ৰাফায়েল

অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ পৰা
ৰাফায়েল (Raphael)

Portrait of Raphael[1]
নাম Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino
জন্ম মাৰ্চ ২৮, ১৪৮৩ or এপ্ৰিল ৬, ১৪৮৩
Urbino, Marche, Italy
মৃত্যু এপ্ৰিল ৬, ১৫২০ (৩৭ বছৰ)
Rome, Italy
দেশ Italian
পেচা Painting and architecture
বিপ্লৱ High Renaissance

ৰাফায়েল (ইংৰাজী: Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino)[2] ইটালীৰ এগৰাকী যশস্বী শিল্পী তথা স্থপতিবিদ৷ তেওঁৰ কৰ্মৰাজি বিশেষকৈ বিষয়বস্তুৰ স্পষ্টতা (clarity of form) তথা সৃষ্টিৰ সৰলতা (ease of composition)ৰ বাবে প্ৰসিদ্ধ৷ মেইকেলেঞ্জেল' আৰু লিঅ'নাৰ্ড দা ভিন্সিৰ লগতে এইগৰাকী শিল্পীক সেইসময়ৰ অন্যতম পথ-প্ৰদৰ্শক শিল্পী হিচাপে গণ্য কৰা হয়৷[3]

জীৱনী[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

ৰাফায়েলৰ জন্ম হৈছিল ইটালীৰ মাৰ্চে (Marche) অঞ্চলৰ আৰ্বিন' (Urbino) নামৰ এখন সৰু চহৰত ৷ [4] এই চহৰতে তেওঁৰ পিতৃ জিঅ'ভেনি চান্তি (Giovanni Santi) য়ে ডিউকৰ সভাসদত শিল্পী ( court painter) হিচাপে কাম কৰিছিল৷

Probable self-portrait drawing by Raphael in his teens

১৪৯১ চনত ৰাফায়েলৰ আঠ বছৰ বয়সতে মাতৃ মাগিয়া ( Màgia) মৃত্যুমুখত পৰে৷ ইয়াৰ পিছতে ১৪৯৪ চনত তেওঁৰ পিতৃৰো মৃত্যু হয়৷ কমবয়সতে মাউৰা হৈ পৰা ৰাফায়েলে খুড়াকৰ তত্বাবধানত ডাঙৰ হয়৷ তেওঁৰ কৈশোৰ অৱস্থাতে অঁকা এখন স্ব-প্ৰতিকৃতিৰ যোগেদি ৰাফায়েলে পোন-প্ৰথমে প্ৰতিভাৰ পৰিচয় দিয়ে৷[5] পৰৱৰ্ত্তীকালত তেওঁ আৰ্বিন'ত অন্য এগৰাকী শিল্পী পাওল' উচ্ছেল' (Paolo Uccello) ৰ সান্নিধ্যলৈ আহে আৰু অংকণ সম্পৰ্কীয় কিছু প্ৰশিক্ষণ লাভ কৰে৷[6]

most modern historians agree that Raphael at least worked as an assistant to Perugino from around 1500; the influence of Perugino on Raphael's early work is very clear: "probably no other pupil of genius has ever absorbed so much of his master's teaching as Raphael did", according to Wölfflin.[7] His first documented work was the Baronci altarpiece for the church of Saint Nicholas of Tolentino in Città di Castello, a town halfway between Perugia and Urbino. In the following years he painted works for other churches there, including the "Mond Crucifixion" (about 1503) and the Brera Wedding of the Virgin (1504), and for Perugia, such as the Oddi Altarpiece. He very probably also visited Florence in this period. [8]

Raphael led a "nomadic" life, working in various centres in Northern Italy, but spent a good deal of time in Florence, perhaps from about 1504. [9] [10]As earlier with Perugino and others, Raphael was able to assimilate the influence of Florentine art, whilst keeping his own developing style. the most striking influence in the work of these years is Leonardo da Vinci, who returned to the city from 1500 to 1506.[11]

By the end of 1508, he had moved to Rome, where he lived for the rest of his life. He was invited by the new Pope Julius II, perhaps at the suggestion of his architect Donato Bramante, then engaged on St. Peter's, who came from just outside Urbino and was distantly related to Raphael.[12]

Raphael eventually had a workshop of fifty pupils and assistants, many of whom later became significant artists in their own right.[13]

After Bramante's death in 1514, Raphael was named architect of the new St Peter's. Most of his work there was altered or demolished after his death and the acceptance of Michelangelo's design, but a few drawings have survived.[14]

In 1515 he was given powers as "Prefect" over all antiquities unearthed entrusted within the city, or a mile outside.[15]

Lucretia, engraved by Raimondi after a drawing by Raphael.[16]

Raphael was enormously productive, running an unusually large workshop, and despite his death at 37, a large body of his work remains. [17]

