ৱিকিপিডিয়া:IPA for German
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See German phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of German.
- The German lenis consonants [b d ɡ z ʒ dʒ] are often pronounced without voice as [b̥ d̥ ɡ̊ z̥ ʒ̊ d̥ʒ̊]. In Southern German, the voiceless pronunciation prevails.
- Pronunciation of /r/ in German varies according to region and speaker. While older prescriptive pronunciation dictionaries allowed only [r], this pronunciation is nowadays found mainly in Switzerland, Bavaria and Austria, while in other regions the uvular pronunciation prevails, with the allophones [ʁ] and [ʀ]. In many regions except for Switzerland, the /r/ in the syllable coda is vocalized to [ɐ̯] after long vowels or after all vowels, and /ər/ is pronounced as [ɐ]
- /x/ is realized as a uvular fricative [χ] after /a/, /aː/, and often /ʊ/, /ɔ/, and /aʊ/.
- In many varieties of German except for Swiss Standard German, all initial vowels are preceded by [ʔ].
- [ɛː] is often replaced by [eː].
- Duden 6: Das Aussprachewörterbuch (3d edition, 1990, ISBN 3-411-20916-X).