ভাৰতীয় মৌলিক অধিকাৰ, নিৰ্দেশাত্মক নীতি আৰু মূল কৰ্তব্য

অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ পৰা

মৌলিক অধিকাৰ, ৰাষ্ট্ৰ পৰিচালনাৰ নিৰ্দেশাত্মক নীতি আৰু মূল কৰ্তব্য ভাৰতীয় সংবিধানৰ তিনিটা প্ৰধান অংশ। এই তিনিটা অংশত নাগৰিকসকলৰ প্ৰতি ৰাষ্ট্ৰৰ ° মৌলিক দায়দায়িত্ব আৰু ৰাষ্ট্ৰৰ প্ৰতি নাগৰিকসকলৰ কৰ্তব্যসমূহৰ বিশদ ব্যাখ্যা দিয়া হৈছে। এই অংশসমূহে চৰকাৰী নীতিনিৰ্ধাৰণ আৰু নাগৰিকসকলৰ আচাৰ-আচৰণৰ ক্ষেত্ৰত এটা সাংবিধানিক অধিকাৰ পত্ৰৰ ভূমিকা পালন কৰে। এই অংশ তিনিটা ১৯৪৭ পৰা ১৯৪৯ চনৰ মধ্যবৰ্তী সময়ত গণপৰিষদৰ দ্বাৰা ৰচিত মূল সংবিধানৰ অত্যন্ত গুৰুত্বপূৰ্ণ তিনিটা অংশ হিচাপে বিবেচিত হয়। মৌলিক অধিকাৰ হ’ল সকলো নাগৰিকৰ মানবাধিকাৰৰ মূলভিত্তি। সংবিধানৰ তৃতীয় খণ্ডত বৰ্ণিত এই অধিকাৰসমূহ জাতি, জন্মস্থান, ধৰ্ম, বৰ্ণ, বিশ্বাস আৰু লিঙ্গ নিৰ্বিশেষে সকলোতে সমভাৱে প্ৰযোজ্য। এই অধিকাৰসমূহ আদালতত বিচাৰযোগ্য। তথাপিটো এইসমূহৰ উপৰত কিছু নিৰ্দিষ্ট বিধিনিষেধ আৰোপ কৰা যায়।

ভাৰতৰ মৌলিক আৰু সৰ্বোচ্চ আইন ভাৰতীয় সংবিধানৰ প্ৰস্তাৱনা; নন্দলাল বসুৰ দ্বাৰা চিত্ৰিত।

ৰাষ্ট্ৰ পৰিচালনাৰ নিৰ্দেশাত্মক নীতি হ’ল চৰকাৰৰ দ্বাৰা আইন প্ৰণয়নৰ নীতি-সংক্ৰান্তীয় নিৰ্দেশিকা। সংবিধানৰ চতুৰ্থ খণ্ডত বৰ্ণিত এই নীতিসমূহ আদালতত বিচাৰযোগ্য নহয়। তথাপিটো আশা কৰা হয়, চৰকাৰ পৰিচালনাৰ মৌলিক নিৰ্দেশিকাৰ যি আদৰ্শসমূহৰ ওপৰত এই নীতিসমূহ প্ৰতিষ্ঠিত, আইনৰ ৰূপদান আৰু প্ৰণয়নৰ সময়ত চৰকাৰে সেইসমূহ মানি চলিব।

মৌলিক কৰ্তব্য হ’ল সকল নাগৰিকেৰ নৈতিক দায়দায়িত্ব। এইসমূহৰ উদ্দেশ্য, দেশৰ জনগণৰ মাজত দেশাত্মবোধ জাগৰিত কৰা আৰু দেশৰ ঐক্য ৰক্ষা কৰা। সংবিধানৰ চতুৰ্থ -ক খণ্ডত বৰ্ননা কৰা এই কৰ্তব্যসমূহ দেশৰ প্ৰতিজন ব্যক্তি আৰু জাতিৰ ক্ষেত্ৰতেই প্ৰযোজ্য। নিৰ্দেশাত্মক নীতিসমূহৰ দৰেই এইসমূহ আদালতত বিচাৰযোগ্য নহয়।

