|এই প্ৰবন্ধটো বৰ্তমান লিখি থকা হৈছে। আপুনিও এই কাৰ্যত অংশগ্ৰহণ কৰিব পাৰে। সহায় কৰিবৰ বাবে ।|
বৰ্তমান কাম কৰি থকা লিখকৰ নাম জানিবলৈ ইচ্ছা কৰিলে ; যদি এই প্ৰবন্ধত বহুদিন ধৰি একো কাম হোৱা নাই, তেনেহ’লে এই সাঁচটো আঁতৰাই দিব পাৰিব।
|স্থান||অযোধ্যা, উত্তৰ প্ৰদেশ, ভাৰত|
বাবৰী মছজিদ (IAST: Bābarī Masjid; ইয়াৰ অৰ্থ হৈছে বাবৰৰ মছজিদ) ভাৰতৰ অযোধ্যা নগৰৰ এটি মছজিদ, হিন্দুসকলে ইয়াক হিন্দু দেৱতা ৰামৰ জন্মস্থান বুলি বিশ্বাস কৰে। ওঠৰ শতিকাৰ পৰা এইটো হিন্দু আৰু মুছলিম সম্প্ৰদায়ৰ মাজত সংঘৰ্ষৰ কেন্দ্ৰবিন্দু হৈ আছে। মছজিদৰ শিলালিপি অনুসৰি, ইয়াক মোগল সম্ৰাট বাবৰৰ নিৰ্দেশত ১৫২৮-২৯ (৯৩৫ হিঃ) জেনাৰেল মীৰ বাকীৰ দ্বাৰা নিৰ্মিত হৈছিল। ১৯৯২ চনত হিন্দু কাৰসেৱসকলে মছজিদটোক আক্ৰমণ কৰে আৰু ভাঙি দিয়ে আৰু ভাৰত উপমহাদেশত সাম্প্ৰদায়িক হিংস্ৰতাৰ সূত্ৰপাত ঘটায়।
মছজিদটো ৰামকোট ("ৰামৰ দুৰ্গ") নামেৰে পৰিচিত এখন পাহাৰত অৱস্থিত। হিন্দুসকলৰ মতে, বাকী এই ঠাইত ৰামৰ এখন পূৰ্ব বিদ্যমান মন্দিৰ ধ্বংস কৰিছিল। মন্দিৰৰ অস্তিত্বয়েই বিতৰ্কৰ বিষয়। ২০০৩ চনত, ভাৰতৰ প্ৰত্নতাত্ত্বিক নিৰিক্ষক বিভাগৰ এখন প্ৰতিবেদনত প্ৰস্তাবিত হৈছিল যে তাত হিন্দু মন্দিৰ আছিল এনে এখন পুৰণি কাঠামো আছে যিটো ভাঙি দিয়া হৈছিল আৰু বাবৰী মছজিদ নিৰ্মাণ কৰা হৈছিল।
ঊনৈশ শতিকাৰ আৰম্ভণিৰ পৰা, মছজিদটোক লৈ হিন্দু আৰু মুছলমানসকলৰ মাজত ভালেমান দ্বন্দ্ব হৈছিল আনকি এই দ্বন্দ্ব আদালতলৈকেও গৈছিল। ১৯৪৯ চনত হিন্দু মহাসভাৰ লগত যুক্ত হিন্দু কৰ্মীসকলে গোপনীয়ভাৱে মছজিদৰ ভিতৰত ৰামৰ মূৰ্তি স্থাপন কৰে, ইয়াৰ পিছত আকৌ বিৰোধ কমাবলৈ চৰকাৰে মছজিদটোত তলাবদ্ধ কৰি দিয়ে। প্ৰৱেশৰ বাবে হিন্দু আৰু মুছলমান উভয়ক সুধি আদালতত গোচৰ ৰুজু কৰিছিল।
১৯৯২ চনৰ ডিচেম্বৰ মাহত বিশ্ব হিন্দু পৰিষদ তথা মিত্ৰ সংগঠনৰ লগত যুক্ত হিন্দু কৰ্মীসকলৰ এখন বিশাল দল মছজিদটো ভাঙি পেলাইছিল আৰু গোটেই ভাৰত উপমহাদেশত বিবাদৰ সৃষ্টি হয় আৰু প্ৰায় ২ হাজাৰ মানুহ নিহত হৈছিল৷
২০১০ চনৰ চেপ্তেম্বৰত, এলাহাবাদ উচ্চ ন্যায়লয়ত হিন্দুসকলৰ দাবী অব্যাহত ৰাখিছিল যে, মছজিদটো ৰামৰ জন্মস্থান হিচাপে বিশ্বাস কৰা হৈছিল আৰু ঘটনাস্থানত এটা ৰাম মন্দিৰ নিৰ্মাণৰ বাবে মূল গম্বুজৰ ঠাইখিনি প্ৰদান কৰা হৈছিল। মছজিদ নিৰ্মাণৰ বাবে মুছলিমসকলৰ ফলৰ পৰা এক তৃতীয়াংশ অঞ্চলও দিয়া হৈছিল। এই সিদ্ধান্তৰ পাছত সকলো পক্ষই উচ্চতম ন্যায়লয়ত আপিল কৰিছিল, য'ত পাঁচ বিচাৰকৰ জুৰি আগষ্টৰ পৰা অক্টোবৰ ২০১৯ লৈকে এখন শীৰ্ষ আদালতত শুনানি দিয়ে। ২০১৯ চনৰ ৯ নবেম্বৰত, উচ্চতম ন্যায়লয়ে উচ্চ ন্যায়লয়ৰ ৰায় বাতিল কৰি সম্পূৰ্ণ ঠাই (২.৭৭ একৰ ভূমি) হিন্দু মন্দিৰ তৈয়াৰ কৰিবৰ বাবে এখন ট্ৰাষ্টৰ হাত্ত হস্তান্তৰ কৰাৰ আদেশ দিছিল। আৰু ছুন্নি ৱাক্ফ বোৰ্ডক বিকল্প ৫ একৰ ভূমি দিয়াৰো চৰকাৰক নিৰ্দেশ দিছে।
