তেলঙ্গানা

অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ পৰা
(টেলেংগানাৰ পৰা পুনঃনিৰ্দেশিত)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
তেলঙ্গানা
Telangana
తెల౦గాణ
تلنگانہ
—  ভাৰতৰ ৰাজ্য  —

Seal
Location of Telangana in India
ভৌগোলিক স্থানাংক (Hyderabad): 17°21′58″N 78°28′34″E / 17.366°N 78.476°E / 17.366; 78.476স্থানাংক: 17°21′58″N 78°28′34″E / 17.366°N 78.476°E / 17.366; 78.476
দেশ  India
অঞ্চল দক্ষিণ ভাৰত
Established ২ জুন ২০১৪
ৰাজধানী হায়দৰাবাদ
জিলা ১০
চৰকাৰ
 - ৰাজ্যপাল ই এচ এল নৰসিমহান
 - মুখ্যমন্ত্ৰী কে চন্দ্ৰশেখৰ ৰাও(TRS)
 - বিধানসভা Bicameral (119 + 40 seats)
 - লোক সভা সমষ্টি ১৭
 - উচ্চ ন্যায়ালয় High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad
মাটিকালি
 - মুঠ ১,১৪,৮৪০ কি.মি. 
(৪৪,৩৪০ বৰ্গ মাইল)
অঞ্চলৰ স্থানাক দ্বাদশ
জনসংখ্যা (২০১১)
 - মুঠ ৩,৫২,৮৬,৭৫৭ জন
 - স্থান তম
 - জনঘনত্ব ৩০৭.৩ প্ৰতি বৰ্গ কি.মি. 
(৭৯৫.৮ প্ৰতি বৰ্গ মাইল)
বিশেষণ তেলঙ্গানাইট
সময় অঞ্চল IST (গ্ৰী.মা.স.+05:30)
আই এচ অ’ ৩১৬৬ কোড IN-xx (not assigned)
যানবাহনৰ নম্বৰ TS[1]
HDI
স্বাক্ষৰতা ৬৬.০৫% [2]
চৰকাৰী ভাষা তেলুগু, উৰ্দু
ৱেবছাইট telangana.gov.in

তেলঙ্গানা (ইংৰাজী: Telangana) হৈছে ভাৰতৰ ২৯ তম ৰাজ্য। ই ভাৰতৰ দাক্ষিণাত্যত অৱস্থিত। ইয়াৰ সৰহভাগ অংশ নিজামৰ দ্বাৰা শাসিত হায়দৰাবাদ ৰাজ্যৰ (মেডাক আৰু ৱৰাংগাল মহকুমা) অংশ আছিল। ব্ৰিটিছ শাসন কালত ১৯৪৭ চনলৈ আৰু স্বাধীনতাৰ পিছত ১৯৪৮ চনত ভাৰতৰ লগত অন্তৰ্ভূক্ত হোৱাৰ পূৰ্বে ই নিজামৰ দ্বাৰা শাসিত আছিল। ১৯৫৬ চনত হায়দৰাবাদ ৰাজ্যখন ভংগ কৰি ইয়াক অন্ধ্ৰপ্ৰদেশৰ লগত অন্তৰ্ভূক্ত কৰি অন্ধ্ৰপ্ৰদেশ ৰাজ্যখন সৃষ্টি কৰা হয়। ২০১৪ চনৰ ২ জুন তাৰিখে অন্ধ্ৰপ্ৰদেশৰ উত্তৰ-পশ্চিমাঞ্চলৰ দহখন জিলা লগলগাই ভাৰতৰ ২৯তম ৰাজ্য তেলঙ্গানা গঠন কৰা হয়।[3] হায়দৰাবাদ চহৰখন অহা ১০ বছৰলৈ তেলেংগানা আৰু অন্ধ্ৰপ্ৰদেশ দুয়োখন ৰাজ্যৰে উমৈহতীয়া ৰাজধানী হৈ থাকিব।[4]

তেলঙ্গানাৰ চৰিসীমাত উত্তৰ আৰু উত্তৰ-পশ্চিমত মহাৰাষ্ট্ৰ, পশ্চিমত কৰ্ণাটক, উত্তৰ পূৱত ছত্তীছগঢ় আৰু দক্ষিণ-পূৱত অন্ধ্ৰ প্ৰদেশ অৱস্থিত। ২০১১ চনৰ লোকপিয়ল মতে তেলঙ্গানাৰ জনসংখ্যা হৈছে ৩৫,২৮৬,৭৫৭ জন আৰু ইয়াৰ মাটিকালি ১১৪৮৪০ বৰ্গ কিঃমিঃ।[5] হায়দৰাবাদ, ৱাৰাংগাল,কৰিমনগৰ আৰু নিজামাবাদ হৈছে ৰাজ্যখনৰ চাৰিখন আটাইতকৈ ডাঙৰ চহৰ।

