-GDP (parameter 1) not a recognized index. thousand
  • Green tickY ${{Inflation|US-GDP|10000000|1900|r=-6|fmt=c}}&nbsp;million$Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=US-GDP (parameter 1) not a recognized index. million
  • Green tickY ${{Inflation|US-GDP|10000|1900|r=-3|fmt=c}}&nbsp;billion$Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=US-GDP (parameter 1) not a recognized index. billion
  • Green tickY ${{Inflation|US-GDP|10|1900|fmt=c}}&nbsp;trillion$Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=US-GDP (parameter 1) not a recognized index. trillion

The following section provides an automated way of avoiding this trial and error scenario.

Format price[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

{{Format price}} is a template specifically designed to display price values, both big and small, in a readable way. For example, instead of showing the whole of a huge number such as "953,783,409,856.12", it would show it as "সাঁচ:Format price/digits billion", while small numbers have their cents part appearing as expected, "1234.5" being properly shown as "সাঁচ:Format price/digits".

  • Green tickY ${{Format price|{{Inflation|US-GDP|10000000000000|1900}}}}$Format price error: cannot parse value "Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=US-GDP (parameter 1) not a recognized index."
  • Green tickY ${{Format price|{{Inflation|US-GDP|1000000|1990}}}}$Format price error: cannot parse value "Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=US-GDP (parameter 1) not a recognized index."
  • Green tickY DM {{Format price|{{Inflation|DE|1000000|1957|1978}}}}DM Format price error: cannot parse value "Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=DE (parameter 1) not a recognized index."
  • Green tickY £{{Format price|{{Inflation|UK-GDP|1000|1323}}}}£Format price error: cannot parse value "Error when using {{Inflation}}: |index=UK (parameter 1) not a recognized index."

Documenting[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

It's a good practice to provide a valid reference for the prices calculated with this template in articles where it's used. The template {{Inflation/fn}} was developed to ease this task. It accepts as its single parameter the same country codes used here, and will generate one or more appropriate footnotes. Typically, this is how a piece of text using it looks like:

  • In 1985 a unit cost on average $1,040. This is {{Inflation|US|1040|1985|fmt=eq}}.{{Inflation/fn|US}}

Resulting in this converted code (notice the footnote link at the end):

  • In 1985 a unit cost on average $1,040. This is equivalent to $2,503 in 2020.[44]

The footnote thus generated appears whenever {{reflist}} or <references /> is used in an article, usually in its "References" section. See below for the live example in this document's own References section, or click the above generated footnote to jump to it.

Limitations[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. Currently it isn't possible to "de-inflate" a value to what it would have been in a previous year. If you need this functionality, please request it at the talk page. Adding it won't be difficult, but there's no point in doing so before someone actually needs it.
  2. Substitution isn't supported at all. Trying to {{subst:Inflation|...}} would only result in a long sequence of embedded parser code without any direct benefit. If you need to obtain an inflated price only once, please use the special ExpandTemplates page then copy the result and paste it at the desired location.

Developer documentation[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

An inflation series represents templates in the following categories:

  • Template:Inflation/index
  • Template:Inflation/index/dataset
  • Template:Inflation/index/startyear
  • Template:Inflation/doc/index (Which is then displayed at Inflation/name/dataset as the documentation, and needs to refer to the original data source)

Modifications need to be made to:

Current subpages:

Pages with the prefix 'Inflation' in the 'Template' and 'Template talk' namespaces:

Template talk:

Useful sources[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

TemplateData[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

This is the TemplateData documentation for this template used by VisualEditor and other tools.

See the monthly error report for this template.

TemplateData for মুদ্ৰাস্ফীতি

This template calculates inflation based on several inflation index data sets. Note that this template defaults to calculating the inflation of Consumer Price Index values: staples, workers' rent, small service bills (doctor's costs, train tickets). For inflating capital expenses, government expenses, or the personal wealth and expenditure of the rich, the US-GDP or UK-GDP indexes should be used, which calculate inflation based on the [[gross domestic product]] (GDP) for the [[United States]] and [[United Kingdom]], respectively.

সাঁচ পেৰামিটাৰ

এই সাঁচে পেৰামিটাৰসমূহৰ ইনলাইন ফৰ্মেটিং পছন্দ কৰে।

পেৰামিটাৰবিৱৰণপ্ৰকাৰস্থিতি
Indexindex 1

An index code for one of several available inflation indexes. One of AU, AU-road, BD, CA, DE, IN, JP, PH, PK, UK, UK-GDP, US, US-GDP, ZAR, and various others.