দিল্লীৰ ছুলতানীয়া শাসকসকলে আৰু তেওঁলোকৰ উত্তৰসূৰী মোগলসকলে শিল্প তথা স্থাপত্যৰ মহান পৃষ্ঠপোষক আছিল আৰু বৰ সূক্ষ্ম সমাধি, মছজিদ আৰু মাদ্ৰাছা নিৰ্মাণ কৰিছিল। এইবোৰৰ এটা স্বতন্ত্ৰ শৈলী আছে যিটো "পৰবৰ্তী সময়ত তুঘলক" স্থাপত্যৰ প্ৰভাব বহন কৰে। গোটেই ভাৰতত মছজিদবোৰ বিভিন্ন ধৰণে নিৰ্মিত হৈছিল; দেশীয় শিল্পৰ ঐতিহ্যবোৰ শক্তিশালী আৰু যত স্থানীয় কাৰিগৰসকল অত্যন্ত দক্ষ আছিল তেনে অঞ্চলত সৰ্বাধিক মাৰ্জিত শৈলীৰ বিকাশ ঘটিছিল। এনেকৈ মছজিদবোৰৰ আঞ্চলিক বা প্ৰাদেশিক ৰীতিবোৰ স্থানীয় মন্দিৰ বা গাৰ্হস্থ শৈলীৰ বাহিৰত বৃদ্ধি পাইছিল, যি জলবায়ু, ভূখণ্ড, উপকৰণৰ দ্বাৰা তেওঁলোকৰ পৰিবৰ্তে চৰ্তযুক্ত আছিল, গতিকে বেঙল, কাশ্মীৰ আৰু গুজৰাটৰ মছজিবোৰৰ মজত বিশাল পাৰ্থক্য দেখিব পোৱা যায়। বাবৰী মছজিদটো জৌনপুৰ ছালতানাতৰ স্থাপত্য বিদ্যালয় অনুসৰণ কৰি নিৰ্মণ কৰিছিল। পশ্চিম ফালৰ পৰা যেতিয়া চোৱা হয় তেতিয়া এইটো জৌনপুৰৰ আটলা মছজিদৰ লগত মিল যায়।সাঁচ:Full citation needed
স্থাপত্য শৈলী[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
মছজিদৰ আৰ্কিটেকচাৰটো সম্পূৰ্ণ দিল্লী ছুলতানি মছজিদৰ প্ৰতিৰূপ। বাবৰী মছজিদ এটা পৃথক শৈলীৰ এটা গুৰুত্বপূৰ্ণ মছজিদ আছিল, মূলত স্থাপত্যটো সংৰক্ষণ কৰা হৈছিল, দিল্লী ছুলতানি প্ৰতিষ্ঠাৰ পিচত এইটো বিকশিত হৈছিল, এইটো প্ৰাচীৰ প্ৰাচীৰৰ নগৰ গৌড়ৰ নগৰতলিৰ বাবৰী মছজিদ অৰু শ্বেৰ শ্বাহ সুৰীৰ নিৰ্মিত জামালি কামিলি মছজিদতও দেখা যায়। । এইটো আকবৰ গৃহীত মোগল স্থাপত্য শৈলীৰ অগ্ৰদূত আছিলেন।[উদ্ধৃতিৰ প্ৰয়োজন]
লৰ্ড উইলিয়াম বেণ্টইঙ্কৰ স্থপতি গ্ৰাহাম পিকফোৰ্ডৰ (১৮২৮-৩৩) মতে, "বাবৰী মছজিদ মিহৰাবৰ এটা ফিচফিচাৰটো অইন প্ৰান্তত ২০০ ফুট (৬০ মিটাৰ) দূৰৈত আৰু কেন্দ্ৰীয় আদালতৰ দৈৰ্ঘ্য তথা প্ৰস্থত স্পষ্টভাৱে শুনা যায়"।
মছজিদটোৰ ধ্বনিবিজ্ঞানৰ কথা তেখেত তেওঁৰ ঐতিহাসিক কাঠামো ‘অদ্ধে’ গ্ৰন্থত উল্লেখ কৰিছিল য’ত তেখেত কৈছিল যে "১৬ শতিকাৰ বিল্ডিংৰ বাবে মিম্বাৰৰ পৰা কণ্ঠস্বৰ স্থাপন তথা প্ৰৱৰ্তন যথেষ্ট উন্নত, এই কাঠামোৰ মাজত শব্দৰ অনন্য স্থাপনা দৰ্শনাৰ্থীকসকলক আচাৰিত কৰি দিব" ।
Modern architects have attributed this intriguing acoustic feature to a large recess in the wall of the Mihrab and several recesses in the surrounding walls which functioned as resonators; this design helped everyone to hear the speaker at the Mihrab. The sandstone used in building the Babri Mosque also had resonant qualities which contributed to the unique acoustics.[উদ্ধৃতিৰ প্ৰয়োজন]
বায়ু সঞ্চালন[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