১৯০৯ চনৰ হায়দৰাবাদ ৰাজ্য

নামৰ উৎপত্তি[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

তেলঙ্গানা শব্দটো তেলুগু শব্দৰ পৰা অহা বুলি ধাৰণা কৰা হৈছে। তেলুগু ভাষাত তেলুগু শব্দৰ অৰ্থ হ'ল তেলুগু ভাষী লোক বসবাস কৰা অঞ্চল। এক প্ৰবাদমতে তেলুগুৰ উৎপত্তি হৈছে ত্ৰিলিংগ বা ত্ৰিলিংগ দেশ যাৰ অৰ্থ হ'ল তিনি লিংগৰ দেশ। হিন্দু মতবাদ মতে ভগৱান শিৱই তেলেংগানাক আৱৰি থকা তিনিখন পৰ্বত ক্ৰমে কালেশ্বৰম, শ্ৰীচাইলাম আৰু দ্ৰক্ষৰামাত লিংগ হিচাপে নামি আহিছিল, সেইকাৰণে নাম হৈছিল ত্ৰিলিংগ। তাৰ পৰা অপভ্ৰংশ হৈ থেলিংগা, তেলুংগা আৰু তেলুগু হ'ল। [6][7]

অতীতৰ হায়দৰাবাদ ৰাজ্যৰ মাৰাঠী ভাষী অধ্যুষিত অঞ্চল মাৰাঠাৱাডাৰ পৰা তেলুগু ভাষী অধ্যুষিত অঞ্চলটো পৃথককৈ বুজাবলৈ এই তেলঙ্গানা শব্দটো ব্যৱহাৰ কৰা হৈছিল।[8]

তেলঙ্গানা শব্দৰ প্ৰাচীনতম উল্লেখ পোৱা যায় মালিক মকবুলৰ(Malik Maqbul) নামত। তেওঁক তিলাংগিনী বোলা হৈছিল, অৰ্থাৎ তেওঁ তিলাংগানা অঞ্চলৰ লোক আছিল। তেওঁ এক হিন্দু পৰিয়ালত জন্ম গ্ৰহণ কৰিছিল আৰু তেওঁৰ নাম আছিল যুগন্ধৰ। যুগন্ধৰ ৱাৰাংগাল(Warangal Fort) দুৰ্গৰ সেনানায়ক আছিল।[9]

ইতিহাস[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

প্ৰাচীন যুগ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

প্ৰাচীনভাৰতৰ ১৬ খন জনপদৰ ভিতৰত অন্যতম অস্মক জনপদৰ (Assakajanapada) ৰাজধানী আছিল কৰিমনগৰৰ কোটিলিংগালা। এই অঞ্চলত প্ৰাক-সাতবাহন ৰজাসকলে প্ৰচলন কৰা মুদ্ৰা পোৱা গৈছে। সাতবাহন ৰাজবংশৰ প্ৰতিষ্ঠাতা চিমুখ আৰু তেওঁৰ পৰৱৰ্তী ৰজাসকলে প্ৰৱৰ্তন কৰা তাম্ৰমুদ্ৰাও ইয়াত পোৱা গৈছে।[10]

খ্ৰীষ্টপুৰ্ব ২৩০ ৰ পৰা ২২০ খ্ৰীষ্টাব্দলৈ সাতবাহন ৰাজবংশ এই অঞ্চলৰ প্ৰধান শক্তিলৈ পৰিণত হৈছিল। এই ৰাজবংশৰ উৎস আছিল গোদাবৰী আৰু কৃষ্ণা নদীৰ মধ্যৱৰ্তী অঞ্চল।[উদ্ধৃতিৰ প্ৰয়োজন]

সাতবাহন সকলৰ পতনৰ পিছত বাকাটক(Vakataka),বিষ্ণুকুণ্ডিয়া(Vishnukundina),চালুক্য(Chalukya), ৰাষ্ট্ৰকুট(Rashtrakuta), আৰু পশ্চিম চালুক্য(Western Chalukya) ৰাজবংশই এই অঞ্চল শাসন কৰিছিল[উদ্ধৃতিৰ প্ৰয়োজন].