উদাহৰণ
US
ষ্ট্ৰিংপ্ৰয়োজনীয়
Valuevalue 2

Original price or value from which to base the inflation calculation on. Will ignore any commas.

উদাহৰণ
1000
সংখ্যাপ্ৰয়োজনীয়
Start yearstart_year 3

Original year from which to base the inflation calculation on. Must be a year available in the chosen inflation index. As an exception to this, if the current year is specified and no 'End year' is specified, the template will output value unchanged, as it can be assumed an inflation of zero.

উদাহৰণ
1975
সংখ্যাপ্ৰয়োজনীয়
End yearend_year 4

Reference year for which to calculate inflation. Must be higher (later) than 'Start year', but not higher than the highest (most recent) year available in the chosen inflation index, and will default to the highest (most recent) available year if omitted.

উদাহৰণ
2015
সংখ্যাঐচ্ছিক
Number of digitsr

Sets the digits to which the value must be rounded. A negative value indicates rounding to an upper significant digit, and a positive value indicates a fractional digit including trailing zeros. Defaults to 0.

পূৰ্বনিৰ্ধাৰিত
0
উদাহৰণ
1
সংখ্যাঐচ্ছিক
Formatfmt

"c" will insert thousands separator commas into the calculated value. "eq" will show an equivalent-to phrase, in the format, "equivalent to (cursign)(end_value) in (end_year)". Uses thousands separator commas.

উদাহৰণ
eq
ষ্ট্ৰিংঐচ্ছিক
Currency signcursign

Sets the currency symbol to be shown. Only functions when Format "eq" is used. Can use advanced symbol formats, but can only precede the calculated value. Default is $.