The Babri mosque's Tughluquid style integrated other design components and techniques, such as air cooling systems disguised as Islamic architectural elements like arches, vaults and domes. In the Babri Masjid a passive environmental control system comprised the high ceiling, domes, and six large grille windows. The system helped keep the interior cool by allowing natural ventilation as well as daylight.[উদ্ধৃতিৰ প্ৰয়োজন]
The date of construction of the Babri Masjid is uncertain. The inscriptions on the Babri Masjid premises found in the 20th century state that the mosque was built in 935 AH (1528–29) by Mir Baqi in accordance with the wishes of Babur. However, these inscriptions appear to be of a more recent vintage.
There are no records of the mosque from this period. The Baburnama (Chronicles of Babur) does not mention either the mosque or the destruction of a temple. The Ramcharitamanas of Tulsidas (1574) and Ain-i Akbari of Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak (AD 1598) made no mention of a mosque either. William Finch, the English traveller who visited Ayodhya around 1611, wrote about the "ruins of the Ranichand [Ramachand] castle and houses" where Hindus believed the great God "took flesh upon him to see the tamasha of the world." He found pandas (Brahmin priests) in the ruins of the fort, recording the names of pilgrims, but there was no mention of a mosque. Thomas Herbert described in 1634 the "pretty old castle of Ranichand built by a Bannyan Pagod of that name" which he described as an antique monument that was "especially memorable". He also recorded the fact of Brahmins recording the names of pilgrims.
The earliest record of a mosque at the site traditionally believed by Hindus to be the birthplace of Rama comes from Jai Singh II (or "Sawai Jai Singh") – a Rajput noble in the Mughal court who purchased land and established a Jaisinghpura in the area surrounding the mosque in 1717 (as he had also done in several other Hindu religious places). The documents of Jai Singh preserved in the Kapad-Dwar collection in the City Palace Museum of Jaipur,[lower-alpha 1] include a sketch map of the Babri Masjid site. The map shows an open court yard and a built structure with three temple spires (sikharas) resembling today's Babri Masjid with three domes. The courtyard is labelled janmasthan and shows a Ram chabutra. The central bay of the built structure is labelled chhathi, which also denotes birthplace.