ইতিহাস[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

ভাৰতীয় সংবিধানত সাংবিধানিক অধিকাৰসমূহ অন্তৰ্ভুক্তিৰ অনুপ্ৰেৰণা ইংলেণ্ডৰ বিল অৱ ৰাইটছ, মাৰ্কিন যুক্তৰাষ্ট্ৰৰ বিল অৱ ৰাইটছ, ফ্ৰান্সৰ মানৱ আৰু নাগৰিক অধিকাৰসমূহৰ ঘোষণাপত্ৰৰ দৰে আদৰ্শস্থানীয় ঐতিহাসিক দলিলসমূহৰ পৰা লাভ কৰে।[1]

১৯১৯ চনত ব্ৰিটিছ চৰকাৰে দমনমূলক ৰাওলাট আইন জাৰি কৰে। এই আইন অনুসৰি আৰক্ষীৰ লোকসকলক বিনা পৰোৱানাতে খানতালাছী, বাজেয়াপ্তকৰণ, বন্দী আৰু আটকৰ কৰাৰ অধিকাৰ প্ৰদান কৰা হয়; সভা-সমিতি পতাৰ ওপৰত নিষেধাজ্ঞা জাৰি কৰা হয়; আৰু গণমাধ্যমৰ কণ্ঠৰোধ কৰা হয়। এই আইনৰ প্ৰতিবাদে ১৯২০-ৰ দশকত ভাৰতত এটা গণআন্দোলনৰ সূচনা হয়। এই আন্দোলনৰ পৰিপ্ৰেক্ষিততেই ১৯২৮ চনত ভাৰতৰ ৰাজনৈতিক দলসমূহৰ প্ৰতিনিধিসকলে এখন সৰ্বদলীয় সন্মীলনত ভাৰতৰ বাবে সাংবিধানিক সংস্কাৰৰ প্ৰস্তাৱ ৰাখে। ইয়াৰ পাছত মতিলাল নেহৰুৰ নেতৃত্বাধীন এগাৰো সদস্যবিশিষ্ট এই কমিটিয়ে ভাৰতীয় সংবিধানৰ এটা আনুষ্ঠানিক ৰূপৰেখা তুলি ধৰে। ভাৰতৰ বাবে অধিৰাজ্যৰ মৰ্যদা বা ডোমিনিয়ন ষ্টেটাছ আৰু সাৰ্বজনীন ভোটাধিকাৰৰ ভিত্তিত নিৰ্বাচন অনুষ্ঠানৰ দাবীৰ লগতে এই কমিটিয়ে মৌলিক অধিকাৰৰ ৰক্ষাকবচ, ধৰ্মীয় আৰু জাতিগত সংখ্যালঘুসকলৰ প্ৰতিনিধিত্ব আৰু চৰকাৰী ক্ষমতাৰ সীমাবদ্ধকৰণৰ দাবী উত্থাপন কৰে।

১৯৩১ চনত ভাৰতীয় জাতীয় কংগ্ৰেছৰ কৰাছী অধিবেশনত মৌলিক নাগৰিক অধিকাৰৰ সংজ্ঞা আৰু এই অধিকাৰ ৰক্ষাৰ সপক্ষে প্ৰস্তাৱ গ্ৰহণ কৰা হয়। অধিকাৰৰ মাজত অন্তৰ্ভুক্ত আছিল ন্যূনতম মজুৰিৰ সীমা নিৰ্দ্ধাৰণ, আৰ্থ -সামাজিক অধিকাৰ, অস্পৃশ্যতা আৰু ভূমিদাসপ্ৰথা বিলোপৰ প্ৰস্তাৱনা।[2] [3] ১৯৩৬ চনত সমাজতন্ত্ৰৰ আদৰ্শৰে উদ্বুদ্ধ হৈ কংগ্ৰেছ নেতৃবৃন্দই ছোভিয়েট সংবিধানৰ কথিত নাগৰিকসকলৰ মৌলিক অধিকাৰৰ ধাৰণাটিৰ উদাহৰণ গ্ৰহণ কৰে। এই অধিকাৰ সেইখন দেশত সমষ্টিগত দেশাত্মবোধ জাগৰণৰ এটা পন্থা হিচাপে ব্যৱহৃত হয়।

