সদস্য:Manjil Konwar/উৱেফা চেম্পিয়ন্‌ছ লীগ

অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ পৰা
উৱেফা চেম্পিয়ন্‌ছ লীগ
আৰম্ভণি ১৯৫৫ (বৰ্তমান ধৰণত
১৯৯২ চনৰপৰা)
স্থান ইউৰোপ (UEFA)
দলৰ সংখ্যা ৩২ (গ্ৰুপ পৰ্যায়)
৭৬ বা ৭৭ (মুঠ)
বৰ্তমান বিজয়ী(সমূহ) ইংলেণ্ড চেলছী (প্ৰথম খিতাপ)
সকলোতকৈ সফল ক্লাব(সমূহ) স্পেইন ৰিয়েল মাদ্ৰিদ (৯ টা খিতাপ)
ৱেবচাইট অফিচিয়েল ৱেবছাইট
২০১২-১৩ উৱেফা চেম্পিয়ন্‌ছ লীগ

উৱেফা চেম্পিয়ন্‌ছ লীগ (চমুকৈ চেম্পিয়ন্‌ছ লীগ, পূৰ্বৰ নাম ইউৰোপীয়ান চেম্পিয়ন ক্লাব্‌ছ কাপ বা ইউৰোপীয়ান কাপ) হৈছে ইউনিয়ন অৱ ইউৰোপীয়ান ফুটবল এছ'চিয়েচন্‌ছে (UEFA) ১৯৫৫ চনৰপৰা ইউৰোপৰ শীৰ্ষস্থানীয় ফুটবল ক্লাবসমূহৰ মাজত আয়োজন কৰি অহা এক বাৰ্ষিক মহাদেশীয় ক্লাব ফুটবল প্ৰতিযোগিতা।[1] ই ইউৰোপৰ ফুটবলৰ আটাইতকৈ সন্মানীয় প্ৰতিযোগিতা হোৱাৰ লগতে পৃথিৱীৰ সবাতোকৈ সন্মানীয় ক্ৰীড়া প্ৰতিযাগিতাসমূহৰ ভিতৰৰে এক। ২০১১ চনৰ উৱেফা চেম্পিয়ন্‌ছ লীগৰ ফাইনেল খেলখন এই প্ৰতিযোগিতাৰ ইতিহাসৰ সবাতোকৈ বেছিসংখ্যক দৰ্শকে উপভোগ কৰা ফাইনেল হোৱাৰ লগতে বিশ্বৰ ভিতৰতে সেই বৰ্ষৰ সবাতোকৈ বেছিসংখ্যক দৰ্শকে উপভোগ কৰা খেল। দূৰদৰ্শনত মুঠ ১৭৮.৭ নিযুত দৰ্শকে এই ফাইনেল খেলখন উপভোগ কৰিছিল।[2]

১৯৯২ চনৰ আগতে, এই প্ৰতিযোগিতাখনৰ অফিচিয়েল নাম আছিল ইউৰোপীয়ান চেম্পিয়ন ক্লাবছ কাপ আৰু চমুকৈ ইউৰোপীয়ান কাপ বুলি কোৱা হৈছিল।[1] প্ৰথমাৱস্থাত ই এক পোনপটীয়া নকআউট প্ৰতিযোগিতা আছিল য'ত মাত্ৰ প্ৰতিখন দেশৰ বিজয়ী ক্লাবকেইটাইহে অংশগ্ৰহণ কৰিছিল।[1] ১৯৯০-ৰ দশকত প্ৰতিযোগিতাখনৰ বিস্তাৰ হৈ অধিক দলক অন্তৰ্ভূক্ত কৰি এক ৰাউণ্ড-ৰবিন গ্ৰুপ পৰ্যায় সন্নিবিষ্ট কৰা হ'ল।[1] বৰ্তমান ইউৰোপৰ শক্তিশালী জাতীয় লীগসমূহৰ প্ৰত্যেকৰপৰা সৰ্বাধিক চাৰিটালৈকে ক্লাবে এই প্ৰতিযোগিতাত অংশগ্ৰহণ কৰে।[3]

প্ৰতিযোগিতাখনৰ বহুকেইটা পৰ্যায় আছে।[4] বৰ্তমানৰ ধৰণ মতে, জুলাইৰ মধ্যভাগত তিনিটা নকআউট কোৱালিফায়িং ৰাউণ্ড আৰু এটা প্লে'-অফ ৰাউণ্ডেৰে এই প্ৰতিযোগিতা আৰম্ভ হয়।[4] এইকেইটা ৰাউণ্ডৰপৰা ১০ টা যোগ্যতা অৰ্জনকাৰী ক্লাবে ২২ টা শীৰ্ষস্থানৰ (seeded) ক্লাবৰ সৈতে গ্ৰুপ পৰ্যায়ত লগ লাগে, য'ত ক্লাবসমূহক প্ৰতিটো গ্ৰুপত চাৰিটাকৈ মুঠ আঠটা গ্ৰুপত বিভক্ত কৰা হয়।[4] গ্ৰুপ পৰ্যায়ৰ বিজয়ী আঠটা ক্লাব আৰু ৰাণাৰ্ছ-আপ আঠটা ক্লাব অন্তিম নকআউট পৰ্যায়লৈ উন্নীত হয়, আৰু মে' মাহত ফাইনেল খেলেৰে এই প্ৰতিযোগিতাৰ সামৰণি পৰে।[4] উৱেফা চেম্পিয়ন্‌ছ লীগৰ বিজয়ী ক্লাবটোৱে উৱেফা ছুপাৰ কাপ আৰু ফিফা ক্লাব ৱৰ্ল্ড কাপলৈ যোগ্যতা অৰ্জন কৰে।[5][6]

