ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘ

অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ পৰা
ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘ (Bengal tiger)
বান্ধবগঢ় ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় উদ্যান ( Bandhavgarh National Park)ত এটা ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘ
সংৰক্ষণ স্থিতি
জীৱবৈজ্ঞানিক শ্ৰেণীবিভাজন
জগৎ/ৰাজ্য: Animalia
পৰ্ব: Chordata
শ্ৰেণী: Mammalia
বৰ্গ: Carnivora
পৰিয়াল: Felidae
উপপৰিয়াল: Pantherinae
গণ: Panthera
প্ৰজাতি: Panthera tigris
উপপ্ৰজাতি: Panthera tigris tigris
ত্ৰিপদ নাম
Panthera tigris tigris
Pocock, 1929

ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘ (ইংৰাজী: Bengal tiger , বৈজ্ঞানিক নাম-Panthera tigris tigris)বাঘৰ এটা প্ৰখ্যাত উপপ্ৰজাতি৷ শেহতীয়া তথ্য অনুসৰি ভাৰতত ইয়াৰ জনসংখ্যা ১,৭০৬-১,৯০৯ টা, বাংলাদেশত ৪৪০ টা, নেপালত ১৬৩-২৫৩ টা আৰু ভূটানত প্ৰায় ৬৭-৮১ টা৷[2][3][4][5] ২০০০ চনত আই.ইউ. চি. এনে ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘক সংকটাপন্ন প্ৰজাতি (endangered species) বুলি স্বীকৃতি দিছে৷ [1]ভাৰত আৰু বাংলাদেশ দুয়ো দেশতে ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘক ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় প্ৰাণীৰূপে গণ্য কৰা হয়৷[6]

বিৱৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

A Bengal tiger in Mangalore, Karnataka

ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘৰ গাৰ বৰণ হালধীয়া বা পাতল কমলা হয়৷ ইয়াৰ গোটেই দেহটোতে গাঢ় মুগা বা কলা আঁচ থকা দেখা যায়৷ ইয়াৰ পেট বগা আৰু নেজ কমলাবৰণৰ,তাতে কলা মণি (black rings) থকা দেখা পোৱা যায়৷

মতা ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘৰ দেহৰ দৈৰ্ঘ্য গড়ে ২৭০-৩১০ ছে:মি আৰু মাইকীৰ প্ৰায় ২৪০-২৬৫ ছে:মি: হয়৷[7] ইয়াৰ নেজৰ দৈৰ্ঘ্য প্ৰায় ৮৫-১১০ ছে:মি আৰু বাহুপৰ্যন্ত দেহৰ উচ্চতা ৯০-১১০ ছে:মি: হয়৷ [8] মতা ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘৰ গড় ওজন প্ৰায় ২২১.২ কি:গ্ৰা: আৰু মাইকীৰ ১৩৯.৭ কি:গ্ৰা:৷[9]বাংলাদেশৰ সুন্দৰবনত দেখা পোৱা ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘৰ ওজনেই বৰ্তমানলৈকে আটাইতকৈ কম বুলি পৰিগণিত হৈছে৷ ইয়াৰ মাইকী ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘৰ ওজন ৭০-৮০ কি: গ্ৰা: হে বুলি জানিব পৰা গৈছে৷ [10]

A white Bengal tiger at the Cougar Mountain Zoo

শুকুলা বাঘ ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘৰে এক recessive mutant প্ৰজাতি৷ ইয়াক অসম, পশ্চিমবংগ তথা বিহাৰ আদিৰ বনাঞ্চলত দেখা পোৱা যায়৷ কিন্তু এইবিধক সচৰাচৰ ভবাৰ দৰে ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘৰ এলবিন' ( albinism) বুলি গণ্য কৰিব পৰা নাযায়৷ [11]

বিতৰণ আৰু বাসস্থান[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

A Bengal tiger at Ranthambore National Park
A Bengal tigress with her cubs at the Bandhavgarh National Park, India

