আম

অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ পৰা
Mango
জীৱবৈজ্ঞানিক শ্ৰেণীবিভাজন
জগৎ/ৰাজ্য: Plantae
(অশ্ৰেণীকৃত): Angiosperms
(অশ্ৰেণীকৃত): Eudicots
(অশ্ৰেণীকৃত): Rosids
বৰ্গ: Sapindales
পৰিয়াল: Anacardiaceae
গণ: Mangifera
প্ৰজাতি: M. indica
বৈজ্ঞানিক নাম
Mangifera indica
L.
Apple mango and cross section edit1.jpg

আম (ইংৰাজী: Mango, বৈজ্ঞানিক নাম-Mangifera indica)'Mangifera' গোত্ৰৰ অন্তৰ্ভুক্ত এবিধ ৰসাল ফলধৰা উদ্ভিদ৷ এই উদ্ভিদবিধ দক্ষিণ এছিয়াত স্থানীয়ভাৱে দেখা পোৱা যায়৷ আমে ভাৰতবৰ্ষ আৰু ফিলিপাইনছৰ ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় ফল আৰু বাংলাদেশৰ ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় বৃক্ষ (national tree) হিচাপে স্বীকৃতি পাইছে৷[1]

নামকৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Green Mangoes

আমৰ ইংৰাজী নাম অৰ্থাৎ "mango" তামিল শব্দ ' māṅgai বা mankay' অথবা মালায়ালম শব্দ 'māṅga' শব্দৰ পৰা উৎপত্তি হোৱা বুলি ধাৰণা কৰা হয়৷ [2][3][4][5]

বিৱৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

A mango tree in full bloom in Kerala, India

আম এবিধ বৃক্ষজাতীয় উদ্ভিদ৷ ইয়াৰ উচ্চতা প্ৰায় ৩৫-৪০ মিটাৰ পৰ্যন্ত হ'ব পাৰে৷ এই গছবিধ বহুদিন জীয়াই থাকে৷ কিছুমান আমগছ ৩০০ বছৰ পৰ্যন্ত ফল ধাৰণ কৰিব পৰা অৱস্থাতে থকাৰো তথ্য পোৱা যায়৷ আমগছৰ পাত চিৰসেউজীয়া, সৰল আৰু alternate হয়৷ এটা পাত সাধাৰণতে দীঘলে ১৫-৩৫ ছে:মি: আৰু বহলে ৬-১৬ ছে:মি: হয়৷ কুমলীয়া পাতৰ বৰণ কমলা-গুলপীয়া ৷ পুৰঠ হোৱাৰ লগে লগে এই ৰং সলনি হৈ গাঢ় ৰঙা হৈ সেউজীয়া হৈ পৰে৷ ফুলৰ দৈৰ্ঘ্য প্ৰায় ১০-৮০ ছে:মি: হয়৷

আমৰ ফলৰ বৰণ আৰু আকাৰ পুৰঠ হোৱাৰ লগে লগে সলনি হয়৷

The ripe fruit varies in size and color. Cultivars are variously yellow, orange, red or green, and carry a single flat, oblong pit that can be fibrous or hairy on the surface, and which does not separate easily from the pulp. Ripe, unpeeled mangoes give off a distinctive resinous, sweet smell. Inside the pit ১–২ mm (০.০৩৯–০.০৭৯ in) thick is a thin lining covering a single seed, ৪–৭ cm (১.৬–২.৮ in) long. The seed contains the plant embryo.

খেতি[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Photo of mango trees with clear sky in background
Mango orchard in Multan, Pakistan

Mangoes have been cultivated in South Asia for thousands of years[6] and reached East Asia between the fifth and fourth centuries BC. By the 10th century AD, cultivation had begun in East Africa.[6] The 14th century Moroccan traveler, Ibn Battuta, reported it at Mogadishu.[7] Cultivation came later to Brazil, the West Indies and Mexico, where an appropriate climate allows its growth.[6]

The mango is now cultivated in most frost-free tropical and warmer subtropical climates; almost half of the world's mangoes are cultivated in India alone, with the second-largest source being China.[8][9][10] Mangoes are also grown in Andalusia, Spain (mainly in Málaga province), as its coastal subtropical climate is one of the few places in mainland Europe that allows the growth of tropical plants and fruit trees. The Canary Islands are another notable Spanish producer of the fruit. Other cultivators include North America (in South Florida and California's Coachella Valley), South and Central America, the Caribbean, Hawai'i, south, west and central Africa, Australia, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Southeast Asia. Though India is the largest producer of mangoes, it accounts for less than one percent of the international mango trade; India consumes most of its own production.[11]

খাদ্য হিচাপে[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Mangoes are generally sweet, although the taste and texture of the flesh varies across cultivars, some having a soft, pulpy texture similar to an overripe plum, while others firmer, like a cantaloupe or avocado and some may have a fibrous texture. For consumption of unripe, pickled or cooked fruit, its skin can be consumed but has potential to cause contact dermatitis of the lips, gingiva or tongue in susceptible people. Under-ripe mangoes can be ripened by refrigeration for 4–5 days.[12]

A halved, inside-out mango is cut in a grid pattern, still attached to the peel. The mango is inside-out, causing the resulting rectangles of fruit to splay out in a pattern similar to the tentacles of a sea urchin.
The "hedgehog" style is a form of mango preparation.

Mangoes are used in preserves such as moramba, amchur (dried and powdered unripe mango) and pickles, including a spicy mustard-oil pickle and alcohol. Ripe mangoes are often cut into thin layers, desiccated, folded, and then cut. These bars are similar to dried guava fruit bars available in some countries. The fruit is also added to cereal products such as muesli and oat granola.