The European Jesuit missionary Joseph Tiefenthaler, who lived and worked in India for 38 years (1743–1785) and wrote numerous works about India, visited Ayodhya in 1767. Johann Bernoulli translated his work Descriptio Indiae (in Latin) into French, published in 1788. According to this account, Aurangzeb (r. 1658–1707) had demolished the Ramkot fortress, including the house that was considered as the birthplace of Rama by Hindus. A mosque with three domes was constructed in its place. However, he also noted, "others say that it was constructed by 'Babor' [Babur]". The Hindus continued to offer prayers at a mud platform that marked the birthplace of Rama.[lower-alpha 2] Tiefenthaler was well-versed in Persian and Sanskrit, having written a Sanskrit–Persian dictionary, and other works in Persian. Evidently he did not find an inscription on the walls of the mosque stating that it was constructed under Babur's orders. He "emphatically attributed it to Aurangzeb, and Babur's name is carried by a few persons", states writer Kishore Kunal.
Francis Buchanan-Hamilton (Buchanan) did a survey of the Gorakhpur Division in 1813–14 on behalf of the British East India Company. His report was never published but partly reused by Montgomery Martin later. Kishore Kunal examined the original report in the British Library archives. It states that the Hindus generally attributed destruction "to the furious zeal of Aurangzabe". However it said that the mosque at Ayodhya was ascertained to have been built by Babur by "an inscription on its walls". The said inscription in Persian was said to have been copied by a scribe and translated by a Maulvi friend of Buchanan. The translation however contained five pieces of text, including two inscriptions. The first inscription said that the mosque was constructed by Mir Baqi in the year 935 AH or 923 AH.[lower-alpha 3] The second inscription narrated the genealogy of Aurangzeb.[lower-alpha 4] In addition to the two inscriptions and their monograms (turghas), a fable concerning a dervish called Musha Ashiqan was also included. The translator doubted that the fable was part of the inscription but recorded that the scribe "positively says that the inscription was executed at the erection of this building". The translator also had a difficulty with the anagram for the date, because one of the words was missing, which would have resulted in a date of 923 AH rather than 935 AH. These incongruities and mismatches made no impression on Buchanan, who maintained that the mosque was built by Babur.
In 1838, British surveyor Montgomery Martin wrote that the pillars in the mosque were taken from a Hindu temple. A section of historians, such as R. S. Sharma, deny this, and state that such claims of temple demolition sprang up only after the 18th century.
In 1877, Syed Mohammad Asghar the Mutawalli (guardian) of the "Masjid Baburi at Janmasthan" filed a petition with the Commissioner of Faizabad asking him to restrain the Hindus that raised a chabutara on the spot regarded as the birthplace of Rama. In the petition, he stated that Babur had inscribed one word "Allah" above the door. The District Judge and the Sub-Judge visited the mosque in the presence of all parties and their lawyers and confirmed this fact. No other inscriptions were recorded.
In 1889, archaeologist Anton Führer visited the mosque and found three inscriptions. One was a Quranic verse. The inscription XLI was Persian poetry in the metre Ramal, which stated that the mosque was erected by a noble 'Mir Khan' of Babur.[lower-alpha 5] The inscription XLII was also Persian poetry in metre Ramal, and said that the mosque was founded in year 930 AH by a grandee of Babur, who was (comparable to) "another King of Turkey and China".[lower-alpha 6] The year 930 AH corresponds to 1523, three years before Babur's conquest of Hindustan. Despite the apparent contradiction, Führer published the date of "A. H. 930 during the reign of Babar", in his book of 1891.
Writer Kishore Kunal states that all the inscriptions claimed were fake. They were affixed almost 285 years after the supposed construction of the mosque in 1528, and repeatedly replaced. His own assessment is that the mosque was built around 1660 by governor Fedai Khan of Aurangzeb, who demolished many temples in Ayodhya. Lal Das, who wrote Awadh-Vilasa in 1672 describes the janmasthan (Rama's birthplace) accurately but does not mention a temple at the site.