স্বাধীন ভাৰতত সংবিধান ৰচনাৰ দায়িত্ব অৰ্পন কৰা হৈছিল ৰাজেন্দ্ৰ প্ৰসাদৰ সভাপতিত্বত নিৰ্বাচিত সদস্যসকলক লৈ গঠিত ভাৰতৰ গণপৰিষসকলৰ ওপৰত। গণপৰিষদে ভীমৰাও ৰামজী আম্বেদকাৰৰ নেতৃত্বত এটা সংবিধান খচৰা কমিটি গঠন কৰে। সংবিধান ৰচনাৰ কাম চলি থকাৰ সময়তেই ১৯৪৮ চনৰ ১০ ডিচেম্বৰত ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘ সাধাৰণ সভাবিশ্ব মানবাধিকাৰ চনদখনৰ ঘোষণা কৰে। এই ঘোষণাপত্ৰত সকলো সদস্য ৰাষ্ট্ৰকে নিজ নিজ সংবিধানৰ উক্ত অধিকাৰসমূহ অন্তৰ্ভুক্ত কৰাৰ আহ্বান জনোৱা হয়। ১৯৪৯ চনৰ ২৬ নৱেম্বৰত সংবিধান প্ৰস্তাব গৃহীত হোৱাৰ কিছুদিন পূৰ্বে সংবিধানৰ চূড়ান্ত খচৰাত মৌলিক কৰ্তব্য আৰু নিৰ্দেশাত্মক নীতিসমূহ সংযোজিত কৰা হয়; আনহাতে ১৯৭৬ চনত সংবিধানৰ ৪২তম সংশোধনী আইনৰ যোগেদি মৌলিক কৰ্তব্যসমূহ সংবিধানৰ অন্তৰ্ভুক্ত হয়।[4] মৌলিক অধিকাৰ, নিৰ্দেশাত্মক নীতি আৰু মৌলিক কৰ্তব্যসমূহৰ ক্ষেত্ৰত সংশোধনৰ প্ৰয়োজন হ’লে ভাৰতীয় সংসদত সংবিধান সংশোধনীৰ প্ৰস্তাব উত্থাপন কৰিব লাগে আৰু এই প্ৰস্তাবক সংসদৰ উভয় কক্ষৰেই সদস্যসকলৰ সমৰ্থনযোগে দুই-তৃতীয়াংশ সংখ্যাগৰিষ্ঠতা অৰ্জন কৰিব লাগে।

মৌলিক অধিকাৰ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The Fundamental Rights, embodied in Part III of the Constitution, guarantee civil rights to all Indians, and prevent the State from encroaching on individual liberty while simultaneously placing upon it an obligation to protect the citizens' rights from encroachment by society.[5] Seven fundamental rights were originally provided by the Constitution – right to equality, right to freedom, right against exploitation, right to freedom of religion, cultural and educational rights, right to property and right to constitutional remedies.[6] However, the right to property was removed from Part III of the Constitution by the 44th Amendment in 1978.[7][note 1]

The purpose of the Fundamental Rights is to preserve individual liberty and democratic principles based on equality of all members of society.[8] They act as limitations on the powers of the legislature and executive, under Article 13,[note 2] and in case of any violation of these rights the Supreme Court of India and the High Courts of the states have the power to declare such legislative or executive action as unconstitutional and void.[9] These rights are largely enforceable against the State, which as per the wide definition provided in Article 12, includes not only the legislative and executive wings of the federal and state governments, but also local administrative authorities and other agencies and institutions which discharge public functions or are of a governmental character.[10] However, there are certain rights – such as those in Articles 15, 17, 18, 23, 24 – that are also available against private individuals.[11] Further, certain Fundamental Rights – including those under Articles 14, 20, 21, 25 – apply to persons of any nationality upon Indian soil, while others – such as those under Articles 15, 16, 19, 30 – are applicable only to citizens of India.[12][13]

সাঁচ:Rights

The Fundamental Rights are not absolute and are subject to reasonable restrictions as necessary for the protection of public interest.[10] In the Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala case in 1973,[note 3] the Supreme Court, overruling a previous decision of 1967, held that the Fundamental Rights could be amended, subject to judicial review in case such an amendment violated the basic structure of the Constitution.[14] The Fundamental Rights can be enhanced, removed or otherwise altered through a constitutional amendment, passed by a two-thirds majority of each House of Parliament.[15] The imposition of a state of emergency may lead to a temporary suspension any of the Fundamental Rights, excluding Articles 20 and 21, by order of the President.[16] The President may, by order, suspend the right to constitutional remedies as well, thereby barring citizens from approaching the Supreme Court for the enforcement of any of the Fundamental Rights, except Articles 20 and 21, during the period of the emergency.[17] Parliament may also restrict the application of the Fundamental Rights to members of the Indian Armed Forces and the police, in order to ensure proper discharge of their duties and the maintenance of discipline, by a law made under Article 33.[18]