Mango is used to make juices, smoothies, ice cream, fruit bars, raspados, aguas frescas, pies and sweet chili sauce, or mixed with chamoy, a sweet and spicy chili paste.

পোষকদ্ৰৱ্য (Nutrients)[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Saigon mangoes on display at the 15th Annual International Mango Festival at the Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Florida, United States
Mango
 A mango shown whole
and in cross section
Nutritional value per ১০০ g (৩.৫ oz)
Energy ২৫০ kJ (৬০ kcal)
Carbohydrates 15 g
- Sugars 13.7
- Dietary fiber 1.6 g
Fat 0.38 g
Protein 0.82 g
Vitamin A equiv. 54 μg (7%)
- beta-carotene 640 μg (6%)
- lutein and zeaxanthin 23 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.028 mg (2%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.038 mg (3%)
Niacin (vit. B3) 0.669 mg (4%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.197 mg (4%)
Vitamin B6 0.119 mg (9%)
Folate (vit. B9) 43 μg (11%)
Choline 7.6 mg (2%)
Vitamin C 36.4 mg (44%)
Vitamin E 0.9 mg (6%)
Vitamin K 4.2 μg (4%)
Calcium 11 mg (1%)
Iron 0.16 mg (1%)
Magnesium 10 mg (3%)
Manganese 0.063 mg (3%)
Phosphorus 14 mg (2%)
Potassium 168 mg (4%)
Sodium 1 mg (0%)
Zinc 0.09 mg (1%)
Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated
using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

The energy value per 100 g (3.5 oz) is 250 kJ (60 kcal), and that of the apple mango is slightly higher (79 kcal per 100g).[13]


উৎপাদন[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates worldwide production at nearly ৩,৫০,০০,০০০ tonne (৩,৯০,০০,০০০ short ton) in 2009 (table below). The aggregate production of the top 10 countries is responsible for roughly 80% of worldwide production. India is the biggest producer of mangoes.

 
A basket of ripe mangoes
from Bangladesh
 
Ripe Sindhri mangoes
from Sindh, Pakistan
 
Banganpalli mangoes being sold
in Vijayawada, India
 
Ripe mangoes being sold in a market in the Philippines
Top producers of mangoes, mangosteens, guavas, 2010–11
Country/State Production in millions of tons
 ভাৰত
~ 16.34
 চীন
~ 4.35
পুণঃনিৰ্দেশ সাঁচ:Country data Thailand
~ 2.55
পুণঃনিৰ্দেশ সাঁচ:Country data Pakistan
~ 1.78
 মেক্সিকো
~ 1.63
 ইন্দোনেছিয়া
~ 1.31
 ব্ৰাজিল
~ 1.19
 বাংলাদেশ
~ 1.05
 World total
~ 38.6
Source: UN FAOSTAT [14]



আলোকচিত্ৰৰ ভঁৰাল[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

তথ্যসুত্ৰ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. [1]
  2. Walter William Skeat, Notes on English etymology
  3. Mango at Encyclopaedia Britannica
  4. Mango Merriam Webster Dictionary.
    "Origin of mango: Portuguese manga, probably from Malayalam māṅga. First Known Use: 1582"
  5. "Definition for mango - Oxford Dictionaries Online (World English)". Oxforddictionaries.com. http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/mango। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2012-06-17. 
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Ensminger 1994: 1373
  7. Watson, Andrew J. (1983). Agricultural innovation in the early Islamic world: the diffusion of crops and farming techniques, 700–1100. প্ৰকাশক Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. পৃষ্ঠা. 72–3. ISBN 0-521-24711-X. 
  8. Jedele, S.; Hau, A.M.; von Oppen, M.. "An analysis of the world market for mangoes and its importance for developing countries. Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development, 2003" (PDF). http://www.tropentag.de/2003/abstracts/full/162.pdf. 
  9. "India world's largest producer of mangoes, Rediff India Abroad, April 21, 2004". Rediff.com. 2004-12-31. http://www.rediff.com/money/2004/apr/21india.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2013-01-31. 
  10. "Mad About mangoes: As exports to the U.S. resume, a juicy business opportunity ripens, India Knowledge@Wharton Network, June 14, 2007". Knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu. 2007-06-14. http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/india/article.cfm?articleid=4201। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2013-01-31. 
  11. USAID helps Indian mango farmers access new markets, USAID-India, May 3, 2006[সংযোগবিহীন উৎস]
  12. "Ingredients - Mangoes". DrGourmet.com. http://www.drgourmet.com/ingredients/mangos.shtml। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2011-07-20. 
  13. "USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, SR-23, Fruit Reports-09, Mango, raw (page 449), 2010". USDA. http://www.ars.usda.gov/SP2UserFiles/Place/12354500/Data/SR23/reports/sr23fg09.pdf. 
  14. "Statistics from: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division". UN Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database. http://faostat.fao.org/site/567/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=567#ancor. 

লগতে চাওক[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  • Ensminger, Audrey H.; et al. (1995). The Concise Encyclopedia of Foods & Nutrition. CRC Press. পৃষ্ঠা. 651. ISBN 0-8493-4455-7. 
  • Litz, Richard E. (editor, 2009). The Mango: Botany, Production and Uses. 2nd edition. CABI. ISBN 978-1-84593-489-7
  • Susser, Allen (2001). The Great Mango Book: A Guide with Recipes. Ten Speed Press. ISBN 978-1-58008-204-4

বাহ্যিক সংযোগ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

সাঁচ:Commons and category