পূৰ্বনিৰ্ধাৰিত
$
উদাহৰণ
ষ্ট্ৰিংঐচ্ছিক

See also[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

References[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. How recently depends on how the data set for each country is constructed, and on the internal tables being updated accordingly every January. Some data tables provide inflation data up to December 31, 2020, others up to roughly June-July 2020, and others yet up to December 31, 2019.
  2. 1864 to 1912: Jeffrey G. Williamson, 1998. Real Wages and Relative Factor Prices in the Third World 1820-1940: Latin America, Appendix, Nominal Wage, Cost of Living, Real Wage, and Land Price in Argentina, 1864-1940 Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1853, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research, 1913 to 1993: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, 1994 to 2020: Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices
  3. 1440 to 1799: Robert C. Allen, Prices and Wages in Vienna, 1439-1913 1800 to 2018: Gerald Hubmann & Clemens Jobst & Michaela Maier, 2020. A new long-run consumer price index for Austria (1800–2018), Monetary Policy & the Economy, Oesterreichische Nationalbank, issue Q3/20, pages 61-88.
  4. 1850-1899: McLean, I.W. (1999), Consumer Prices and Expenditure Patterns in Australia 1850–1914. Australian Economic History Review, 39: 1-28. For later years, Australian Consumer Price Inflation figures follow the Long Term Linked Series provided in Australian Bureau of Statistics (2011) 6461.0 – Consumer Price Index: Concepts, Sources and Methods, 2011 as explained at §§3.10–3.11; this series comprises "from 1901 to 1914, the A Series Retail Price Index; from 1914 to 1946–47, the C Series Retail Price Index; from 1946–47 to 1948–49, a combination of the C Series Index, excluding rent, and the housing group of the CPI; and from 1948–49 onwards, the CPI." (3.10). Retrieved May 4, 2015
  5. Inflated values automatically calculated using the "3101 Road and bridge construction Australia" series provided in Australian Bureau of Statistics (2014) 6427.0 – Producer Price Indexes, Australia, Mar 2014: Table 17 Output of the Construction industries, subdivision and class index numbers. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
  6. Bangladesh – Consumer price index, International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.[সন্দেহজনক ]
  7. 1399 to 1849: Robert C. Allen, Prices and Wages in Antwerp & Belgium, 1366-1913 1850 to 2020: Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices
  8. 1820 to 1911: Guilherme Alexandre Tombolo, O PIB brasileiro nos séculos XIX e XX: duzentos anos de flutuações econômicas – Curitiba, 2013 1912 to 2007: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  9. 1688 to 1923: Geloso, Vincent, A Price Index for Canada, 1688 to 1850 (December 6, 2016). Afterwards, Canadian inflation numbers based on Statistics Canada tables 18-10-0005-01 (formerly CANSIM 326-0021) "Consumer Price Index, annual average, not seasonally adjusted". Statistics Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/cv.action?pid=1810000501#timeframe। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: April 17, 2021.  and table 18-10-0004-13 "Consumer Price Index by product group, monthly, percentage change, not seasonally adjusted, Canada, provinces, Whitehorse, Yellowknife and Iqaluit". Statistics Canada. https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/t1/tbl1/en/cv.action?pid=1810000413#timeframe। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: April 17, 2021. 
  10. 1501 to 1813: Roman Studer, Pascal Schuppli, Deflating Swiss Prices over the Past Five Centuries, Historical Methods, Summer 2008, Volume 41, Number 3. Afterwards, Switzerland inflation numbers based on FSO-EN to 2015, FSO-DE 2015-2021 "CPI, Global index on all index bases". Federal Statistical Office. https://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/en/home/statistics/prices/consumer-price-index.assetdetail.17084204.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: May 14, 2021.  and table 18-10-0004-13 "LIK, Totalindex auf allen Indexbasen". Federal Statistical Office. https://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/en/home/statistics/prices/consumer-price-index.assetdetail.17084203.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: May 14, 2021. 
  11. 1661-1805: Leticia Arroya Abad, Elwyn A. R. Davies, and Jan Luiten van Zanden, Prices and wages in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru 1807 : Guilherme Alexandre Tombolo, Evolución de los Precios en el Siglo XIX 1810 to 2006: 2007 to 2020: Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices
  12. 961-1359: Peter Lindert, China, rice prices 961-1910 (Liu) 1360 to 1729: Robert Allen, Jean-Pascal Bassino, Debin Ma, Christine Moll-Murata, and Jan Luiten Van Zanden Beijing prices 1738-1923 1924 to 1929: Yuru Wang, Urban Wholesale Price Change and Economic Growth in Modern China 1930 to 1948: Chang, K. (1963). The inflationary spiral; the experience in China, 1939-1950 [Cambridge]: Technology Press of Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 1949 to 1951: Burdekin, R.C.K., Wang, F. A Novel End to the Big Inflation in China in 1950 Economics of Planning 32, 211–229 (1999). 1952 to 1978: Gregory C. Chow, Peng Wang, The empirics of inflation in China, Economics Letters, Volume 109, Issue 1, 2010, ISSN 0165-1765. 1979 to 2019: National Bureau of Statistics of China, Consumer Price Index
  13. 1500 to 1850: Ulrich Pfister, 2010. "Consumer prices and wages in Germany, 1500 - 1850," CQE Working Papers 1510, Center for Quantitative Economics (CQE), University of Muenster. 1851-1882: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998. After 1883, German inflation numbers based on data available from Deutsches Statistisches Bundesamt.