Right to Equality[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The Right to Equality is one of the chief guarantees of the Constitution. It is embodied in Articles 14–16, which collectively encompass the general principles of equality before law and non-discrimination,[19] and Articles 17–18 which collectively further the philosophy of social equality.[20] Article 14 guarantees equality before law as well as equal protection of the law to all persons within the territory of India.[note 4] This includes the equal subjection of all persons to the authority of law, as well as equal treatment of persons in similar circumstances.[21] The latter permits the State to classify persons for legitimate purposes, provided there is a reasonable basis for the same, meaning that the classification is required to be non-arbitrary, based on a method of intelligible differentiation among those sought to be classified, as well as have a rational relation to the object sought to be achieved by the classification.[22]

Article 15 prohibits discrimination on the grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth, or any of them. This right can be enforced against the State as well as private individuals, with regard to free access to places of public entertainment or places of public resort maintained partly or wholly out of State funds.[23] However, the State is not precluded from making special provisions for women and children or any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens, including the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. This exception has been provided since the classes of people mentioned therein are considered deprived and in need of special protection.[24] Article 16 guarantees equality of opportunity in matters of public employment and prevents the State from discriminating against anyone in matters of employment on the grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, place of residence or any of them. It creates exceptions for the implementation of measures of affirmative action for the benefit of any backward class of citizens in order to ensure adequate representation in public service, as well as reservation of an office of any religious institution for a person professing that particular religion.[25]

The practice of untouchability has been declared an offence punishable by law under Article 17, and the Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955 has been enacted by the Parliament to further this objective.[20] Article 18 prohibits the State from conferring any titles other than military or academic distinctions, and the citizens of India cannot accept titles from a foreign state. Thus, Indian aristocratic titles and titles of nobility conferred by the British have been abolished. However, awards such as the Bharat Ratna have been held to be valid by the Supreme Court on the ground that they are merely decorations and cannot be used by the recipient as a title.[26][27]

Right to Freedom[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The Right to Freedom is covered in Articles 19–22, with the view of guaranteeing individual rights that were considered vital by the framers of the Constitution, and these Articles also include certain restrictions that may be imposed by the State on individual liberty under specified conditions. Article 19 guarantees six freedoms in the nature of civil rights, which are available only to citizens of India.[28] These include the freedom of speech and expression, freedom of assembly, freedom of association without arms, freedom of movement throughout the territory of India,freedom to reside and settle in any part of the country of India and the freedom to practice any profession. All these freedoms are subject to reasonable restrictions that may imposed on them by the State, listed under Article 19 itself. The grounds for imposing these restrictions vary according to the freedom sought to be restricted, and include national security, public order, decency and morality, contempt of court, incitement to offences, and defamation. The State is also empowered, in the interests of the general public to nationalise any trade, industry or service to the exclusion of the citizens.[29]

The freedoms guaranteed by Article 19 are further sought to be protected by Articles 20–22.[30] The scope of these articles, particularly with respect to the doctrine of due process, was heavily debated by the Constituent Assembly. It was argued, especially by Benegal Narsing Rau, that the incorporation of such a clause would hamper social legislation and cause procedural difficulties in maintaining order, and therefore it ought to be excluded from the Constitution altogether.[31] The Constituent Assembly in 1948 eventually omitted the phrase "due process" in favour of "procedure established by law".[32] As a result, Article 21, which prevents the encroachment of life or personal liberty by the State except in accordance with the procedure established by law,[note 5] was, until 1978, construed narrowly as being restricted to executive action. However, in 1978, the Supreme Court in the case of Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India extended the protection of Article 21 to legislative action, holding that any law laying down a procedure must be just, fair and reasonable,[33] and effectively reading due process into Article 21.[34] In the same case, the Supreme Court also ruled that "life" under Article 21 meant more than a mere "animal existence"; it would include the right to live with human dignity and all other aspects which made life "meaningful, complete and worth living".[35] Subsequent judicial interpretation has broadened the scope of Article 21 to include within it a number of rights including those to livelihood, clean environment, good health, speedy trial and humanitarian treatment while imprisoned.[36] The right to education at elementary level has been made one of the Fundamental Rights under Article 21A by the 86th Constitutional amendment of 2002.[37]

