নেমুটেঙা পখিলা

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নেমুটেঙা পখিলা (Papilio demoleus)
জীৱবৈজ্ঞানিক শ্ৰেণীবিভাজন
জগৎ/ৰাজ্য: Animalia
পৰ্ব: Arthropoda
শ্ৰেণী: Insecta
বৰ্গ: Lepidoptera
পৰিয়াল: Papilionidae
গণ: Papilio
প্ৰজাতি: P. demoleus
বৈজ্ঞানিক নাম
Papilio demoleus
Linnaeus, 1758

নেমুটেঙা পখিলা (ইংৰাজী: Lemon Butterfly, বৈজ্ঞানিক নাম-Papilio demoleus) এবিধ সতকাই দেখা পোৱা (common) আৰু বহুলভাৱে বিস্তৃত হৈ থকা চাতকনেজীয়া পখিলা (Swallowtail butterfly)ৰ প্ৰজাতি৷ ই প্ৰধানকৈ নেমুটেঙা জাতীয় উদ্ভিদক পোষক (host plant) হিচাপে ব্যৱহাৰ কৰে বাবে এই পখিলাবিধৰ নাম নেমুটেঙা পখিলা দিয়া হয়৷ অন্যান্য চাতকনেজীয়া পখিলাৰ দৰে ইয়াৰ এডাল স্পষ্ট নেজ নাথাকে৷

বিৱৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Upperside and underside wing surfaces of the Lime butterfly Papilio demoleus.

নেমুটেঙা পখিলাৰ নেজ নাথাকে৷ ইয়াৰ পাখিৰ দৈৰ্ঘ্য ৮০-১০০ মিমি৷ Evans, W.H. (1932) (Free full text download (first edition)). Identification of Indian Butterflies (2 সম্পাদনা). প্ৰকাশক Mumbai: Bombay Natural History Society. পৃষ্ঠা. 454 (with 32 plates). http://www.archive.org/details/TheIdentificationOfIndianButterflies। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 14 November 2010. </ref>:52 ইয়াৰ পাখিৰ বৰণ ক'লা৷ পাখিত বেঁকা হালধীয়া বৰণৰ কিছুমান আঁচ থকা দেখা যায়৷ ইয়াৰ উপৰিও পখিলাবিধৰ আগফালৰ পাখিত অসংখ্য অসমান দাগ আছে৷ ইয়াৰ পিছফালৰ পাখিদুখন লগ হোৱা অংশত এটা ৰঙা দীঘলীয়া ফোঁট থাকে৷

As the butterfly caterpillar ages, its hunger for leaf tissue continues to grow.[1]Antennae dark reddish brown, touched with ochraceous on the innerside towards the club; head, thorax and abdomen dusky black, the head and thorax anteriorly streaked with cream-vellow: beneath: the palpi, thorax and abdomen cream-yellow with lateral longitudinal black lines on the last.}}

বিস্তৃতি[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Papilio demoleus is an aggressive and very common butterfly. It is perhaps the most widely distributed swallowtail in the world. The butterfly can be found in:[2] Oman, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Iran, western and possibly eastern Afghanistan, and western Pakistan, Sri Lanka, India (including the Andamans), Nepal, Burma, Thailand, the Philippines, Kampuchea, southern China (including Hainan, Guangdong province), Taiwan, Japan (rare strays), Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia (Kalimantan, Sumatra, Sula, Talaud, Flores, Alor and Sumba), Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Lord Howe's island), apparently Hawaii and possibly other Pacific Ocean islands

বাসস্থান[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The widespread range of Papilio demoleus indicates the butterfly's tolerance and adaptation to diverse habitats. It is to be found in savannahs, fallow lands, gardens, evergreen and semi-evergreen forests and shows a preference for stream and riverbeds.In India it is mostly found in the plains but can be found on the hills of peninsular India and up to 7000 feet in the Himalayas. It is common in urban gardens and may also be encountered in wooded country.[1][3]

টেক্স'নমি[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Five related butterflies form the group of lime butterflies in the genus Papilio of which Papilio demoleus Linnaeus, 1758 is the flagship species which gives the name to the group. The other morphologically related butterflies are:[4]

Six subspecies are recognised in Papilio demoleus:[5][4]

  • P. d. demoleus Linnaeus, 1758 - Across Asia from China to the Arabian peninsula.
  • P. d. libanius Fruhstorfer, 1908 - Taiwan, Philippines, Sula, Talaud.
  • P. d. malayanus Wallace, 1865 - Sumatra and the Malaysian peninsula.
  • P. d. novoguineensis Rothschild, 1908 - Papua New Guinea.
  • P. d. sthenelus Macleay, 1826 - Australia.
  • P. d. stenelinus Rothschild, 1895 - Sumba, Flores and Alor.

আচৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

This butterfly is an avid mud-puddler and visitor of flowers. It basks with its wings held wide open on tufts of grass, herbs and generally keeps within a metre above the ground, even on cloudy days. It relies on its quick flight for escape.It is also a frequent visitor of flowers in gardens, where it shows a preference for flowers of smaller herbs rather than larger plants such as the ubiquitous Lantana with its plentiful blooms. It can be found swarming in the groves of its foodplants.[6]

জীৱন-চক্ৰ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Lifecycle of Common Lime butterfly (Papilio demoleus).