ৰিয়েল মাদ্ৰিদে প্ৰথম পাঁচবাৰকে ধৰি মুঠ নবাৰ খিতাপ জয় কৰি এই প্ৰতিযোগিতাৰ ইতিহাসত সবাতোকৈ সফল ক্লাবৰূপে চিহ্নিত হৈছে।[7] মুঠ ১৩ বাৰ বিজয়ী হৈ স্পেনিছ ক্লাবসমূহে এই প্ৰতিযোগিতাত সৰ্বাধিক খিতাপ দখল কৰিছে।[7] ২২ টা বিভিন্ন ক্লাবে এই প্ৰতিযোগিতাৰ বিজয়ীৰ সন্মান লাভ কৰিছে আৰু ১২ টা ক্লাবে একাধিকবাৰ এই সন্মান লাভ কৰিছে।[7] ১৯৯২ চনত প্ৰতিযোগিতাখনৰ নাম আৰু ধৰণ সলনি কৰি দিয়াৰ পাছত কোনো এটা ক্লাবেই একেলেথাৰিয়ে বিজয়ীৰ খিতাপ লাভ কৰিব পৰা নাই। ১৯৯০ চনত শেষবাৰৰ কাৰণে এ. চি. মিলানে ডিফেণ্ডিং চেম্পিয়ন হৈ পুনৰ সেইবাৰ বিজয়ী হৈছিল।[8]

ইতিহাস[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

অষ্ট্ৰ'-হাংগেৰীয়ান সাম্ৰাজ্যৰ ক্লাবসমূহৰ মাজত অনুষ্ঠিত হোৱা চেলেঞ্জ কাপ আছিল প্ৰথম পেন-ইউৰোপীয়ান ফুটবল প্ৰতিযোগিতা।[9] চেলেঞ্জ কাপৰ অনুকৰণত ১৯২৭ চনত জেইদ এদিল্বিয়ে মিট্ৰ'পা কাপ নামৰ এক প্ৰতিযোগিতাৰ সৃষ্টি কৰে য'ত মধ্য-ইউৰোপীয় ক্লাবসমূহে অংশগ্ৰহণ কৰে।[10] ১৯৩০ চনত ইউৰোপৰ ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় চেম্পিয়নসমূহৰ কাৰণে প্ৰথমবাৰৰ বাবে কূপ দ্য নেচন্‌ছ (ফৰাছী: Nations Cup) নামেৰে এক প্ৰতিযোগিতাৰ আয়োজন কৰে ছুইজাৰলেণ্ডৰ ক্লাব ছাৰ্ৱেট্টিয়ে।[11] জেনেভাত অনুষ্ঠিত এই প্ৰতিযোগিতাত ইউৰোপৰ দহটা ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় চেম্পিয়ন ক্লাবে অংশগ্ৰহণ কৰে। হাংগেৰীউজ্‌পেষ্টে এই প্ৰতিযোগিতাত বিজয়ীৰ সন্মান অৰ্জন কৰে।[11] দক্ষিণ ইউৰোপীয় দেশসমূহে ১৯৪৯ চনত লেটিন কাপৰ সৃষ্টি কৰে।[12] ১৯৪৮ চনত L'Équipe-ৰ সম্পাদক গেব্ৰিয়েল হেন’টে নিজৰ সাংবাদিকসকলৰ প্ৰতিবেদনৰপৰা কেম্পিয়’নেট’ ছুডামেৰিকান’ দ্য কেম্পিয়’নিছ (Campeonato Sudamericano de Campeones/ South American Championship of Champions) প্ৰতিযোগিতাৰ বৃহৎ সাফল্যৰ কথা গম পাই এখন সম্পূৰ্ণ মহাদেশজোৰা প্ৰতিযোগিতা সৃষ্টিৰ প্ৰস্তাৱ আগবঢ়ায়।[13] ১৯৫০ৰ দশকত লাভ কৰা সাফল্যৰ ওপৰত ভিত্তি কৰি ইংলেণ্ডৰ সংবাদ মাধ্যমে ঊলৱাৰহেম্পটন ৱাণ্ডাৰাৰ্ছ (Wolverhampton Wanderers) দলক বিশ্ব-চেম্পিয়ন আখ্যা দিয়াৰ পাছত হেন’টে অৱশেষত উৱেফাক এনে এখন প্ৰতিযোগিতাৰ কাৰণে পতিয়ন নিয়াবলৈ সমৰ্থ হয়।[1] ১৯৫৫ চনত পেৰিছইউৰোপীয়ান চেম্পিয়ন ক্লাব্‌ছ কাপ আৰম্ভ হয়।[1]