Article 20 provides protection from conviction for offences in certain respects, including the rights against ex post facto laws, double jeopardy and freedom from self-incrimination.[38] Article 22 provides specific rights to arrested and detained persons, in particular the rights to be informed of the grounds of arrest, consult a lawyer of one's own choice, be produced before a magistrate within 24 hours of the arrest, and the freedom not to be detained beyond that period without an order of the magistrate.[39] The Constitution also authorises the State to make laws providing for preventive detention, subject to certain other safeguards present in Article 22.[40] The provisions pertaining to preventive detention were discussed with skepticism and misgivings by the Constituent Assembly, and were reluctantly approved after a few amendments in 1949.[41] Article 22 provides that when a person is detained under any law of preventive detention, the State can detain such person without trial for only three months, and any detention for a longer period must be authorised by an Advisory Board. The person being detained also has the right to be informed about the grounds of detention, and be permitted to make a representation against it, at the earliest opportunity.[42]

Right against Exploitation[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Child labor and Begar is prohibited under the Right against Exploitation.

The Right against Exploitation, contained in Articles 23–24, lays down certain provisions to prevent exploitation of the weaker sections of the society by individuals or the State.[43] Article 23 provides prohibits human trafficking, making it an offence punishable by law, and also prohibits forced labour or any act of compelling a person to work without wages where he was legally entitled not to work or to receive remuneration for it. However, it permits the State to impose compulsory service for public purposes, including conscription and community service.[44][45] The Bonded Labour system (Abolition) Act, 1976, has been enacted by Parliament to give effect to this Article.[46] Article 24 prohibits the employment of children below the age of 14 years in factories, mines and other hazardous jobs. Parliament has enacted the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, providing regulations for the abolition of, and penalties for employing, child labour, as well as provisions for rehabilitation of former child labourers.[47]

Right to Freedom of Religion[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The Right to Freedom of Religion, covered in Articles 25–28, provides religious freedom to all citizens and ensures a secular State in India. According to the Constitution, there is no official State religion, and the State is required to treat all religions impartially and neutrally.[48] Article 25 guarantees all persons the freedom of conscience and the right to preach, practice and propagate any religion of their choice. This right is, however, subject to public order, morality and health, and the power of the State to take measures for social welfare and reform.[49] The right to propagate, however, does not include the right to convert another individual, since it would amount to an infringement of the other's right to freedom of conscience.[50] Article 26 guarantees all religious denominations and sects, subject to public order, morality and health, to manage their own affairs in matters of religion, set up institutions of their own for charitable or religious purposes, and own, acquire and manage property in accordance with law. These provisions do not derogate from the State's power to acquire property belonging to a religious denomination.[51] The State is also empowered to regulate any economic, political or other secular activity associated with religious practice.[48] Article 27 guarantees that no person can be compelled to pay taxes for the promotion of any particular religion or religious institution.[52] Article 28 prohibits religious instruction in a wholly State-funded educational institution, and educational institutions receiving aid from the State cannot compel any of their members to receive religious instruction or attend religious worship without their (or their guardian's) consent.[48]

Cultural and Educational Rights[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The Cultural and Educational rights, given in Articles 29 and 30, are measures to protect the rights of cultural, linguistic and religious minorities, by enabling them to conserve their heritage and protecting them against discrimination.[53] Article 29 grants any section of citizens having a distinct language, script culture of its own, the right to conserve and develop the same, and thus safeguards the rights of minorities by preventing the State from imposing any external culture on them.[53][54] It also prohibits discrimination against any citizen for admission into any educational institutions maintained or aided by the State, on the grounds only of religion, race, caste, language or any of them. However, this is subject to reservation of a reasonable number of seats by the State for socially and educationally backward classes, as well as reservation of up to 50 percent of seats in any educational institution run by a minority community for citizens belonging to that community.[55]

Article 30 confers upon all religious and linguistic minorities the right to set up and administer educational institutions of their choice in order to preserve and develop their own culture, and prohibits the State, while granting aid, from discriminating against any institution on the basis of the fact that it is administered by a religious or cultural minority.[54] The term "minority", while not defined in the Constitution, has been interpreted by the Supreme Court to mean any community which numerically forms less than 50% of the population of the state in which it seeks to avail the right under Article 30. In order to claim the right, it is essential that the educational institution must have been established as well as administered by a religious or linguistic minority. Further, the right under Article 30 can be availed of even if the educational institution established does not confine itself to the teaching of the religion or language of the minority concerned, or a majority of students in that institution do not belong to such minority.[56] This right is subject to the power of the State to impose reasonable regulations regarding educational standards, conditions of service of employees, fee structure, and the utilisation of any aid granted by it.[57]