These developments were apparently known to local Muslims. In mid-nineteenth century, the Muslim activist Mirza Jan quoted from a book Sahifa-I-Chihil Nasaih Bahadur Shahi, which was said to have been written by a daughter of the emperor Bahadur Shah I (and granddaughter of Aurangzeb) in the early 18th century. The text mentions mosques having been constructed after demolishing the "temples of the idolatrous Hindus situated at Mathura, Banaras and Awadh etc." Hindus are said to have called these demolished temples in Awadh "Sita Rasoi" (Sita's kitchen) and "Hanuman's abode."  While there was no mention of Babur in this account, the Ayodhya mosque had been juxtaposed with those built by Aurangzeb at Mathura and Banaras.
The manuscript, Sahifa-I-Chihil Nasaih Bahadur Shahi, has not yet been found, and scholar Stephan Conermann has stated that Mirza Jan book, Hadiqa-yi shuhada, is not reliable.
গল্পত মুছা আশিকান[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
According to an early 20th-century text by Maulvi Abdul Ghaffar and the surrounding historial sources examined by historian Harsh Narain,[lower-alpha 7] the young Babur came from Kabul to Awadh (Ayodhya) in disguise, dressed as a Qalandar (Sufi ascetic), probably as part of a fact-finding mission. Here he met the Sufi saints Shah Jalal and Sayyid Musa Ashiqan and took a pledge in return for their blessings for conquering Hindustan. The pledge is not spelled out in the 1981 edition of Ghaffar's book. Lala Sita Ram, who had access to the older edition in 1932 wrote, "The faqirs answered that they would bless him if he promised to build a mosque after demolishing the Janmasthan temple. Babur accepted the faqirs' offer and returned to his homeland."
অন্যান্য তত্ত্ব[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
However, some historians have argued that it was built during the Delhi Sultanate period (13th-15th century), and may have been renovated during Babur's period. R. Nath has stated that, judging from the architecture of the mosque, it should be taken to have been built in the pre-Mughal period.
Apart from Hindus, Jains and Buddhists have also claimed the site. According to Jain Samata Vahini, the mosque was built over a 6th-century Jain temple. Similarly, Udit Raj's Buddha Education Foundation has claimed the mosque was built over a Buddhist shrine.
১৮৮০-ৰ দশকৰ মন্দিৰ নিৰ্মাণৰ প্ৰচেষ্টা[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
In 1853, a group of armed Hindu ascetics belonging to the Nirmohi Akhara occupied the site, and claimed ownership of the structure. Periodic violence erupted in the next two years, and the civil administration had to step in, refusing permission to build a temple or to use it as a place of worship. In 1855, after a Hindu-Muslim clash, a boundary wall was constructed to avoid further disputes. It divided the mosque premises into two courtyards; the Muslims offered prayers in the inner courtyard. The Hindus offered their prayers on a raised platform, known as "Ram Chabutara", in the outer courtyard.
In 1883, the Hindus launched an effort to construct a temple on the platform. After Muslim protests, the Deputy Commissioner prohibited any temple construction on 19 January 1885. On 27 January 1885, Raghubar Das, the Hindu mahant (priest) of the Ram Chabutara filed a civil suit before the Faizabad Sub-Judge. In response, the mutawalli (Muslim trustee) of the mosque argued that the entire land belonged to the mosque. On 24 December 1885, the Sub Judge Pandit Hari Kishan Singh dismissed the suit. On 18 March 1886, the District Judge F.E.A. Chamier also dismissed an appeal against the lower court judgment. He agreed that the mosque was built on the land considered sacred by the Hindus, but ordered maintenance of status quo, since it was "too late now to remedy the grievance". A subsequent appeal before the Judicial Commissioner W. Young was also dismissed on 1 November 1886.
On 27 March 1934, a Hindu–Muslim riot occurred in Ayodhya, triggered by cow slaughter in the nearby Shahjahanpur village. The walls around the Masjid and one of the domes of the Masjid were damaged during the riots. These were reconstructed by the British Indian government.[উদ্ধৃতিৰ প্ৰয়োজন]
ছিয়া–ছুন্নি বিৰোধ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
In 1936, the United Provinces government enacted U.P. Muslim Waqf Act for the better administration of waqf properties in the state. In accordance with this act, the Babri Masjid and its adjacent graveyard (Ganj-e-Saheedan Qabristan) were registered as Waqf no. 26 Faizabad with the UP Sunni Central Board of Waqfs. The Shias disputed the Sunni ownership of the mosque, claiming that the site belonged to them because Mir Baqi was a Shia. The Commissioner of Waqfs initiated an inquiry into the dispute. The inquiry concluded that the mosque belonged to the Sunnis, since it was commissioned by Babur, who was a Sunni. The concluding report was published in an official gazette dated 26 February 1944. In 1945, the Shia Central Board moved to court against this decision. On 23 March 1946, Judge S. A. Ahsan ruled in favour of the Sunni Central Board of Waqfs.