Torana built by the Kakatiyas in Warangal in 1163
The Satavahana dynasty had its roots in Koti Lingala on the banks of the Godavari River, in present day Karimnagar district

কাকতীয় ৰাজবংশ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

১০৮৩ ৰ পৰা ১৩১৩ খ্ৰীষ্টাব্দ পৰ্যন্ত তেলঙ্গানা অঞ্চল শাসন কৰে কাকতীয় ৰাজবংশ। এই যুগটি তেলঙ্গানাৰ ইতিহাসত স্বৰ্ণযুগ নামে পৰিচিত। ১১৯৯ খ্ৰীষ্টাব্দত সৰ্বশ্ৰেষ্ঠ কাকতীয় ৰজা গণপতিদেৱ ক্ষমতালৈ আহে। সাতবাহন ৰজাসকলৰ পাছত তেঁৱেই প্ৰথমে সমগ্ৰ তেলুগুভাষী অঞ্চলক একক ৰাজ্যৰ অন্তৰ্ভুক্ত কৰিছিল। তেঁৱে তেলুগু চোল ৰাজ্যৰ শাসনৰ অবসান ঘটাইছিল। ১২১০ খ্ৰীষ্টাব্দত তেলুগু চোলসকলে তেঁওৰ সাৰ্বভৌমত্ব মানি লৈছিল। পূৱে গোদাবৰী বদ্বীপৰ পৰা পশ্চিমে ৰায়চুৰ (এতিয়া কৰ্ণাটক ৰাজ্যত) আৰু উত্তৰে কৰিমনগৰ আৰু বস্তাৰৰ (এতিয়া ছত্তিশগড় ৰাজ্যত)পৰা দক্ষিণে শ্ৰীশৈলম আৰু ত্ৰিপুৰান্তকম (ওঙ্গলৰ ওচৰত) পৰ্যন্ত অঞ্চল তেঁও নিজৰ ৰাজ্যৰ অন্তৰ্ভুক্ত কৰিছিল। তেঁওৰ ৰাজত্বকালতেই গোলকুণ্ডা দুৰ্গ নিৰ্মিত হৈছিল। কাকতীয় ৰাজবংশৰ অন্যান্য উল্লেখযোগ্য শাসকসকল হʼল ৰুদ্ৰামা দেৱী আৰু প্ৰতাপৰুদ্ৰ। ১৩০৯ খ্ৰীষ্টাব্দত মালিক কাফুৰৰ আক্ৰমণৰ পাছত এই ৰাজ্য দুৰ্বল হৈ পৰে। মহম্মদ বিন টোগলকে ১৩২৩ খ্ৰীষ্টাব্দত প্ৰতাপৰুদ্ৰক পৰাজিত কৰাত এই ৰাজবংশৰ পতন ঘটে।

কুতুবশাহী আৰু নিজাম[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

চতুৰ্দাশ শতাব্দীত তেলঙ্গানা অঞ্চলটি দিল্লীৰ চুলতানৰ অধীনলৈ যায়। ইয়াৰ পিছত ই বাহমনি চুলতানৰ অন্তৰ্ভুক্ত হয়। ১৫১৮ খ্ৰীষ্টাব্দত গোলকুণ্ডৰ শাসনকৰ্তা কুলি কুতুব মুল্কে বাহমানি চুলতানৰ বিপক্ষে বিদ্ৰোহ ঘোষণা কৰি কুতুবশাহী ৰাজবংশ প্ৰতিষ্ঠা কৰে। সুদীৰ্ঘ এবছৰ গোলকুণ্ডৰ দুৰ্গ অৱৰোধ কৰাৰ পিছত গোলকুণ্ডৰ চুলতান মোগল সম্ৰাট ঔৰংজেৱৰ অধীনলৈ যায়।[11]

Charminar in Hyderabad

In 1712, Qamar-ud-din Khan was appointed to be Viceroy of the Deccan with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (meaning "Administrator of the Realm"). In 1724, he defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba and took the name Asif Jah, starting what came to be known as the Asif Jahi dynasty. He named the area Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams or Nizams of Hyderabad. The Medak and Warangal divisions were ruled by the Nizams.

When Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Nizams. Nizam signed a subsidiary alliance in 1799 with British and lost its control over the state's defence and foreign affairs. Hyderabad State became a princely state among the presidencies and provinces of British India. Nizam in two instances ceded the Coastal and Rayalaseema districts of his dominion to British due to his inability to pay for the help that British rendered in his wars against Vijayanagar and Tipu Sultan armies. The ceded Coastal and Rayalaseema districts were called Sarkar and Ceded areas and were part of the British Madras Presidency until India's Independence and part of Madras state until 1953.

Telangana was the seat of numerous dynasties. Chowmahalla Palace was home to the Nizams of Hyderabad.

Post-independence[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad did not want to merge with Indian Union and wanted to remain independent under the special provisions given to princely states. The Government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948 in Operation Polo. The Central Government appointed a civil servant, M. K. Vellodi, as First Chief Minister of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950. He administered the state with the help of English educated bureaucrats from Madras State and Bombay State, who were part of British India and familiar with Indian system unlike the bureaucrats of Hyderabad state who used completely different administrative system from British India and used Urdu as the state language.