Right to constitutional remedies[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Right to constitutional remedies empowers the citizens to move a court of law in case of any denial of the fundamental rights. For instance, in case of imprisonment, the citizen can ask the court to see if it is according to the provisions of the law of the country. If the court finds that it is not, the person will have to be freed. This procedure of asking the courts to preserve or safeguard the citizens' fundamental rights can be done in various ways. The courts can issue various kinds of writs. These writs are habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari. When a national or state emergency is declared, this right is suspended by the central government.[58]

মৌলিক কৰ্তব্যসমূহ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Any act of disrespect towards the Indian National Flag is illegal.

The Fundamental Duties of citizens were added to the Constitution by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, upon the recommendations of the Swaran Singh Committee that was constituted by the government earlier that year.[59] Originally ten in number, the Fundamental Duties were increased to eleven by the 86th Amendment in 2002, which added a duty on every parent or guardian to ensure that their child or ward was provided opportunities for education between the ages of six and fourteen years.[37] The other Fundamental Duties obligate all citizens to respect the national symbols of India, including the Constitution, to cherish its heritage, preserve its composite culture and assist in its defense. They also obligate all Indians to promote the spirit of common brotherhood, protect the environment and public property, develop scientific temper, abjure violence, and strive towards excellence in all spheres of life.[60] Citizens are morally obligated by the Constitution to perform these duties. However, like the Directive Principles, these are non-justifiable, without any legal sanction in case of their violation or non-compliance.[59][61] There is reference to such duties in international instruments such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and Article 51A brings the Indian Constitution into conformity with these treaties.[59]

Criticism and analysis[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Fewer children are now employed in hazardous environments, but their employment in non-hazardous jobs, prevalently as domestic help, violates the spirit of the constitution in the eyes of many critics and human rights advocates. More than 16.5 million children are in employment.[62] India was ranked 88 out of 159 countries in 2005, according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[63] The year 1990–1991 was declared as the "Year of Social Justice" in the memory of B.R. Ambedkar.[64] The government provides free textbooks to students belonging to scheduled castes and tribes pursuing medicine and engineering courses. During 2002–2003, a sum of Rs. 4.77 crore (47.7 million) was released for this purpose.[65] In order to protect scheduled castes and tribes from discrimination, the government enacted the Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989, prescribing severe punishments for such actions.[66]

The Minimum Wages Act of 1948 empowers government to fix minimum wages for people working across the economic spectrum.[67] The Consumer Protection Act of 1986 provides for the better protection of consumers. The Equal Remuneration Act of 1976 provides for equal pay for equal work for both men and women.[68] The Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana (Universal Rural Employment Programme) was launched in 2001 to attain the objective of providing gainful employment for the rural poor. The programme was implemented through the Panchayati Raj institutions.[69]

A system of elected village councils, known as Panchayati Raj covers almost all states and territories of India.[70] One-third of the total number of seats have been reserved for women in Panchayats at every level; and in the case of Bihar, half the seats have been reserved for women.[71][72] The judiciary has been separated from the executive "in all the states and territories except Jammu and Kashmir and Nagaland."[65] India's foreign policy has been influenced by the Directive Principles. India supported the United Nations in peace-keeping activities, with the Indian Army having participated in 37 UN peace-keeping operations.[73]

The implementation of a uniform civil code for all citizens has not been achieved owing to widespread opposition from various religious groups and political parties. The Shah Bano case (1985–86) provoked a political firestorm in India when the Supreme Court ruled that Shah Bano, a Muslim woman who had been divorced by her husband in 1978 was entitled to receive alimony from her former husband under Indian law applicable for all Indian women. This decision evoked outrage in the Muslim community, which sought the application of the Muslim personal law and in response the Parliament passed the Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Divorce) Act, 1986 overturning the Supreme Court's verdict.[74] This act provoked further outrage, as jurists, critics and politicians alleged that the fundamental right of equality for all citizens irrespective of religion or gender was being jettisoned to preserve the interests of distinct religious communities. The verdict and the legislation remain a source of heated debate, with many citing the issue as a prime example of the poor implementation of Fundamental Rights.[74]