হিন্দু প্ৰতিমা স্থাপন[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
In December 1949, the Hindu organisation Akhil Bharatiya Ramayana Mahasabha organised a non-stop 9-day recitation of the Ramacharitamanas just outside the mosque. At the end of this event, on the night of 22–23 December 1949, a group of 50–60 people entered the mosque and placed idols of Rama and Sita there. On the morning of 23 December, the event organisers asked Hindu devotees to come to the mosque for a darshan. As thousands of Hindus started visiting the place, the Government declared the mosque a disputed area and locked its gates.
Home Minister Vallabhbhai Patel and Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru directed the state's Chief Minister Govind Ballabh Pant and Uttar Pradesh Home Minister Lal Bahadur Shastri to have the idols removed from the mosque premises. Pant issued orders to remove the idols, but Faizabad's deputy commissioner K. K. Nayar feared that the Hindus would retaliate and pleaded inability to carry out the orders.
On 16 January 1950, Gopal Singh Visharad filed a civil suit in the Faizabad Court, asking that Hindus be allowed to worship Rama and Sita at the place. In 1959, the Nirmohi Akhara filed another lawsuit demanding possession of the mosque. On 18 December 1961, the Sunni Central Waqf Board also filed a lawsuit, demanding possession of the site and removal of idols from the mosque premises.
In April 1984, the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) initiated a campaign to gather public support for Hindu access to the Babri Masjid and other structures that had been allegedly built over Hindu shrines. To raise public awareness, VHP planned nationwide rath yatras (chariot processions), the first of which took place in September–October 1984, from Sitamarhi to Ayodhya. The campaign was temporarily suspended after assassination of Indira Gandhi, but revived in from 25 places on 23 October 1985. On 25 January 1986, a 28-year-old local lawyer Umesh Chandra Pandey, appealed to a court to remove the restrictions on Hindu worship in the Babri Masjid premises. Subsequently, the Rajiv Gandhi government ordered the locks on the Babri Masjid gates to be removed. Earlier, the only Hindu ceremony permitted at the site was a Hindu priest performing an annual puja. After the ruling, all Hindus were given access to the site, and the mosque gained some function as a Hindu temple.
Communal tension in the region worsened when the VHP received permission to perform a shilanyas (stone-laying ceremony) at the disputed site before the national election in November 1989. A senior Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) leader, L K Advani, started a rath yatra, embarking on a 10,000 km journey starting from the south and heading towards Ayodhya. On 6 December 1992, BJP, VHP and RSS leaders gathered at the site to offer prayers and perform a symbolic kar seva. At noon, a teenage Kar Sevak (volunteer) was "vaulted" on to the dome and that signalled the breaking of the outer cordon. Soon after, a large number of kar sevaks demolished the mosque.
ভবিষ্যৎ ফলাফল[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
Communal riots between Hindus and Muslims occurred across India immediately following demolition of the mosque. Rioting in the immediate aftermath resulted in the deaths of an estimated 2,000 people. Six weeks of riots further erupted in Bombay, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 900 people.
Jihadist outfits like Indian Mujahideen and Lashkar-e-Taiba have cited the demolition of Babri Masjid as justification for attacks directed against India. Gangster Dawood Ibrahim, wanted in India for his alleged ties to the 1993 Bombay bombings which killed 257 people, is believed to have been infuriated by the Babri Masjid's demolition.
The site has since become a magnet for pilgrims. According to The Economist, "Among its souvenir stalls, those doing the briskest trade are the ones playing videos on a loop of Hindu fundamentalists demolishing the mosque."