১৯৮২ চনত শ্ৰীলংকাৰ কুৰুৱিটা ( Kuruwita) নামৰ ঠাইত প্ৰায় ১৬,৫০০ বছৰ পূৰ্বৰ এক জীৱাষ্ম পোৱা গৈছিল আৰু ইয়াক ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘৰ বুলি ধাৰণা কৰা হৈছিল৷ প্ৰায় ২০,০০০ বছৰ পূৰ্বে সাগৰ পৃষ্ঠৰ সংকোচনৰ সময়ত ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘ শ্ৰীলংকালৈ অহা বুলি ধাৰণা কৰা হয়৷ [12]

ভাৰত উপমহাদেশত ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘ ক্ৰান্তীয় সেমেকা বনাঞ্চল, ক্ৰান্তীয় শুকান বনাঞ্চল, তথা সেমেকা পৰ্ণপাতী বনাঞ্চল, মেনগ্ৰুভ, ঘাঁহনি আদি অঞ্চলত দেখিবলৈ পোৱা যায়৷ পৰৱৰ্ত্তী কালত বাঘৰ বাসস্থান গংগা আৰু ব্ৰহ্মপুত্ৰ নৈৰৰ উপত্যকা অঞ্চলসমুহলৈও বিস্তৃত হৈ পৰিল৷ কিন্তু শেহতীয়াকৈ এই অঞ্চলসমূহ বনাঞ্চল ধ্বংস আৱু খেতি পথাৰলৈ পৰিবৰ্ত্তন হোৱা দেখা গৈছে৷

বৰ্ত্তমান ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘ দেখা পোৱা প্ৰধান অঞ্চলসমূহ হৈছে হিমালয়ৰ পাদদেশত থকা ৰাজাজী-কৰবেট, বৰডিয়া-বাংকে (Bardia-Banke), চিটৱান-পাৰ্স্বা-বাল্মিকী (Chitwan-Parsa-Valmiki), দুধৱা-কাইলালি (Dudhwa-Kailali) আৰু শুক্লা ফান্টা-কিশানপুৰ (Sukla Phanta-Kishanpur) আদি Tiger Conservation Units (TCUs) সমূহ৷ খাদকৰ প্ৰাচুৰ্য্যৰ বাবে এই অঞ্চলসমূহত ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘৰ আবাদী ঘন৷ [13]

ভাৰত[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

A captive Bengal tiger in Bannerghatta National Park, India

পূৰ্বতে ভাৰতবৰ্ষত আয়োজন কৰা ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘৰ গণনা (census) প্ৰত্যেক বাঘৰ ভৰিৰ খোজৰ ওপৰত নিৰ্ভৰ কৰি কৰা হৈছিল৷ কিন্তু শেহতীয়াকৈ এই পদ্ধতিত থকা নানা আসোঁৱাহ সমূহৰ সমালোচনা হোৱাত বৰ্তমান নতুনকৈ কেমেৰা ট্ৰেপিং পদ্ধতি অৱলম্বন কৰা হৈছে৷[14]

ভাৰতবৰ্ষত থকা ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘ উত্তম পৰ্য্যায়ৰ বাসস্থানসমূহ হৈছে-মানাহ-নামদফা, হাজাৰিবাগ ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় উদ্যান( Hazaribagh National Park), নাৰ্গাজুন সাগৰ-শ্ৰীসাইলাম ব্যাঘ্ৰ প্ৰকল্প (Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve),কানহা-ইন্দ্ৰাৱতী কৰিড'ৰ ( Kanha-Indravati corridor), উৰিষ্যাৰ শুকান বনাঞ্চল , পান্না ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় উদ্যান (Panna National Park), মেলঘাট ব্যাঘ্ৰ প্ৰকল্প (Melghat Tiger Reserve) ইত্যাদি৷ The TCUs in tropical moist deciduous forest are probably some of the most productive habitats for tigers and their prey, and include Kaziranga-Meghalaya, Kanha-Pench, Simlipal and Indravati Tiger Reserves. The TCUs in tropical moist evergreen forests represent the less common tiger habitats, being largely limited to the upland areas and wetter parts of the Western Ghats, and include the Tiger Reserves of Periyar, Kalakad-Mundathurai, Bandipur and Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary.[13]