The number of generations of Papilio demoleus is dependent upon temperature[7] - near the equator, nine generations have been recorded,[5] while in warm temperate China, five generations have been recorded.[7] In the ideal conditions of a laboratory, a generation has been recorded to take place in just over 30 days. The average time for one generation of Papilio demoleus to mature in the field ranges from 26 to 59 days.[5]

The female butterfly goes from plant to plant, laying a single egg at a time on top of a leaf which it holds onto with its legs, and flies off as soon as the egg is laid. The egg is round, light yellowish in colour, flattened at the base, smooth-surfaced and about 1.5 mm in height.[5][8] Fertile eggs develop a small red mark at the apex.[9]

The newly hatched caterpillar stays in the middle of the upperside of the leaf.

The pupa, which is rugose, stout and 30 mm in length, has two projections to the front on its head and also one on its thorax [10]

The adults fly in every month but are particularly abundant during and after the monsoons.

তথ্যসুত্ৰ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. 1.0 1.1 Wynter-Blyth, M.A. (1957). Butterflies of the Indian Region (Reprint of 2009 by Today & Tomorrows Publishers, New Delhi সম্পাদনা). প্ৰকাশক Mumbai, India: Bombay Natural History Society. পৃষ্ঠা. 523. ISBN 978-81-7019-232-9. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=kdLDv-jw4P0C। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 22 October 2010. 
  2. Collins, N. Mark; Collins, Michael G. (1985). Threatened Swallowtails of the World:the IUCN red data book. IUCN Protected Area Programme Series. প্ৰকাশক Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K.: IUCN. পৃষ্ঠা. 401 & 8 plates. ISBN 978-2-88032-603-6. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=RomV7uO_t9YC। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 22 October 2010. 
  3. Heppner John B. (8 December 2006). "Pest Alert: Lime Swallowtail in the Caribbean and possible impacts for Florida citrus". Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services Division of Plant Industries. http://www.doacs.state.fl.us/pi/enpp/ento/limeswallowtail.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 27 November 2010. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 Zakharov, E. V.; Smith, C. R., Lees, D. C., Cameron, A., Vane-Wright, R. I. and Sperling, F. A. H. (2004). "Independent gene phylogenies and morphology demonstrate a Malagasy origin for a wide-ranging group of swallowtail butterflies" (full free download). Evolution খণ্ড 58: 2763–2782. doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2004.tb01628.x. http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/courses.hp/biol506.hp/pdfs/Zakharov04_Swallowtail.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 15 November 2010. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 উদ্ধৃতি ত্ৰুটি: অবৈধ <ref> টেগ; Lewis, DS - Papilio demoleus নামৰ refৰ বাবে কোনো পাঠ্য প্ৰদান কৰা হোৱা নাই
  6. Ilse, Dora; Vaidya, Vidyadhar G. (1955). "Spontaneous feeding response to colours in Papilio demoleus L" (abstract). Proceedings: Plant Sciences খণ্ড 43 (1): 23–31. doi:10.1007/BF03050215. http://www.springerlink.com/content/a735r12u61063k05/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 30 November 2010. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 উদ্ধৃতি ত্ৰুটি: অবৈধ <ref> টেগ; Homziak & Homziak (2006) নামৰ refৰ বাবে কোনো পাঠ্য প্ৰদান কৰা হোৱা নাই
  8. উদ্ধৃতি ত্ৰুটি: অবৈধ <ref> টেগ; Kunte (2000) নামৰ refৰ বাবে কোনো পাঠ্য প্ৰদান কৰা হোৱা নাই
  9. Grund, R. (9 December 1999). "Papilio demoleus sthenelus W.S. Macleay (Chequered Swallowtail)". South Australian Butterflies. http://users.sa.chariot.net.au/~erg/demoleus_ds.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 23 August 2010. 
  10. Smith, A. G. (1978). "Environmental Factors Influencing Pupal Colour Determination in Lepidoptera. I. Experiments with Papilio polytes, Papilio demoleus and Papilio polyxenes" (abstract). Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences খণ্ড 200 (1140): 295–329. http://www.jstor.org/stable/77392। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 29 November 2010. 

লগতে চাওক[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  • Chattopadhyay, Jagannath. (2007),"Swallowtail Butterflies, Biology and Ecology of a few Indian Species." Desh Prakashan, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. ISBN 978-81-905719-1-3.

বাহ্যিক সংযোগ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

আলোকচিত্ৰৰ ভঁৰাল[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. Kunte, Krushnamegh (2000). Butterflies of Peninsular India. India, a lifescape (reprint 2006 সম্পাদনা). প্ৰকাশক Hyderabad: Universities Press (India) Ltd. পৃষ্ঠা. 254. ISBN 978-81-7371-354-5. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=cuPPjOMcu_4C। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 27 November 2010.