আঞ্চলিক প্ৰভাৱ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
Riots in the aftermath of Babri Masjid's demolition extended to Bangladesh, where hundreds of shops, homes and temples of Hindus were destroyed. Widespread retaliatory attacks against scores of Hindu and Jain temples also took place across neighbouring Pakistan, with police not intervening. Reprisal attacks against Hindus in both countries, in turn, entered the discourse of right-wing Hindu nationalists – for example, in 1995, the Vishwa Hindu Parishad (VHP) appealed to the United Nations to protect Hindus in Bangladesh and Pakistan and Kashmir. The impact of Babri Masjid's demolition and its repercussions negatively affects relations between India and Pakistan until the present day.
লিবাৰহান কমিচন[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
The Liberhan Commission set up by the Government to investigate the demolition later blamed 68 people including senior BJP, RSS and VHP leaders for the demolition. Among those criticised in the report were Atal Bihari Vajpayee, the party's chief LK Advani, and chief minister Kalyan Singh. A 2005 book by the former Intelligence Bureau (IB) Joint Director Maloy Krishna Dhar claimed the senior leaders of RSS, BJP, VHP and Bajrang Dal had planned the demolition 10 months in advance. He also suggested that the Indian National Congress leaders, including prime minister P V Narasimha Rao and home minister S B Chavan, had ignored warnings about the demolition for deriving political benefits.
প্ৰত্নতাত্ত্বিক খনন[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
In 2003, by the order of an Indian court, the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) was asked to conduct a more in-depth study and an excavation to ascertain the type of structure that was beneath the rubble. The excavation was conducted from 12 March 2003 to 7 August 2003, resulting in 1360 discoveries. The ASI submitted its report to the Allahabad high court.
The summary of the ASI report indicated what appears to be the presence of a 10th-century shrine under the mosque. According to the ASI team, the human activity at the site dates back to the 13th century BC. The next few layers date back to the Shunga period (second-first century BC) and the Kushan period. During the early medieval period (11–12th century), a but short-lived huge structure of nearly 50 metres north–south orientation was constructed. On the remains of this structure, another massive structure was constructed: this structure had at least three structural phases and three successive floors attached with it. The report concluded that it was over the top of this construction that the disputed structure was constructed during the early 16th century.
Muslim groups immediately disputed the ASI findings. The Safdar Hashmi Memorial Trust (Sahmat) criticised the report saying that it said that "presence of animal bones throughout as well as of the use of 'surkhi' and lime mortar" that was found by ASI are all characteristic of Muslim presence "that rule out the possibility of a Hindu temple having been there beneath the mosque." The report claimed otherwise on the basis of 'pillar bases' was contested since no pillars were found, and the alleged existence of 'pillar bases' has been debated by archaeologists. Syed Rabe Hasan Nadvi, chairman of the All India Muslim Personal Law Board (AIMPLB) alleged that ASI failed to mention any evidence of a temple in its interim reports and only revealed it in the final report which was submitted during a time of national tension, making the report highly suspect.
The Allahabad High Court, however, upheld the ASI's findings.
শিৰোনাম মামলাৰ ৰায়[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
A land title case on the site was lodged in the Allahabad High Court, the verdicts of which was pronounced on 30 September 2010. In their verdict, the three judges of The Allahabad High Court ruled that the 2.77 একৰs (1.12 হেক্টৰ) of Ayodhya land be divided into 3 parts, with 1/3 going to the Ram Lalla or Infant Lord Rama represented by the Hindu Maha Sabha for the construction of the Ram temple, 1/3 going to the Islamic Sunni Waqf Board and the remaining 1/3 going to a Hindu religious denomination Nirmohi Akhara. While the three-judge bench was not unanimous that the disputed structure was constructed after demolition of a temple, it did agree that a temple or a temple structure predated the mosque at the same site. The excavations by the Archaeological Survey of India were heavily used as evidence by the court that the predating structure was a massive Hindu religious building.
The five judges Supreme Court bench heard the title dispute cases from August to October 2019. On 9 November 2019, the Supreme Court ordered the land to be handed over to a trust to build the Hindu temple. It also ordered the government to give an alternative 5 acre land to the Sunni Waqf Board to build a mosque, which the government allotted in Dhannipur.
- Professor R. Nath, who has examined these records, concludes that Jai Singh had acquired the land of Rama Janmasthan in 1717. The ownership of the land was vested in the deity. The hereditary title of the ownership was recognised and enforced by the Mughal State from 1717. He also found a letter from a gumastha Trilokchand, dated 1723, stating that, while under the Muslim administration people had been prevented from taking a ritual bath in the Saryu river, the establishment of the Jaisinghpura has removed all impediments.