The methodology used during the tiger census of 2008 extrapolates site-specific densities of tigers, their co-predators and prey derived from camera trap and sign surveys using GIS. Based on the result of these surveys, the total tiger population has been estimated at 1,411 individuals ranging from 1,165 to 1,657 adult and sub-adult tigers of more than 1.5 years of age. The following six landscape complexes comprising several ecological landscapes were surveyed across India based on current tiger occupancy and potential for connectivity:[15]

In May 2008, forest officials spotted 14 tiger cubs in Rajasthan's Ranthambore National Park.[16] In June 2008, a tiger from Ranthambore was relocated to Sariska Tiger Reserve, where all tigers had fallen victim to poachers and human encroachments since 2005.[17]

বাংলাদেশ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Tigers in Bangladesh are now relegated to the forests of the Sundarbans and the Chittagong Hill Tracts.[18] The Chittagong forest is contiguous with tiger habitat in India and Myanmar, but the tiger population is of unknown status.[19]

As of 2004, population estimates in Bangladesh ranged from 200 to 419, mostly in the Sunderbans.[18][20] This region is the only mangrove habitat in this bioregion, where tigers survive, swimming between islands in the delta to hunt prey.[13] Bangladesh's Forest Department is raising mangrove plantations supplying forage for spotted deer. Since 2001, afforestation has continued on a small scale in newly accreted lands and islands of the Sundarbans.[3]

নেপাল[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The tiger population in the Terai of Nepal is split into three isolated subpopulations that are separated by cultivation and densely settled habitat. The largest population lives in Chitwan National Park and in the adjacent Parsa Wildlife Reserve encompassing an area of ২,৫৪৩ km2 (৯৮২ sq mi) of prime lowland forest. To the west, the Chitwan population is isolated from the one in Bardia National Park and adjacent unprotected habitat further west, extending to within ১৫ km (৯.৩ mi) of the Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve, which harbours the smallest population.[21] The bottleneck between the Chitwan-Parsa and Bardia-Sukla Phanta metapopulations is situated just north of the town of Butwal.

As of 2009, an estimated 121 breeding tigers lived in Nepal.[22] By 2010, the number of adult tigers had reached 155.[23]

ভূটান[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

As of 2005, the population in Bhutan is estimated at 67–81 individuals.[5] Tigers occur from an altitude of ২০০ m (৬৬০ ft) in the subtropical Himalayan foothills in the south along the border with India to over ৩,০০০ m (৯,৮০০ ft) in the temperate forests in the north, and are known from 17 of 18 districts. Their stronghold appears to be the central belt of the country ranging in altitude between ২,০০০ and ৩,৫০০ m (৬,৬০০ and ১১,৫০০ ft), between the Mo River in the west and the Kulong River in the east.[24] In 2010, camera traps recorded a pair of tigers at altitudes of ৩,০০০ to ৪,১০০ m (৯,৮০০ to ১৩,৫০০ ft). The male was recorded scent-marking, and the female can also be seen to be lactating, confirming that the pair are living within their own territory, and strongly suggesting they are breeding at that altitude.[25]

আচৰণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

A male and female Bengal tiger interact with each other.

The basic social unit of the tiger is the elemental one of mother and offspring. Adult animals congregate only on an ad hoc and transitory basis when special conditions permit, such as plentiful supply of food. Otherwise they lead solitary lives, hunting individually for the dispersed forest and tall grassland animals, upon which they prey. They establish and maintain home ranges. Resident adults of either sex tend to confine their movements to a definite area of habitat within which they satisfy their needs, and in the case of tigresses, those of their growing cubs. Besides providing the requirements of an adequate food supply, sufficient water and shelter, and a modicum of peace and seclusion, this location must make it possible for the resident to maintain contact with other tigers, especially those of the opposite sex. Those sharing the same ground are well aware of each other’s movements and activities.[11]