১৯৫৫–১৯৬৫: আৰম্ভণি[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

এফ চি বাৰ্চিলোনা – হামবাৰ্গাৰ এছ ভি, ১২ এপ্ৰিল ১৯৬১

ইউৰোপীয়ান কাপৰ প্ৰথম সংস্কৰণ অনুষ্ঠিত হয় ১৯৫৫-৫৬ চনত।[14][15] ইয়াত ১৬ টা দলে অংশগ্ৰহণ কৰে: মিলান (ইটালী), এ জি এফ আৰ্হাছ (ডেনমাৰ্ক), এণ্ডাৰলেক্ট (বেলজিয়াম), জুৰগাৰ্ডেন (ছুইডেন), গোৱাৰডিয়া ৱাৰ্ছজাৱা (পোলেণ্ড), হাইবাৰ্ণিয়ান (স্কটলেণ্ড), পাৰ্টিজান (যুগোশ্লাভিয়া), পি এছ ভি (নেদাৰলেণ্ড), ৰেপিড ৱাইন (অষ্ট্ৰিয়া), ৰিয়েল মাদ্ৰিদ (স্পেইন), ৰট-ৱেইছ ইছেন (পশ্চিম জাৰ্মানী), ছাৰব্ৰাকেন (ছাৰ), ছাৰ্ৱেট্টি (ছুইজাৰলেণ্ড), স্প’ৰ্টিং চি পি (পৰ্তুগাল), ষ্টে’ড দ্য ৰেইম্‌ছ (ফ্ৰান্স) আৰু ৱ’ৰ’ছ ল’ব’গ’ (হাংগেৰী)। [14][15] ১৯৫৫ চনৰ ৪ ছেপ্তেম্বৰ তাৰিখে স্প’ৰ্টিং চি পি আৰু পাৰ্টিজান দলৰ মাজত অনুষ্ঠিত ইউৰোপীয়ান কাপৰ প্ৰথমখন খেল ৩-৩ গ’লত অমীমাংসিত হৈ ৰয়।[14][15] ইউৰোপীয়ান কাপৰ ইতিহাসৰ প্ৰথমটো গ’ল দিয়ে স্প’ৰ্টিং চি পি দলৰ জোৱাও বেপ্টিষ্টা মাৰ্টিন্সে।[14][15] প্ৰথম বৰ্ষৰ চূড়ান্ত খেলখন অনুষ্ঠিত হয় পাৰ্ক দ্য প্ৰিন্সেছত ষ্টে’ড ৰেইম্‌ছ আৰু ৰিয়েল মাদ্ৰিদৰ মাজত।[14][15][16] স্পেনিছ দল ৰিয়েল মাদ্ৰিদে প্ৰথমে পিছ পৰি ৰোৱাৰ পাছতো হেক্টৰ ৰিয়া (২ গ’ল), এলফ্ৰেড’ ডি ষ্টেফান’ আৰু মাৰ্কুইট’ছৰ গ’লৰ সহায়ত ৪-৩ ব্যৱধানত বিজয় সাব্যস্ত কৰে।[14][15][16]

দ্বিতীয় বৰ্ষতো ৰিয়েল মাদ্ৰিদে ঘৰুৱা ষ্টেডিয়াম ছেণ্টিয়াগ’ বাৰ্ণাবিউত ফিঅ’ৰেণ্টিনাৰ বিপক্ষে বিজয়ী হৈ তেওঁলোকৰ খিতাপ অক্ষুণ্ণ ৰাখে।[17][18] গ’লশূন্য প্ৰথম হাফৰ পাছত ৰিয়েল মাদ্ৰিদে ছয় মিনিটত দুটাকৈ গ’ল কৰি ইটালীয়ান দলটোক পৰাস্ত কৰে।[17][18][16] ১৯৫৭-৫৮ চনত মিলানে দুবাৰকৈ ৰিয়েলতকৈ আগবাঢ়ি থকাৰ পাছতো ৰিয়েল মাদ্ৰিদে খেলখন ড্ৰ কৰিবলৈ সমৰ্থ হয়।[19][20] হে’জেল ষ্টেডিয়ামত অনুস্থিত হোৱা ফাইনেল খেলৰ অতিৰিক্ত সময়ত (এক্সট্ৰা টাইম) ফ্ৰেন্সিস্ক’ গেণ্ট’ই বিজয়ী গ’ল কৰাত ৰিয়েল মাদ্ৰিদে ক্ৰমাগতভাৱে তৃতীয়বাৰলৈ এই প্ৰতিযোগিতাৰ বিজয়ীৰ সন্মান অৰ্জন কৰে।[19][20][16] চতুৰ্থ বৰ্ষৰ ফাইনেলত প্ৰথম বৰ্ষৰ ফাইনেলৰ পুনৰাবৃত্তি হয় আৰু ৰিয়েল মাদ্ৰিদে নেকাৰষ্টেডিয়নত ষ্টে’ড ৰেইমছক সহজে ২-০ ব্যৱধানত পৰাজিত কৰে।[21][22][16] পশ্চিম জাৰ্মানীৰ ক্লাব এইণ্ট্ৰেক্ট ফ্ৰাংকফুৰ্ট ইউৰোপীয়ান কাপৰ ফাইনেলত উপনীত হোৱা প্ৰথম অ-লেটিন দল হিচাপে পৰিগণিত হয়।[23][24] ১৯৫৯-৬০ চনৰ ফাইনেলত হেম্পডেন পাৰ্কত ফেৰেংক পুস্কাছৰ চাৰি গ’ল আৰু এলফ্ৰেড’ ডি ষ্টেফান’ৰ হেট্ৰিকৰ সহায়ত ৰিয়েল মাদ্ৰিদে এইণ্ট্ৰেক্ট ফ্ৰাংকফুৰ্টক ৭-৩ ব্যৱধানত পৰাজিত কৰে।[23][24][16] ই ৰিয়েল মাদ্ৰিদৰ একেৰাহে পঞ্চমটো বিজয় খিতাপ আছিল, আৰু এই অভিলেখ বৰ্তমানলৈকে অক্ষুণ্ণ হৈ আছে।[7]