- Kunal, Ayodhya Revisited 2016, পৃষ্ঠা xvi quotes from Tiefenthaler's Descriptio Indiae (প্ৰায় 1772): "Emperor Aurangzeb got the fortress called Ramcot demolished and got a Muslim temple, with triple domes, constructed at the same place. Others say that it was constructed by 'Babor'. Fourteen black stone pillars of 5 span high, which had existed at the site of the fortress, are seen there. Twelve of these pillars now support the interior arcades of the mosque. Two (of these 12) are placed at the entrance of the cloister. The two others are part of the tomb of some 'Moor'.... On the left is seen a square box, raised five inches from the ground, with borders made of lime, with a length of more than 5 ells and a maximum width of about 4. The Hindus call it Bedi, i.e., 'the cradle'. The reason for this is that once upon a time, here was a house where Beschan [Vishnu] was born in the form of Ram. It is said that his three brothers too were born here. Aurangzeb or Babor, according to others, got this place razed in order to deny them the noble people, opportunity of practising their superstitions..."
- Kunal, Ayodhya Revisited 2016, Chapter 5: "By order of King Babur whose justice is a building reaching to the mansions of heaven, this alighting place of the angels was erected by Meer Baquee a nobleman impressed with the seal of happiness. This is lasting Charity in the year of its construction what declares in manifest "that good works are lasting." (The anagram "good works are lasting" represented the year 935. "From the Tughra: There is no God but God, and Mohammad is the Prophet of God. Say, O'Mohammad, that God is one, that God is holy, unbegetting and unbegotten, and that he hath no equal."
- Kunal, Ayodhya Revisited 2016, Chapter 5: "The victorious lord, Mooheyoo Din, Aulumgir, Badshah, the destroyer of infidels, the son of Shah Juhan, the son of Juhangeer Shah; the son of Ukbar Shah; the son of Humayoon Shah, the son of Babur Shah; the son Oomer Sheikh Shah; the son of Soolatan Uboo Saeed; the son of Soolatan Moohammad Shah; the son of Meeran Shah, the son of Shaib-i-Qiran Meer Tymoor." "From the Tughra: In the name of God, most merciful I testify that there is no God but God. He is one, and without equal. I also testify that Mohammad is his Servant and Prophet." "Upon the propitious date of this noble erection, by this weak slave Moohummud Funa Ullah."
- Kunal, Ayodhya Revisited 2016, পৃষ্ঠা 168:
- By the order of Babur, the king of the world;
- This firmament-like, lofty;
- Strong building was erected;
- By the auspicious noble Mir Khan;
- May ever remain such a foundation;
- And such a king of the world.
- Kunal, Ayodhya Revisited 2016, পৃষ্ঠা 169:
- In the name of God, the merciful, the clement.
- In the name of him who...; may God perpetually keep him in the world.
- Such a sovereign who is famous in the world and in person of delight for the world.
- In his presence one of the grandees who is another King of Turkey and China.
- Laid this religious foundation in the auspicious Hijra 930.
- O God! May always remain the crown, throne and life with the king.
- May Babar always pour the flowers of happiness; may remain successful.
- His counsellor and minister who is the founder of this fort masjid.
- This poetry, giving the date and eulogy, was written by the lazy writer and poor servant Fath-Allah-Ghori, composer.
- Sources cited by Harsh Narain:
- Karim, Maulvi Abdul (1885) (Persian ভাষাত). Tarikh-i Parnia Madinatul Awliya. প্ৰকাশক Lucknow.
- Ghaffar, Maulvi Abdul (1981) [first published prior to 1932] (Urdu ভাষাত). Gumgamashtah Halat-i Ajodhya. প্ৰকাশক Lucknow: Nami Press.
- Sita Ram, Avadh-vasi Lala (1932) (Hindi ভাষাত). Ayodhya ka Itihasa. প্ৰকাশক Allahabad.
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অধিক চাওক[সম্পাদনা কৰক]
- Ram Sharan Sharma. Communal History and Rama's Ayodhya, People's Publishing House (PPH), 2nd Revised Edition, September 1999, Delhi. Translated into Bengali, Hindi, Kannada, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu. Two versions in Bengali.
- Sita Ram Goel: Hindu Temples - What Happened to Them, Voice of India, Delhi 1991. 1 2