  14. Kim Abildgren (2010) Consumer prices in Denmark 1502–2007, Scandinavian Economic History Review, 58:1, 2-24
  15. 1915 to 1993: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998 1994 to 2018: World Bank Inflation, consumer prices (annual %) - Egypt, Arab Rep.
  16. 1276 to 1850: Álvarez-Nogal, C. and De La Escosura, L.P. (2013), The rise and fall of Spain (1270–1850) 1. The Economic History Review, 66: 1-37. 1851 to 2019: MeasuringWorth, What Was Spain's GDP Then?, Consumer Price Index
  17. Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  18. 1262 to 1789 Leonardo Ridolfi, The French economy in the longue durée: a study on real wages, working days and economic performance from Louis IX to the Revolution (1250–1789), Ridolfi, L. (2019). Six Centuries of Real Wages in France from Louis IX to Napoleon III: 1250–1860. The Journal of Economic History, 79(3), 589-627. 1798 to 1809: Mitchell, B. R. (Brian R.). (1975). European historical statistics, 1750-1970. New York: Columbia University Press, 1810 to 1903: Sauvy, Alfred. Variations des prix de 1810 à nos jours. Journal de la société française de statistique, Volume 93 (1952) , pp. 88-104 1904 to 2020: Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques, Coefficient de transformation de l'euro ou du franc d'une année, en euro ou en franc d'une autre année – Base 1998 – série arrêtée
  19. 1833-1913: South-Eastern European Monetary and Economic Statistics from the Nineteenth Century to World War II, published by: Bank of Greece, Bulgarian National Bank, National Bank of Romania, Oesterreichische Nationalbank, 2014, Athens, Sofia, Bucharest, Vienna. Afterwards, Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  20. 1947 to 1980: Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices, afterwards "Consumer Prices, Table E501 : Consumer Price Index at Commodity/Service Section/Group level". www.censtatd.gov.hk. https://www.censtatd.gov.hk/en/scode270.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2021-08-14. 
  21. 1820 to 1919: Williamson J., Real Wages and Relative Factor Prices in the Third World 1820-1940: Asia. 2000, Appendix 3 Nominal Wage, Cost of Living and Real Wage Data for Indonesia Java 1820-1940, Outer Provinces 1878-1939, 1920 to 2007: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  22. "Bank of Israel - Data & Statistics - SeriesData". www.boi.org.il. https://www.boi.org.il/en/DataAndStatistics/Pages/SeriesData.aspx?SeriesCode=CP&DateStart=01/09/1951&DateEnd=30/04/2021&Level=3&Sid=13। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2021-05-25. 
  23. 1595 to 1872: Bob Allen, Prices and Wages in India, 1595-1930 1873 to 1919: Williamson J., Real Wages and Relative Factor Prices in the Third World 1820-1940: Asia. 2000, Appendix 2 Nominal Wage, Cost of Living and Real Wage Data for India 1873-1939 and Land Prices for the Punjab 1871-1939, 1920 to 1953: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, 1954 to 2020: Historic inflation India – CPI inflation, Inflation.eu, http://www.inflation.eu/inflation-rates/india/historic-inflation/cpi-inflation-india.aspx, r কৰা হৈছে: 19 March 2020 
  24. (Persian ভাষাত) The Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (Inflation Rate), Central Bank of Iran, http://media.dotic.ir/uploads/org/158611657006631500.pdf, r কৰা হৈছে: 25 June 2020 
  25. Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices
  26. 1399-1859: Robert Allen, Consumer price indices, nominal / real wages and welfare ratios of building craftsmen and labourers, 1260-1913, Prices and Wages in Naples, 1474-1806, and Prices and Wages in Northern Italy, 1286-1914, 1861 to 1995 Istat, Coefficienti per tradurre valori monetari dei periodi sottoindicati in valori del 2019, 1995 to 2020: Istat, Indice dei prezzi al consumo per l'intera collettività
  27. 1868 to 1938: Williamson J., Nominal Wage, Cost of Living, Real Wage and Land Rent Data for Japan 1831-1938, 1939 to 1945: Bank of Japan Historical Statistics Afterwards, Japanese Historical Consumer Price Index numbers based on data available from the Japanese Statistics Bureau. Japan Historical Consumer Price Index (CPI) – 1970 to 2014 Retrieved 30 July 2014. For between 1946 and 1970, from "昭和戦後史". http://shouwashi.com/transition-consumerprice.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2015-01-24. 
  28. 1525 to 1770: Leticia Arroya Abad, Elwyn A. R. Davies, and Jan Luiten van Zanden, Prices and wages in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru 1771 to 1930: Challú, A., & Gómez-Galvarriato, A. (2015). MEXICO'S REAL WAGES IN THE AGE OF THE GREAT DIVERGENCE, 1730-1930. Revista De Historia Económica / Journal of Iberian and Latin American Economic History, 33 (1), 83-122, 1931 to 1934: Estadísticas Históricas de México, 1935 to 2007: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998.
  29. Historical Prices and Wages, International Institute of Social History, Value of the Guilder versus Euro
  30. Honningdal Grytten, Ola, 2018. "A continuous consumer price index for Norway 1492-2017," Discussion Paper Series in Economics 26/2018, Norwegian School of Economics, Department of Economics.
  31. 1564 to 1824: Leticia Arroya Abad, Elwyn A. R. Davies, and Jan Luiten van Zanden, Prices and wages in Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru 1825 to 1900: Leticia Arroyo Abad, 2016. Despegue frustrado: costo de vida y estándares de vida en el Perú durante el siglo XIX, Revista Economía, Fondo Editorial - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, vol. 39(78), pages 119-148. 1901 to 2017: Cesar Martinelli, Marco Vega La Historia Monetaria y Fiscal de Peru, 1960-2017: Experimentos Radicales de Politica, Inflacion y Estabilizacion