১৯৬০-৬১ বৰ্ষত বাৰ্চিলোনাৰ হাতত কোৱাৰ্টাৰ ফাইনেলত পৰাস্ত হোৱাত ৰিয়েল মাদ্ৰিদৰ আধিপত্যৰ অন্ত পৰে।[25][26] অৱশ্যে বাৰ্চিলোনা নিজেও পৰ্তুগীজ দল বেনফিকাৰ হাতত ৱাংকড’ৰ্ফ ষ্টেডিয়ামত অনুষ্ঠিত ফাইনেলত ৩-২ ব্যৱধানত পৰাজয়বৰণ কৰে।[25][26][27] ১৯৬১-৬২ বৰ্ষত আমষ্টাৰডামৰ অলিম্পিক ষ্টেডিয়ামত অনুষ্ঠিত ফাইনেলত ৰিয়েল মাদ্ৰিদক ৫-৩ ব্যৱধানত পৰাজিত কৰি বেনফিকাই একেৰাহে দ্বিতীয়বাৰলৈ এই খিতাপ অৰ্জন কৰে।[28][29][27] ১৯৬২-৬৩ বৰ্ষত বেনফিকাই পুনৰ ফাইনেলত প্ৰৱেশ কৰে যদিও ৱিম্বলী ষ্টেডিয়ামত জ’ছে আল্টাফিনিৰ ২ গ’লৰ সহায়ত মিলান বিজয়ী হয়।[30][31][32] ১৯৬৩-৬৪ বৰ্ষৰ ফাইনেলত আৰ্ণ্‌ষ্ট-হেপেল-ষ্টেডিয়নত ইণ্টাৰনেজিঅ’নেলে ৰিয়েল মাদ্ৰিদক ৩-১ ব্যৱধানত পৰাজিত কৰে।[33][34][35] ১৯৬৪-৬৫ বৰ্ষৰ ফাইনেলত ইণ্টাৰনেজিঅ’নেলে ঘৰুৱা খেলপথাৰ ছেন ছিৰ’ত বেনফিকাক ১-০ ব্যৱধানত পৰাস্ত কৰাত এই খিতাপ একেৰাহে তৃতীয়বাৰলৈ মিলান চহৰতে থাকে।[36][37][38]

Anthem[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The UEFA Champions League anthem, officially titled simply as "Champions League", was written by Tony Britten, and is an adaptation of George Frideric Handel's Zadok the Priest (one of his Coronation Anthems).[39][40] UEFA commissioned Britten in 1992 to arrange an anthem, and the piece was performed by London's Royal Philharmonic Orchestra and sung by the Academy of St. Martin in the Fields.[39] The chorus contains the three official languages used by UEFA: English, German, and French. The anthem's chorus is played before each UEFA Champions League game, as well as at the beginning and end of television broadcasts of the matches. The complete anthem is about three minutes long, and has two short verses and the chorus. For the 2009 UEFA Champions League Final in Rome, tenor Andrea Bocelli sang backing lyrics to the Champions League anthem, whilst similarly Juan Diego Flórez provided the tenor for the 2010 UEFA Champions League Final. Girl band All Angels performed at the 2011 UEFA Champions League Final. The anthem has never been released commercially in its original version.

Format[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Qualification[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Map of UEFA countries whose teams reached the group stage of the UEFA Champions League
  UEFA member country that has been represented in the group stage
  UEFA member country that has not been represented in the group stage
  Not a UEFA member

As of 2011, the UEFA Champions League commences with a double round-robin group stage of 32 teams, which is preceded by two qualification 'streams' for teams that do not receive direct entry to the tournament proper. The two streams are divided between teams qualified by virtue of being league champions, and those qualified by virtue of finishing 2nd–4th in their national championship.