In the Panna Tiger Reserve an adult radio-collared male tiger moved ১.৭ to ১০.৫ km (১.১ to ৬.৫ mi) between locations on successive days in winter, and ১ to ১৩.৯ km (০.৬২ to ৮.৬ mi) in summer. His home range was about ২০০ km2 (৭৭ sq mi) in summer and ১১০ km2 (৪২ sq mi) in winter. Included in his home range were the much smaller home ranges of two females, a tigress with cubs and a sub-adult tigress. They occupied home ranges of ১৬ to ৩১ km2 (৬.২ to ১২ sq mi).[26]

The home ranges occupied by adult male residents tend to be mutually exclusive, even though one of these residents may tolerate a transient or sub-adult male at least for a time. A male tiger keeps a large territory in order to include the home ranges of several females within its bounds, so that he may maintain mating rights with them. Spacing among females is less complete. Typically there is partial overlap with neighbouring female residents. They tend to have core areas, which are more exclusive, at least for most of the time. Home ranges of both males and females are not stable. The shift or alteration of a home range by one animal is correlated with a shift of another. Shifts from less suitable habitat to better ones are made by animals that are already resident. New animals become residents only as vacancies occur when a former resident moves out or dies. There are more places for resident females than for resident males.[11]

খাদ্য[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Tigers are carnivores. They prefer hunting large ungulates such as chital, sambar, gaur, and to a lesser extent also barasingha, water buffalo, nilgai, serow and takin. Among the medium-sized prey species they frequently kill wild boar, and occasionally hog deer, muntjac and Gray langur. Small prey species such as porcupines, hares and peafowl form a very small part in their diet. Due to the encroachment of humans into their habitat, they also prey on domestic livestock.[27][28][29][30][31]

In most cases, tigers approach their victim from the side or behind from as close a distance as possible and grasp the prey's throat to kill it. Then they drag the carcass into cover, occasionally over several hundred meters, to consume it. The nature of the tiger's hunting method and prey availability results in a "feast or famine" feeding style: they often consume ১৮–৪০ kilogram (৪০–৮৮ lb) of meat at one time.[7]

Bengal tigers have been known to take other predators, such as leopards, wolves, jackals, foxes, crocodiles, Asiatic black bears, sloth bears, and dholes as prey, although these predators are not typically a part of their diet. Adult elephants and rhinoceroses are too large to be successfully tackled by tigers, but such extraordinarily rare events have been recorded. The Indian hunter and naturalist Jim Corbett described an incident in which two tigers fought and killed a large bull elephant. If injured, old or weak, or their normal prey is becoming scarce, they may even attack humans and become man-eaters.[32]

প্ৰজনন[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The tiger in India has no definite mating and birth seasons. Most young are born in December and April.[33] Young have also been found in March, May, October and November.[34] In the 1960s, certain aspects of tiger behaviour at Kanha National Park indicated that the peak of sexual activity was from November to about February, with some mating probably occurring throughout the year.[35]

Royal Bengal Tiger's large piercing canine teeth

Males reach maturity at 4–5 years of age, and females at 3–4 years. A tigress comes into heat at intervals of about 3–9 weeks, and is receptive for 3–6 days. After a gestation period of 104–106 days, 1–4 cubs are born in a shelter situated in tall grass, thick bush or in caves. Newborn cubs weigh ৭৮০ to ১,৬০০ g (১.৭ to ৩.৫ lb) and they have a thick wooly fur that is shed after 3.5–5 months. Their eyes and ears are closed. Their milk teeth start to erupt at about 2–3 weeks after birth, and are slowly replaced by permanent dentition from 8.5–9.5 weeks of age onwards. They suckle for 3–6 months, and begin to eat small amounts of solid food at about 2 months of age. At this time, they follow their mother on her hunting expeditions and begin to take part in hunting at 5–6 months of age. At the age of 2–3 years, they slowly start to separate from the family group and become transient — looking out for an area, where they can establish their own territory. Young males move further away from their mother's territory than young females. Once the family group has split, the mother comes into heat again.[7]

প্ৰধান সংকট[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Over the past century tiger numbers have fallen dramatically, with a decreasing population trend. None of the Tiger Conservation Landscapes within the Bengal tiger range is large enough to support an effective population size of 250 individuals. Habitat losses and the extremely large-scale incidences of poaching are serious threats to the species' survival.[1]