  32. 1899 to 1938: Williamson J., Real Wages and Relative Factor Prices in the Third World 1820-1940: Asia, Nominal Wage, Cost of Living and Real Wage Data for the Philippines 1899-1940 1949 to 1958: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998. Afterwards, Consumer Price Index,Inflation Rate and Purchasing Power of the Peso (national averages)
  33. "Claims on central government, etc. (% GDP)". World Bank. 19 March 2021. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FS.AST.CGOV.GD.ZS. 
  34. 1409 to 1913: Robert C. Allen, Consumer price indices, nominal / real wages and welfare ratios of building craftsmen and labourers, 1260-1913, 1914 to 2007: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  35. 1672 to 1928: Pimenta, Carlos Explicação da Inflação em Portugal. ISEG. Lisbon: UTL. 1929 to 2007: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  36. 1548 to 1675 A.G. Vinogradov, National economy of Russia 1515-2015, 1703 to 1913: Mironov, B. (2010). Wages and Prices in Imperial Russia, 1703-1913. The Russian Review, 69(1), 47-72. Retrieved May 21, 2021, 1914 to 1956: Efremov, Steven M., The Role of Inflation in Soviet History: Prices, Living Standards, and Political Change (2012), 1956 to 1984: CIA, USSR: Estimates of Personal Incomes and Savings 1985 to 1991: Stanley Fischer, 1994. Russia and the Soviet Union Then and Now, NBER Chapters, in: The Transition in Eastern Europe, Volume 1, Country Studies, pages 221-258, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc. 1992: Granville, B. (1993). Price and Currency Reform in Russia and the CIS. Russian & East European Finance and Trade, 29(1), 3-67. Retrieved May 21, 2021, 1992 to 2007: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998
  37. Edvinsson, R., & Söderberg, J. (2010). The evolution of Swedish consumer prices 1290-2008. In Exchange Rates, Prices, and Wages, 1277-2008 (pp. 412–452).
  38. "M212931 - Consumer Price Index (CPI), 2019 As Base Year, Annual". Department of Statistics, Singapore. 25 January 2021. https://www.tablebuilder.singstat.gov.sg/publicfacing/createDataTable.action?refId=16842। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 26 January 2021. 
  39. 1820 to 1941: Williamson J., Real Wages and Relative Factor Prices in the Third World 1820-1940: Asia. 2000, Nominal Wage, Cost of Living and Real Wage Data for Thailand (Siam) 1820-1939, 1944 to 1993: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, 1994 to 2020: Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices
  40. 1585 to 1938: Hakan Berument and Asli Gunay 1 (2007) Inflation Dynamics and its Sources in the Ottoman Empire: 1586–1913, International Review of Applied Economics, 21:2, 207-245, 1939 to 2021: Bank for International Settlements, Consumer prices
  41. 1903 to 1958: Coos Santing, 2007, Inflation 1800-2000, data from OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Economic Outlook. Historical Statistics and Mitchell, B. R. International Historical Statistics, Africa, Asia and Oceania 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, International Historical Statistics, Europe 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, and International Historical Statistics, The Americas 1750-1993 London : Macmillan ; New York : Stockton, 1998, 1959 to 2021: Statistical Bureau of the Republic of China, Time Series of Consumer Price Indices in Taiwan Area
  42. UK Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. https://measuringworth.com/ukearncpi/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: February 2, 2020. 
  43. United Kingdom Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth "consistent series" supplied in Thomas, Ryland; Williamson, Samuel H. (2018). "What Was the U.K. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. http://www.measuringworth.com/datasets/ukgdp/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: February 2, 2020. 
  44. 44.0 44.1 1634 to 1699: McCusker, J. J. (1992). How Much Is That in Real Money? A Historical Price Index for Use as a Deflator of Money Values in the Economy ofthe United States: Addenda et Corrigenda. American Antiquarian Society. https://www.americanantiquarian.org/proceedings/44525121.pdf.  1700-1799: McCusker, J. J. (1992). How much is that in real money?: a historical price index for use as a deflator of money values in the economy of the United States. American Antiquarian Society. https://www.americanantiquarian.org/proceedings/44517778.pdf.  1800–present: Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". https://www.minneapolisfed.org/about-us/monetary-policy/inflation-calculator/consumer-price-index-1800-। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: January 1, 2020. 
  45. Thomas, Ryland; Williamson, Samuel H. (2020). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. http://www.measuringworth.com/datasets/usgdp/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: September 22, 2020  United States Gross Domestic Product deflator figures follow the Measuring Worth series.
  46. South Africa – Consumer price index, International Monetary Fund, International Financial Statistics and data files.[সন্দেহজনক ]
  47. 1906 to 1911: Williamson J., Nominal Wage, Cost of Living, Real Wage and Land Rent Data for Korea 1906-1939 1912 to 1939: Mizoguchi, T. (1972). CONSUMER PRICES AND REAL WAGES IN TAIWAN AND KOREA UNDER JAPANESE RULE. Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, 13(1), 40-56. Retrieved May 21, 2021. Afterwards, consumer Price index from Statistics Korea. Consumer Price Index by year. Retrieved 3 April 2018