কৰ্মৰাজি[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

তথ্যসুত্ৰ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. Jones and Penny, p. 171. The portrait of Raphael is probably "a later adaptation of the one likeness which all agree on", that in The School of Athens, vouched for by Vasari.
  2. Variants include "Raffaello Santi", "Raffaello da Urbino" or "Rafael Sanzio da Urbino". The surname Sanzio derives from the latinization of the Italian Santi into Santius. He normally signed documents as "Raphael Urbinas"—a latinized form. Gould:207
  3. See, for example Honour, Hugh; John Fleming (1982). A World History of Art. প্ৰকাশক London: Macmillan Reference Books. পৃষ্ঠা. 357. ISBN 9780333235836. OCLC 8828368. 
  4. Urbino: The Story of a Renaissance City By June Osborne, p.39 on the population, as a "few thousand" at most; even today it is only 15,000 without the students of the University
  5. Ashmolean Museum "Image". z.about.com. http://z.about.com/d/arthistory/1/0/W/O/raphael_colonna_01.jpg. 
  6. Jones and Penny: 4-5, 8 and 20
  7. contrasting him with Leonardo and Michelangelo in this respect. Wölfflin:73
  8. Jones and Penny:5-8
  9. Gould:207-8
  10. Jones and Penny:5
  11. National Gallery, London Jones & Penny:44
  12. Jones & Penny:49, differing somewhat from Gould:208 on the timing of his arrival
  13. Jones and Penny:146-147, 196-197, and Pon:82-85
  14. Jones & Penny:215-218
  15. Jones & Penny:205 The letter may date from 1519, or before his appointment
  16. "Lucretia". Metropolitan Museum of Art. http://www.metmuseum.org/works_of_art/collection_database/Lucretia_Raphael_Raffaello_Sanzio/ViewObject.aspx?depNm=drawings_and_prints&pID=-1&kWd=Raphael&OID=90004100&vW=-1&Pg=1&St=0&StOd=1&vT=1। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 26 August 2010. 
  17. Vasari, pp. 208, 230 and passim.
  18. "Image". szepmuveszeti.hu. http://www.szepmuveszeti.hu/image/journal/article?img_id=SZEPMUVESZETI.EN.075.kep&version=1.0. 
  19. The Royal Collection. "Gold ring with an onyx cameo of Ariadne". royalcollection.org.uk. http://www.royalcollection.org.uk/eGallery/object.asp?searchText=&title=&rccode=&makerName=Raphael&category=&collector=&theme=&startYear=&endYear=&object=912759&row=2&detail=magnify। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 26 August 2010. 

লগতে চাওক[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  • Blunt, Anthony, Artistic Theory in Italy, 1450-1660, 1940 (refs to 1985 edn), OUP, ISBN 0-19-881050-4
  • Gould, Cecil, The Sixteenth Century Italian Schools, National Gallery Catalogues, London 1975, ISBN 0-947645-22-5
  • Roger Jones and Nicholas Penny, Raphael, Yale, 1983, ISBN 0-300-03061-4
  • Landau, David in:David Landau & Peter Parshall, The Renaissance Print, Yale, 1996, ISBN 0-300-06883-2
  • Pon, Lisa, Raphael, Dürer, and Marcantonio Raimondi, Copying and the Italian Renaissance Print, 2004, Yale UP, ISBN 978-0-300-09680-4
  • Shearman, John; Raphael in Early Modern Sources 1483-1602, 2003, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-09918-5
  • Vasari, Life of Raphael from the Lives of the Artists, edition used: Artists of the Renaissance selected & ed Malcolm Bull, Penguin 1965 (page nos from BCA edn, 1979)
  • Wölfflin, Heinrich; Classic Art; An Introduction to the Renaissance, 1952 in English (1968 edition), Phaidon, New York.
  • The standard source of biographical information is now: V. Golzio, Raffaello nei documenti nelle testimonianze dei contemporanei e nella letturatura del suo secolo, Vatican City and Westmead, 1971
  • The Cambridge Companion to Raphael, Marcia B. Hall, Cambridge University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-521-80809-X,
  • New catalogue raisonné in several volumes, still being published, Jürg Meyer zur Capellen, Stefan B. Polter, Arcos, 2001-2008
  • Raphael, Pier Luigi De Vecchi, Abbeville Press, 2003. ISBN 0789207702
  • Raphael, Bette Talvacchia, Phaidon Press, 2007. ISBN 9780714847863
  • Raphael, John Pope-Hennessy, New York University Press, 1970, ISBN 0-8147-0476-X
  • Raphael: From Urbino to Rome; Hugo Chapman, Tom Henry, Carol Plazzotta, Arnold Nesselrath, Nicholas Penny, National Gallery Publications Limited, 2004, ISBN 1-85709-999-0 (exhibition catalogue)
  • The Raphael Trail: The Secret History of One of the World's Most Precious Works of Art; Joanna Pitman, 2006. ISBN 0091901715
  • Raphael - A Critical Catalogue of his Pictures, Wall-Paintings and Tapestries, catalogue raisonné by Luitpold Dussler published in the United States by Phaidon Publishers, Inc., 1971, ISBN 0-7148-1469-5 (out of print, but there is an online version here [1])
  • Wolk-Simon, Linda. (2006). Raphael at the Metropolitan: The Colonna Altarpiece. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 9781588391889.

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