Relationship between the Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles and Fundamental Duties[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The Directive Principles have been used to uphold the Constitutional validity of legislations in case of a conflict with the Fundamental Rights. Article 31C, added by the 25th Amendment in 1971, provided that any law made to give effect to the Directive Principles in Article 39(b)–(c) would not be invalid on the grounds that they derogated from the Fundamental Rights conferred by Articles 14, 19 and 31. The application of this article was sought to be extended to all the Directive Principles by the 42nd Amendment in 1976, but the Supreme Court struck down the extension as void on the ground that it violated the basic structure of the Constitution.[75] The Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles have also been used together in forming the basis of legislation for social welfare.[76] The Supreme Court, after the judgment in the Kesavananda Bharati case, has adopted the view of the Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles being complementary to each other, each supplementing the other's role in aiming at the same goal of establishing a welfare state by means of social revolution.[77] Similarly, the Supreme Court has used the Fundamental Duties to uphold the Constitutional validity of statutes which seeks to promote the objects laid out in the Fundamental Duties.[78] These Duties have also been held to be obligatory for all citizens, subject to the State enforcing the same by means of a valid law.[60] The Supreme Court has also issued directions to the State in this regard, with a view towards making the provisions effective and enabling a citizens to properly perform their duties.[78]

আৰু চাওক[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

টোকা[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

বিশেষ দ্ৰষ্টব্য °: "ৰাষ্ট্ৰ" শব্দটি ভাৰতীয় ভূখণ্ডৰ মাজত যিকোনো চৰকাৰী কৰ্তৃপক্ষৰ ক্ষেত্ৰত প্ৰযোজ্য। সংবিধানৰ দ্বাদশ অনুচ্ছেদত ৰাষ্ট্ৰ শব্দৰে বুজোৱা হৈছে (১) ভাৰত চৰকাৰ, ভাৰতীয় সংসদ; (২) ভাৰতীয় ৰাজ্যসমূহৰ চৰকাৰ আৰু বিধানসভা; (৩) পৌৰসংস্থা, পৌৰসভা, জিলা পৰিষদ, পঞ্চায়ত ইত্যাদি স্থানীয় আৰু অন্যান্য স্বশাসিত সংস্থা; (৪) ভাৰতৰ অন্তৰ্গত আৰু ভাৰত চৰকাৰৰ নিয়ন্ত্ৰণাধীন অন্যান্য সংস্থা। প্ৰসঙ্গত উল্লেখ্য, ইংৰাজী ভাষাত ভাৰতৰ অঙ্গৰাজ্য আৰু ৰাষ্ট্ৰ উভয়েই State নামে পৰিচিত। এই সম্পৰ্কে বিভ্ৰান্তি আতৰোৱাৰ বাবে ৰাষ্ট্ৰৰ অৰ্থ State (S বৰফলা আখৰ) আৰু ৰাজ্যৰ অৰ্থে states (s সৰুফলা আখৰ) লেখাৰ নিয়ম প্ৰচলিত আছে।

  1. The right to property is still a Constitutionally recognised right, but is now contained outside the Part on Fundamental Rights, in Article 300A which states:
    No person shall be deprived of his property save by authority of law.
  2. According to Article 13,
    The State shall not make any law which takes away or abridges the rights conferred by this Part and any law made in contravention of this clause shall, to the extent of the contravention, be void.
    The term law has been defined to include not only legislation made by Parliament and the legislatures of the states, but also ordinances, rules, regulations, bye laws, notifications, or customs having the force of law.
  3. His Holiness Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala, AIR 1973 SC 1461. This was popularly known as the Fundamental Rights Case.
  4. Article 14 states:
    The State shall not deny to any person equality before the law or the equal protection of the laws within the territory of India.
  5. Article 21 states:
    No person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law.