The challenge in the Western Ghats forest complex in western South India, an area of ১৪,৪০০ square mile (৩৭,০০০ km2) stretching across several protected areas is that people literally live on top of the wildlife. The Save the Tiger Fund Council estimates that 7,500 landless people live illegally inside the boundaries of the ৩৮৬-square-mile (১,০০০ km2) Nagarhole National Park in southwestern India. A voluntary if controversial resettlement is underway with the aid of the Karnataka Tiger Conservation Project led by K. Ullas Karanth of the Wildlife Conservation Society.[উদ্ধৃতিৰ প্ৰয়োজন]

চোৰাং-চিকাৰ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The most significant immediate threat to the existence of wild tiger populations is the illegal trade in poached skins and body parts between India, Nepal and China. The governments of these countries have failed to implement adequate enforcement response, and wildlife crime remained a low priority in terms of political commitment and investment for years. There are well-organised gangs of professional poachers, who move from place to place and set up camp in vulnerable areas. Skins are rough-cured in the field and handed over to dealers, who send them for further treatment to Indian tanning centres. Buyers choose the skins from dealers or tanneries and smuggle them through a complex interlinking network to markets outside India, mainly in China. Other factors contributing to their loss are urbanization and revenge killing. Farmers blame tigers for killing cattle and shoot them. Their skins and body parts may however become a part of the illegal trade.[36]

The illicit demand for bones and body parts from wild tigers for use in Traditional Chinese medicine is the reason for the unrelenting poaching pressure on tigers on the Indian subcontinent. For at least a thousand years, tiger bones have been an ingredient in traditional medicines that are prescribed as a muscle strengthener and treatment for rheumatism and body pain.[37]

Between 1994 and 2009, the Wildlife Protection Society of India has documented 893 cases of tigers killed in India, which is just a fraction of the actual poaching and trade in tiger parts during those years.[38]

In 2006, India's Sariska Tiger Reserve lost all of its 26 tigers, mostly to poaching.[39] In 2007, police in Allahabad raided a meeting of suspected poachers, traders and couriers. One of the arrested persons was the biggest buyer of tiger parts in India who used to sell them off to the Chinese traditional medicinal market, using women from a nomadic tribe as couriers.[40] In 2009, none of the 24 tigers residing in the Panna Tiger Reserve were left due to excessive poaching.[41] In November 2011, two tigers were found dead in Maharashtra: a male tiger was trapped and killed in a wire snare; a tigress died of electrocution after chewing at an electric cable supplying power to a water pump; another tigress was found dead in Kanha Tiger Reserve landscape — poisoning is suspected to be the cause of her death.[42]

ঢেঁকীয়াপতীয়া বাঘৰ মানুহৰ সৈতে সংঘাত[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The Indian subcontinent has served as a stage for intense human and tiger confrontations. The region affording habitat where tigers have achieved their highest densities is also one which has housed one of the most concentrated and rapidly expanding human populations. At the beginning of the 19th century tigers were so numerous it seemed to be a question as to whether man or tiger would survive. It became the official policy to encourage the killing of tigers as rapidly as possible, rewards being paid for their destruction in many localities. The United Provinces supported large numbers of tigers in the submontane Terai region, where man-eating had been uncommon. In the latter half of the 19th century, marauding tigers began to take a toll of human life. These animals were pushed into marginal habitat, where tigers had formerly not been known, or where they existed only in very low density, by an expanding population of more vigorous animals that occupied the prime habitat in the lowlands, where there was high prey density and good habitat for reproduction. The dispersers had no where else to go, since the prime habitat was bordered in the south by cultivation. They are thought to have followed back the herds of domestic livestock that wintered in the plains when they returned to the hills in the spring, and then being left without prey when the herds dispersed back to their respective villages. These tigers were the old, the young and the disabled. All suffered from some disability, mainly caused either by gunshot wounds or porcupine quills.[43]

সংৰক্ষণ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

A Bengal tiger captured in Karnataka, India.