The number of teams that each association enters into the UEFA Champions League is based upon the UEFA coefficients of the member associations. These coefficients are generated by the results of clubs representing each association during the previous five Champions League and UEFA Europa League/UEFA Cup seasons. The higher an association's coefficient, the more teams represent the association in the Champions League, and the fewer qualification rounds the association's teams must compete in.

Five of the remaining ten qualifying places are granted to the winners of a four round qualifying tournament between the remaining 39 or 38 national champions, within which those champions from associations with higher coefficients receive byes to later rounds. The other five are granted to the winners of a two round qualifying tournament between the 15 clubs from the associations ranked 1 through 15, which have qualified based upon finishing second, third, or fourth in their respective national league.

In addition to sporting criteria, any club must be licensed by its national association to participate in the Champions league. To obtain a license, the club must meet certain stadium, infrastructure, and finance requirements.

In 2005–06, Liverpool and Artmedia Bratislava became the first teams to reach the Champions League group stage after playing in all three qualifying rounds. In 2008–09, both BATE Borisov and Anorthosis Famagusta achieved the same feat. Manchester United is the team that has appeared most often in the group stage, 18 times.

Between 2003 and 2008, no differentiation was made between champions and non-champions in qualification. The 16 top ranked teams spread across the biggest domestic leagues qualified directly for the tournament group stage. Prior to this, three preliminary knockout qualifying rounds whittled down the remaining teams, with different teams starting in different rounds.

An exception to the usual European qualification system happened in 2005, after Liverpool won the Champions League the year before, but did not finish in a Champions League qualification place in the Premier League that season. UEFA gave special dispensation for Liverpool to enter the Champions League, giving England five qualifiers.[41] UEFA subsequently ruled that the defending champions qualify for the competition the following year regardless of their domestic league placing. However, for those leagues with four entrants in the Champions League, this means that if the Champions League winner falls outside of its domestic league's top four, it will qualify at the expense of the fourth-placed team in the league. No association can have more than four entrants in the Champions League.[42] In May 2012, Tottenham Hotspur finished fourth in the Premier League, two places ahead of Chelsea, but failed to qualify for the 2012–13 Champions League, after Chelsea won the 2012 Champions League Final.[43] Tottenham were demoted to the Europa League for the 2012–13 season.[43]

The top three leagues in Europe are currently allowed to enter four teams into the Champions League. Michel Platini, the UEFA president, had proposed taking one place from the top three leagues and allocating it to that nation's cup winners. This proposal was rejected in a vote at a UEFA Strategy Council meeting.[44] In the same meeting, however, it was agreed that the third-placed team in the top four leagues would receive automatic qualification for the group stage, rather than entry into the third qualifying round, while the fourth-placed team would enter the play-off round for non-champions, guaranteeing an opponent from one of the top 15 leagues in Europe. This was part of Platini's plan to increase the number of teams qualifying directly into the group stage, while simultaneously increasing the number of teams from lower-ranked nations in the group stage.[45]

Tournament[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The tournament proper begins with a group stage of 32 teams, divided into eight groups. Seeding is used whilst making the draw for this stage, whilst teams from the same country may not be drawn into groups together. Each team meets the others in its group home and away in a round-robin format. The winning team and the runners-up from each group then progress to the next round. The third-placed team enters the UEFA Europa League.

For this stage, the winning team from one group plays against the runners-up from another group, and teams from the same association may not be drawn against each other. From the quarter-finals onwards, the draw is entirely random, without association protection. The tournament uses the away goals rule: if the aggregate score of the two games is tied, then the team who scored more goals at their opponent's stadium advances.[46]

The group stage is played through the autumn, whilst the knock-out stage starts after a winter break. The knock-out ties are played in a two-legged format, with the exception of the final. This is typically held in the final two weeks of May.

Referees[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Ranking[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The UEFA Refereeing Unit is broken down into five experience-based categories. A referee is initially placed into Category 4 with the exception of referees from France, Germany, England, Italy, or Spain. Referees from these five countries are typically comfortable with top professional matches and are therefore directly placed into Category 3. Each referee's performance is observed and evaluated after every match; his category may be revised twice per season, but a referee cannot be promoted directly from Category 3 to the Elite Category.[47]

Appointment[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

In cooperation with the UEFA Refereeing Unit, the UEFA Referee Committee is responsible for appointing referees to matches. Referees are appointed based on previous matches, marks, performances, and fitness levels. To discourage bias, the Champions League takes nationality into account. No referee may be of the same origins as any club in his or her respecting groups. Referee appointments, suggested by the UEFA Refereeing Unit, are sent to the UEFA Referee Committee to be discussed and/or revised. After a consensus is made, the name of the appointed referee remains confidential up to two days before the match for the purpose of minimizing public influence.[47]

Limitations[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Since 1990, a UEFA international referee cannot exceed the age of 45 years. After turning 45, a referee must step down at the end of his season. The age limit was established to ensure an elite level of fitness. Today, UEFA Champions League referees are required to pass a fitness test to even be considered at the international level.[47]