তথ্য সংগ্ৰহ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. Tayal, B.B. & Jacob, A. (2005), Indian History, World Developments and Civics, pg. A-23
  2. Gandhi, Rajmohen. Patel: A Life. পৃষ্ঠা. 206. 
  3. Dev, Arjun. Social Science Part I: Textbook in History for Class X. পৃষ্ঠা. 79. 
  4. 42nd Amendment Act, 1976.
  5. Austin 1999, পৃষ্ঠা 50–51
  6. Austin 1999, পৃষ্ঠা 51
  7. Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 79
  8. Austin 1999, পৃষ্ঠা 114
  9. Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 78–79
  10. 10.0 10.1 Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 35
  11. Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 86–87
  12. Tayal, B.B. & Jacob, A. (2005), Indian History, World Developments and Civics, p. A-25
  13. Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 85
  14. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 1647–1649
  15. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 1645
  16. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 1615–1616
  17. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 1617–1618
  18. Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 129–130
  19. Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 90
  20. 20.0 20.1 Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 93–94
  21. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 56–57
  22. Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 88
  23. Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 90–91
  24. Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 91
  25. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 133–134
  26. Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 94–95
  27. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 164
  28. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 167–168
  29. Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 96–97
  30. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 167
  31. Austin 1999, পৃষ্ঠা 101–102
  32. Austin 1999, পৃষ্ঠা 104–105
  33. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 258
  34. Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 105–106
  35. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 259
  36. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 260–261
  37. 37.0 37.1 86th Amendment Act, 2002.
  38. Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 102
  39. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 282–284
  40. Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 106
  41. Austin 1999, পৃষ্ঠা 110–112
  42. Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 107
  43. Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 110
  44. Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 110–111
  45. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 325
  46. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 326
  47. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 327
  48. 48.0 48.1 48.2 Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 111
  49. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 327–328
  50. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 330
  51. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 336–337
  52. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 343
  53. 53.0 53.1 Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 345
  54. 54.0 54.1 Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 115
  55. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 346–347
  56. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 348–349
  57. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 354–355
  58. Constitution of India-Part III Article 32 Fundamental Rights.
  59. 59.0 59.1 59.2 Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 465
  60. 60.0 60.1 Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 131
  61. Tayal, B.B. & Jacob, A. (2005), Indian History, World Developments and Civics, p. A-35
  62. "Child labour in India". India Together. http://www.indiatogether.org/photo/2006/chi-labour.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2006-06-27. 
  63. Index of perception of corruption, published by Transparency International.
  64. "Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar". Dr. Ambedkar Foundation. http://ambedkarfoundation.nic.in/html/bharat.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2006-06-29. 
  65. 65.0 65.1 Tayal, B.B. & Jacob, A. (2005), Indian History, World Developments and Civics, p. A-45
  66. "Prevention of Atrocities Act, 1995". Human Rights Watch. http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/india/India994-18.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2006-06-29. 
  67. "Minimum Wages Act, 1948". Helplinelaw.com. http://www.helplinelaw.com/docs/THE%20MINIMUM%20WAGES%20ACT,%201948। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2006-06-29. 
  68. "Equal Remuneration Act, 1976". IndianLawInfo.com. http://www.indialawinfo.com/bareacts/equal.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2006-06-29. 
  69. "Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yojana, 2001" (PDF). Ministry of Rural Development, India. http://rural.nic.in/book01-02/ch-2.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2006-06-29. 
  70. "Panchayati Raj in India". Poorest Areas Civil Society. http://www.empowerpoor.org/backgrounder.asp?report=164। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2006-06-29. 
  71. 73rd Amendment Act, 1992
  72. "Seat Reservation for Women in Local Panchayats" (PDF). p. 2. http://www.newpaltz.edu/asianstudies/nycas/2004%20UG%20Ryan%20Prize%20Alexandra%20Geertz.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2006-06-29. 
  73. "India and United Nations". Permanent Mission of India to the United Nations. http://www.un.int/india/india_and_the_un_pkeeping.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2006-06-29. 
  74. 74.0 74.1 "Shah Bano legacy". পৃষ্ঠা 1. Archived from the original on 1 September 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060901213430/http://www.hinduonnet.com/thehindu/2003/08/10/stories/2003081000221500.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2006-09-11. 
  75. Basu 1993, পৃষ্ঠা 142
  76. Austin 1999, পৃষ্ঠা 114–115
  77. Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 444
  78. 78.0 78.1 Basu 2003, পৃষ্ঠা 466

সম্পৰ্কীয় গ্ৰন্থ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  • Basu, Durga Das (1988), written at New Delhi, Shorter constitution of India, Prentice Hall of India
  • Basu, Durga Das (1993), written at New Delhi, Introduction to the constitution of India, Prentice Hall of India
  • Laski, Harold Joseph (1930), written at New York and London, Liberty in the Modern State, Harpers and Brothers
  • Pylee, M.V. (1999), written at New Delhi, India’s constitution, S. Chand and Company, ISBN 81-219-1907-X
  • O'Flaharty, W.D. & Derrett J.D.M. (1981), The Concept of Duty in Asia; African Charter on Human and People's Right of 1981

বাহ্যিক সংযোগ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

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