An area of special interest lies in the Terai Arc Landscape in the Himalayan foothills of northern India and southern Nepal, where 11 protected areas comprising dry forest foothills and tall-grass savannas harbor tigers in a ৪৯,০০০ square kilometre (১৯,০০০ sq mi) landscape. The goals are to manage tigers as a single metapopulation, the dispersal of which between core refuges can help maintain genetic, demographic, and ecological integrity, and to ensure that species and habitat conservation becomes mainstreamed into the rural development agenda. In Nepal a community-based tourism model has been developed with a strong emphasis on sharing benefits with local people and on the regeneration of degraded forests. The approach has been successful in reducing poaching, restoring habitats, and creating a local constituency for conservation.[44]

WWF partnered with Leonardo DiCaprio to form a global campaign, Save Tigers Now, with the ambitious goal of building political, financial and public support to double the wild tiger population by 2022.[45] Save Tigers Now started its campaign in 12 different WWF Tiger priority landscapes, since May 2010.[46]

ভাৰতত[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

A Bengal tiger roams around in Ranthambore National Park, Rajasthan, India.

In 1972, Project Tiger was launched aiming at ensuring a viable population of tigers in the country and preserving areas of biological importance as a natural heritage for the people. The project's task force visualised these tiger reserves as breeding nuclei, from which surplus animals would emigrate to adjacent forests. The selection of areas for the reserves represented as close as possible the diversity of ecosystems across the tiger's distribution in the country. Funds and commitment were mustered to support the intensive program of habitat protection and rehabilitation under the project. By the late 1980s, the initial nine reserves covering an area of ৯,১১৫ square kilometre (৩,৫১৯ sq mi) had been increased to 15 reserves covering an area of ২৪,৭০০ square kilometre (৯,৫০০ sq mi). More than 1100 tigers were estimated to inhabit the reserves by 1984.[47]

Through this initiative the population decline was reversed initially, but has resumed in recent years; India's tiger population decreased from 3,642 in the 1990s to just over 1,400 from 2002 to 2008.[48]

The Indian Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 enables government agencies to take strict measures so as to ensure the conservation of the Bengal tigers. The Wildlife Institute of India estimates showed that tiger numbers had fallen in Madhya Pradesh by 61%, Maharashtra by 57%, and Rajasthan by 40%. The government's first tiger census, conducted under the Project Tiger initiative begun in 1973, counted 1,827 tigers in the country that year. Using that methodology, the government observed a steady population increase, reaching 3,700 tigers in 2002. However, the use of more reliable and independent censusing technology (including camera traps) for the 2007–2008 all-India census has shown that the numbers were in fact less than half than originally claimed by the Forest Department.[49]

Following the revelation that only 1,411 Bengal tigers exist in the wild in India, down from 3,600 in 2003, the Indian government has decided to set up eight new tiger reserves.[50] Because of dwindling tiger numbers, the Indian government has pledged US$153 million to further fund the Project Tiger initiative, set-up a Tiger Protection Force to combat poachers, and fund the relocation of up to 200,000 villagers to minimize human-tiger interaction.[51]