Prize money[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

As of 2012–13, UEFA awards 2.1 million to each team in the play-off round. For reaching the group stage, UEFA awards a base fee of €8.6 million. A win in the group is awarded €1 million and a draw is worth €500,000. In addition, UEFA pays teams reaching the first knockout round €3.5 million, each quarter-finalist €3.9 million, €4.9 million for each semi-finalist, €6.5 million for the runners-up and €10.5 million for the winners.[48]

  • Playoffs: €2,100,000
  • Base fee for group stage: €8,600,000
  • Group match victory: €1,000,000
  • Group match draw: €500,000
  • Round of 16: €3,500,000
  • Quarter-finals: €3,900,000
  • Semi-finals: €4,900,000
  • Losing finalist: €6,500,000
  • Winning the Final: €10,500,000

A large part of the distributed revenue from the UEFA Champions League is linked to the "market pool", the distribution of which is determined by the value of the television market in each country. For the 2010–11 season, Manchester United, who lost the final, earned nearly €53.2 million in total of which €27.3 million was prize money, compared with the €51.0 million earned by Barcelona, who won the tournament and was awarded with €30.7 million of prize money.[49]

Medals[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

As of the 2012–13 season, 40 gold medals are presented to the Champions League winners, and 40 silver medals to the runners-up.[50]

Sponsorship[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Like the FIFA World Cup, the UEFA Champions League is sponsored by a group of multinational corporations, in contrast to the single main sponsor typically found in national top-flight leagues. When the Champions League was created in 1992, it was decided that a maximum of eight companies should be allowed to sponsor the event, with each corporation being allocated four advertising boards around the perimeter of the pitch, as well as logo placement at pre- and post-match interviews and a certain number of tickets to each match. This, combined with a deal to ensure tournament sponsors were given priority on television advertisements during matches, ensured that each of the tournament's main sponsors was given maximum exposure.[51]

The advertising hoardings are a source of criticism, due to their larger size compared to those in other leagues such as the Premier League. Their larger size means that, at some grounds, such as Etihad Stadium, Old Trafford, Anfield, and Stamford Bridge, the front rows of seating cannot be used as their views of the pitch are blocked by the extreme size of the boards; accordingly, some season ticket holders are not guaranteed tickets for games and have to sit in seats other than their usual ones for games. Additionally, some stadia use the flat area in front of the front rows of seating for wheelchairs and disabled seating, so the boards drastically reduce these grounds' disabled supporter capacity. From the 2012–13 knockout phase, UEFA have utilised the electronic hoardings that are installed in many stadia.

The Champions League logo is shown in the centre of the pitch before every game in the competition

The tournament's current main sponsors are:

Adidas is a secondary sponsor and supplies the official match ball and referee uniform, as they do for all other UEFA competitions. Konami's Pro Evolution Soccer is also a secondary sponsor as the official Champions League video game.

Individual clubs may wear jerseys with advertising, even if such sponsors conflict with those of the Champions League. However, only one sponsorship is permitted per jersey in addition to that of the kit manufacturer (exceptions are made for non-profit organisations; which can feature on the front of the shirt, incorporated with the main sponsor, or on the back; either below the squad number or between the player name and the collar. If clubs play a match in a country where the relevant sponsorship category is restricted (such as the case of France with alcohol), then they must remove that logo from their jerseys.

Media coverage[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The competition attracts an extensive television audience, not just in Europe, but throughout the world. The final is only second to American football's Super Bowl championship game as the most watched annual sporting event in the world. However, with an estimated audience of 109 million people, the 2009 Champions League final surpassed that year's Super Bowl (106 million viewers) for the first time as the most-watched annual single sport event in the world.[56] The matches are broadcast in over 70 countries with commentaries in more than 40 languages each year.[উদ্ধৃতিৰ প্ৰয়োজন]

Records and statistics[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Winners[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Performance by clubs
Club Winners is Runners-up Years won Years runners-up
স্পেইন Real Madrid 9 3 1956, 1957, 1958, 1959, 1960, 1966, 1998, 2000, 2002 1962, 1964, 1981
ইটালী Milan 7 4 1963, 1969, 1989, 1990, 1994, 2003, 2007 1958, 1993, 1995, 2005
ইংলেণ্ড Liverpool 5 2 1977, 1978, 1981, 1984, 2005 1985, 2007
জাৰ্মানী Bayern Munich 4 5 1974, 1975, 1976, 2001 1982, 1987, 1999, 2010, 2012
স্পেইন Barcelona 4 3 1992, 2006, 2009, 2011 1961, 1986, 1994
নেদাৰলেণ্ড Ajax 4 2 1971, 1972, 1973, 1995 1969, 1996
ইংলেণ্ড Manchester United 3 2 1968, 1999, 2008 2009, 2011
ইটালী Internazionale 3 2 1964, 1965, 2010 1967, 1972
পৰ্তুগাল Benfica 2 5 1961, 1962 1963, 1965, 1968, 1988, 1990
ইটালী Juventus 2 5 1985, 1996 1973, 1983, 1997, 1998, 2003
ইংলেণ্ড Nottingham Forest 2 0 1979, 1980
পৰ্তুগাল Porto 2 0 1987, 2004
স্কটলেণ্ড Celtic 1 1 1967 1970
পশ্চিম জাৰ্মানী Hamburg 1 1 1983 1980
ৰোমানিয়া Steaua București 1 1 1986 1989
ফ্ৰান্স Marseille 1 1 1993 1991
ইংলেণ্ড Chelsea 1 1 2012 2008
নেদাৰলেণ্ড Feyenoord 1 0 1970
ইংলেণ্ড Aston Villa 1 0 1982
নেদাৰলেণ্ড PSV Eindhoven 1 0 1988
ছচিয়েলিষ্ট ফেডাৰেল ৰিপাব্লিক অৱ য়ুগোশ্লভিয়া Red Star Belgrade 1 0 1991
জাৰ্মানী Borussia Dortmund 1 0 1997

See also[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

References[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 "Football's premier club competition". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. http://www.uefa.com/uefachampionsleague/history/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  2. tnershipwiththeuefachampionsleagueeuropesmostprestigiousclubfootballcompetition.htm "Ford Extends 20-Year Partnership with the UEFA Champions League, Europe's Most Prestigious Club Football Competition". http://media.ford.com/news/fordextends20yearpar tnershipwiththeuefachampionsleagueeuropesmostprestigiousclubfootballcompetition.htm. 
  3. "Clubs". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. http://www.uefa.com/uefachampionsleague/season=2012/clubs/country/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 "Matches". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. http://www.uefa.com/uefachampionsleague/season=2012/matches/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  5. "Club competition winners do battle". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. http://www.uefa.com/uefasupercup/history/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  6. "1989/90 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Fédération Internationale de Football Association. 31 January 2010. http://www.fifa.com/clubworldcup/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 "European Champions' Cup". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. http://www.rsssf.com/tablese/ec1.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  8. "1989/90 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. http://www.uefa.com/uefachampionsleague/season=1989/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  9. García, Javier; Kutschera, Ambrosius; Schöggl, Hans; Stokkermans, Karel (2009). "Austria/Habsburg Monarchy – Challenge Cup 1897–1911" (English ভাষাত). Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. http://www.rsssf.com/tableso/oost-habs-challenge.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 5 September 2011. 
  10. Stokkermans, Karel (2009). "Mitropa Cup" (English ভাষাত). Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation . http://www.rsssf.com/tablesm/mit.html. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 Ceulemans, Bart; Michiel, Zandbelt (2009). "Coupe des Nations 1930" (English ভাষাত). Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. http://www.rsssf.com/tablesc/coupedesnations30.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 5 September 2011. 
  12. Stokkermans, Karel; Gorgazzi, Osvaldo José (2006). "Latin Cup" (English ভাষাত). Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. http://www.rsssf.com/tablesl/latin.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 5 September 2011. 
  13. "Primeira Libertadores – História (Globo Esporte 09/02/20.l.08)". Youtube.com. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=86xAxuxomoo&feature=related। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 14 August 2010. 
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 "1955/56 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. http://www.uefa.com/uefachampionsleague/season=1955/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 15.4 15.5 "European Champions' Cup 1955–56 – Details". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. http://www.rsssf.com/ec/ec195556det.html#cc। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.5 "Trofeos de Fútbol". Real Madrid. 31 January 2010. http://www.realmadrid.com/cs/Satellite/es/Club/1193040475224/PalmaresTotal/Palmares.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  17. 17.0 17.1 "1956/57 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. http://www.uefa.com/uefachampionsleague/season=1956/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  18. 18.0 18.1 "Champions' Cup 1956–57". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. http://www.rsssf.com/ec/ec195657det.html#cc। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 "1957/58 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. http://www.uefa.com/uefachampionsleague/season=1957/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  20. 20.0 20.1 "Champions' Cup 1957–58". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. http://www.rsssf.com/ec/ec195758det.html#cc। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  21. "1958/59 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. http://www.uefa.com/uefachampionsleague/season=1958/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  22. "Champions' Cup 1958–59". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. http://www.rsssf.com/ec/ec195859det.html#cc। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  23. 23.0 23.1 "1959/60 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. http://www.uefa.com/uefachampionsleague/season=1959/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  24. 24.0 24.1 "Champions' Cup 1959–60". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. http://www.rsssf.com/ec/ec195960det.html#cc। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  25. 25.0 25.1 "1960/61 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. http://www.uefa.com/uefachampionsleague/season=1960/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  26. 26.0 26.1 "Champions' Cup 1960–61". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. http://www.rsssf.com/ec/ec196061det.html#cc। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  27. 27.0 27.1 "Anos 60: A "década de ouro"". Sport Lisboa e Benfica. 31 January 2010. http://www.slbenfica.pt/Clube/Historia/DecadaaDecada/Decada60/decada60.asp। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  28. "1961/62 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. http://www.uefa.com/uefachampionsleague/season=1961/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  29. "Champions' Cup 1961–62". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. http://www.rsssf.com/ec/ec196162det.html#cc। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  30. "1962/63 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. http://www.uefa.com/uefachampionsleague/season=1962/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  31. "Champions' Cup 1962–63". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. http://www.rsssf.com/ec/ec196263det.html#cc। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  32. "Coppa Campioni 1962/63". Associazione Calcio Milan. 31 January 2010. http://www.acmilan.com/it/club/palmares/cdc1962_63। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  33. "1963/64 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. http://www.uefa.com/uefachampionsleague/season=1963/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  34. "Champions' Cup 1963–64". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. http://www.rsssf.com/ec/ec196364det.html#cc। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  35. "Palmares: Prima coppa dei campioni – 1963/64" (Italian ভাষাত). Football Club Internazionale Milano. 31 January 2010. http://www.inter.it/aas/palmares/vitt?L=it&IDV=14। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  36. "1964/65 European Champions Clubs' Cup". Union of European Football Associations. 31 January 2010. http://www.uefa.com/uefachampionsleague/season=1964/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  37. "Champions' Cup 1964–65". Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation. 31 January 2010. http://www.rsssf.com/ec/ec196465det.html#cc। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  38. "Palmares: Prima coppa dei campioni – 1964/65" (Italian ভাষাত). Football Club Internazionale Milano. 31 January 2010. http://www.inter.it/aas/palmares/vitt?L=it&IDV=15। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 May 2010. 
  39. 39.0 39.1 UEFA Champions League anthem UEFA.com. Retrieved 6 March 2011
  40. Media, democracy and European culture p.129. Intellect Books, 2009. Retrieved 6 March 2011
  41. "Liverpool get in Champions League". BBC Sport (BBC). 10 June 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/teams/l/liverpool/4613695.stm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 11 December 2007. 
  42. "EXCO approves new coefficient system". UEFA. 20 May 2008. Archived from the original on 21 May 2008. http://web.archive.org/web/20080521053931/http://www.uefa.com/uefa/keytopics/kind=64/newsid=698237.html?cid=rssfeed&att=index। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 12 September 2010. 
  43. 43.0 43.1 "Harry Redknapp and Spurs given bitter pill of Europa League by Chelsea". The Guardian (Guardian News and Media). 20 May 2012. http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/2012/may/20/harry-redknapp-spurs-europa-league। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 24 November 2012. 
  44. Bond, David (13 November 2007). "Clubs force UEFA's Michel Platini into climbdown". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2007/11/13/sfnuef113.xml। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2 December 2007. 
  45. "Platini's Euro Cup plan rejected". BBC Sport (BBC). 12 December 2007. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/europe/7090646.stm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 11 December 2007. 
  46. Regulations of the UEFA Champions League 2011/12, pg 10: http://www.uefa.com/MultimediaFiles/Download/Regulations/competitions/Regulations/01/63/02/44/1630244_DOWNLOAD.pdf
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 "UEFA Referee". Uefa.com. 7 July 2010. http://www.uefa.com/trainingground/referees/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 24 July 2011. 
  48. "UEFA Champions League revenue distribution". UEFA.com. Union of European Football Associations. 10 August 2012. http://www.uefa.com/uefa/management/finance/news/newsid=1845591.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 28 December 2012. 
  49. "€750 million for UEFA Champions League clubs" (PDF). uefadirect (Union of European Football Associations) (110): 6–7. August 2011. http://www.uefa.com/MultimediaFiles/Download/EuroExperience/uefaorg/Publications/01/66/55/51/1665551_DOWNLOAD.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 26 August 2011. 
  50. "2012/13 Season". Regulations of the UEFA Champions League: 2012-15 Cycle. UEFA. p. 8. http://www.uefa.com/MultimediaFiles/Download/Regulations/competitions/Regulations/01/79/68/69/1796869_DOWNLOAD.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 22 September 2012. 
  51. Thompson, Craig; Magnus, Ems (February 2003). "The Uefa Champions League Marketing". Fiba Assist Magazine: 49–50. http://www.ekospor.com/Sports-Marketing/Sport%20Marketing%20uefa.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 19 May 2008. 
  52. UEFA (9 July 2012). "Gazprom becomes an official partner". http://www.uefa.com/uefa/events/marketing/news/newsid=1839761.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 13 July 2012. 
  53. "UEFA Media Services" (PDF). http://www.uefa.com/MultimediaFiles/Download/PressRelease/uefa/UEFAMedia/83/86/32/838632_DOWNLOAD.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 24 July 2011. 
  54. "UniCredit starts a three year sponsorship of the UEFA Champions League". Unicreditgroup.eu. 20 September 2009. http://www.unicreditgroup.eu/en/pressreleases/PressRelease1248.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 14 August 2010. 
  55. "HTC to partner with UEFA Champions League and UEFA Europa League". UEFA.com. 12 December 2012. http://www.uefa.com/uefa/mediaservices/mediareleases/newsid=1901926.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 6 January 2012. 
  56. "Champions League final tops Super Bowl for TV market". BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation). 31 January 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/europe/8490351.stm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 25 February 2010. 

External links[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

সাঁচ:UEFA Champions League সাঁচ:UEFA Champions League seasons সাঁচ:UEFA Champions League winners সাঁচ:UEFA competitions সাঁচ:International club football সাঁচ:Intercontinental Cup (football) সাঁচ:FIFA Club World Cup সাঁচ:European Club Competitions