বাংলাদেশত[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

ৱাইল্ড টিম নামক এক সংস্থাই [1] বাংলাদেশৰ স্থানীয় সংস্থাসমূহ আৰু বাংলাদেশীয় বন বিভাগৰ লগত লগ লাগি সুন্দৰবনত সংঘটিত হৈ থকা বাঘ-মানুহৰ সংঘাত ৰোধ কৰাৰ বাবে কাম কৰি আছে৷ যোৱা শতিকাত বাঘ-মানুহৰ এনে সংঘাতত বহুজনে প্ৰাণ হেৰুৱাৰ লগতে বহুতো বাঘ আৰু পোহনীয়া জন্তুৰ নিধন ঘটিছে৷ যোৱা কেইটা দশকত ই প্ৰায় ৫০জন মানুহ, ৮০ৰো অধিক পোহনীয়া জন্তু আৰু ৩টাকৈ বাঘৰ নিধনৰ কাৰণ হৈছে৷ ৱাইল্ড টিমৰ উদ্যোগত কিছুমান নাও ভিত্তিক দল গঢ়ি তোলা হৈছে, এই দলসমূহ বাঘৰ আক্ৰমণৰ সন্মূখীন হোৱা ব্যক্তিৰ প্ৰাথমিক চিকিত্‍সা, যাতায়ত আৰু আক্ৰমণত প্ৰাণ হেৰুওৱা ব্যক্তিৰ মৃতদেহ উদ্ধাৰ আদি কামত নিয়োজিত হৈ আছে৷ তাৰোপৰি ৱাইল্ড টিমে ৪৯খন গাৱঁত স্বেচ্ছাসেৱক দল গঢ়ি তুলি দলৰ সভ্য সকলক বাঘ-মানুহৰ সংঘাত ৰোধ কৰাৰ ব্যৱস্থাৰ প্ৰশিক্ষণৰ দিহা কৰিছে৷ এই গ্ৰাম্য দলসমূহত প্ৰায় ৩৫ও জন মানকৈ সদস্য থাকে, যিসকলে বাঘ-মানুহৰ সংঘাত ৰোধ কৰাৰ লগতে, চোৰাং চিকাৰ ৰোধ কৰা, পৰিবেষ সম্পৰ্কে সজাগতা অনা আদি কামতো গুৰুত্বপূৰ্ণ ভুমিকা পালন কৰে৷ ৱাল্ড টিমে বাঘ-মানুহ সংঘাতৰ ফলত হ’ব পৰা জীৱন বা সম্পত্তিৰ লোকচানৰ পাছত পাব পৰা চৰকাৰী সাহাৰ্য সম্পৰ্কেও সাধাৰণ জনগণক সজাগ কৰাৰ বাবে কিছুমান কাৰ্যসূচী গ্ৰহণ কৰে৷ তাৰোপৰি এনে সংঘাতৰ বিভিন্ন দিশৰ পৰিসংখ্যা সংগ্ৰহৰ বাবেও ৱাইল্ড টিমে বিশেষ ব্যৱস্থা গঢ়ি তুলিছে৷

নেপালত[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

দেশখনে ২০২২ চনৰ ভিতৰত সৰ্বমুঠ বাঘৰ সংখ্যা দুগুণ কৰা কৰাৰ পৰিকল্পনা গ্ৰহণ কৰিছে, সেই ঊদ্দেশ্যে ২০১০ চনৰ মে’ মাহত ৫৫০ বৰ্গ কি.মি. সংৰক্ষিত এলেকাৰ বাংকে ৰাষ্ট্ৰীয় উদ্যান স্থাপন কৰে, বাঘৰ বসতিৰ বাবে উদ্যান খনত উপযুক্ত বুলি গণ্য কৰা হৈছে৷[52]

Ex situ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Bengal tigers have been captive bred since 1880 and widely crossed with other tiger subspecies.[53] Indian zoos have bred tigers for the first time being at the Alipore Zoo in Kolkata. The 1997 International Tiger Studbook lists the global captive population of Bengal tigers at 210 individuals that are all kept in Indian zoos, except for one female in North America. Completion of the Indian Bengal Tiger Studbook is a necessary prerequisite to establishing a captive management program for tigers in India.[54]

সংস্কৃতিত[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

An early silver coin of Uttama Chola found in Sri Lanka showing the tiger emblem of the Cholas.[55][56]
The Shiva Pashupati seal with tiger to right of the seated Shiva figure Pashupati

The tiger is one of the animals displayed on the Pashupati seal of the Indus Valley Civilisation. The tiger crest is the emblem on the Chola coins. The seals of several Chola copper coins show the tiger, the Pandya emblem fish and the Chera emblem bow, indicating that the Cholas had achieved political supremacy over the latter two dynasties. Gold coins found in Kavilayadavalli in the Nellore district of Andra Pradesh have motifs of the tiger, bow and some indistinct marks.[57]

Today, the tiger is the national animal of India. Bangladesh has the image of the tiger on banknotes. The political party Muslim League of Pakistan has the tiger as its election symbol.[58]

তথ্যসুত্ৰ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

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