In 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected Chief minister of Hyderabad State in the first democratic election. During this time there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send back bureaucrats from Madras state, and to strictly implement rule by natives of Hyderabad.[12]

Meanwhile, Telugu-speaking areas in the Northern Circars and Rayalaseema regions were carved out of the erstwhile Madras state as a result of the 'fast unto death' incident by Potti Sreeramulu to create Andhra State in 1953.[13][14][15]

Telangana Rebellion[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The Telangana Rebellion was a peasant revolt supported by the Communists. It took place in the former princely state of Hyderabad between 1946 and 1951. It was led by the Communist Party of India.[16]

The revolt began in the Nalgonda district against the feudal lords of Reddy and Velama castes. It quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) and later against the King of Hyderabad State. The violent phase of the movement ended after the central government sent in the army.[17] Starting in 1951, the CPI shifted to a more moderate strategy of seeking to bring communism to India within the framework of Indian democracy.[18]

States Reorganisation Commission[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was appointed to form states on linguistic bases.[19] An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana's interests.[20] After reorganisation in 1956, the region of Telangana was merged with Andhra State to form Andhra Pradesh.

Following the Gentlemen's agreement, the central government established a unified Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956.[13][21][22]

Telangana Movement[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

There have been several movements to invalidate the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurring in 1969, 1972 and 2009. The movement gained momentum over decades for a new state of Telangana.[23] On 9 December 2009 the Government of India announced process of formation of Telangana state. Violent protests raised in the Coastal Andhra and Rayalseema regions immediately after the announcement, and the decision was put on hold on 23 December 2009.

The movement continued in Hyderabad and other districts of Telangana.[24] There have been hundreds of suicides, strikes, protests and disturbances to public life demanding separate statehood. Investigative Indian magazine Tehelka has lamented on the unfortunate glorification of suicides and propaganda by Telangana politicians that may have resulted in many ‘copycat suicides’.[25]

Bifurcation of Andhra Pradesh[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana state.[26] After various stages the bill was placed in the parliament in February 2014. In February 2014, Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the parliament of India for the formation of Telangana state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh.[27] Hyderabad is to remain as the joint capital of both the states for a period of 10 years.[28] The bill received the assent of the President and published in the gazette on 1 March 2014.[29] The state of Telangana was formed on 2 June 2014.[30]

ভুগোল[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Telangana is situated on the Deccan Plateau, in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. It covers 1,14,800 বৰ্গ কি.মি.s (1.148 বৰ্গ মিটাৰ). The region is drained by two major rivers, with about 79% of the Godavari River catchment area and about 69% of the Krishna River catchment area, but most of the land is arid.[31] Telangana is also drained by several minor rivers such as the Bhima, the Manjira and the Musi.

The annual rainfall is between 900 to 1500mm in northern Telangana and 700 to 900mm in southern Telangana, from the southwest monsoons. Various soil types abound, including chalkas, red sandy soils, dubbas, deep red loamy soils, and very deep b.c. soils that facilitate planting mangoes, oranges and flowers.[32] About 45% of the forest area of Andhra Pradesh is located in five districts of Telangana.

জলবায়ু[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Telangana is a semi-arid area within Andhra Pradesh and has a predominantly hot and dry climate. Summers start in March, and peak in May with average high temperatures in the 42 °C ({{convert/roundT{#expr:((42+273.15)*1.8-459.67)<0}}|42|(42+273.15)|||((42+273.15)*1.8-459.67)}} °F) range. The monsoon arrives in June and lasts until September with about 755 mm (29.7-inch) of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February with little humidity and average temperatures in the 22 range.

Warangal
জলবায়ু তালিকা (ব্যাখ্যা)
জাফেমামেজুনজুছেডি
 
 
১৫
 
৩০
১৬
 
 
 
৩৩
১৮
 
 
 
৩৭
২২
 
 
 
৪০
২৬
 
 
১৫
 
৪২
২৮
 
 
৫০
 
৩৭
২৮
 
 
৮৫
 
৩২
২৫
 
 
১৭০
 
৩১
২৫
 
 
১৬০
 
৩৩
২৩
 
 
৭০
 
৩৩
২২
 
 
১০
 
৩১
১৮
 
 
 
৩০
১৫
গড় সৰ্বাধিক আৰু সৰ্বনিম্ন তাপমান °ছেলছিয়াছ
মিলিমিটাৰ হিচাপে মুঠ বৃষ্টিপাত
উৎস: mustseeindia.com
হায়দৰাবাদৰ জলবায়ুৰ তথ্য
মাহ জানু. ফেব্ৰু. মাৰ্চ এপ্ৰি. মে জুন জুলা. আগ. চেপ্টে. অক্টো. নৱে. ডিচে. বছৰ
সৰ্বাধিক উষ্ণতা °C (°F) 33.4
(92.1)
36.8
(98.2)
39.9
(103.8)
43.1
(109.6)
43.7
(110.7)
45.5
(113.9)
36.0
(96.8)
34.7
(94.5)
35.3
(95.5)
36.1
(97.0)
33.8
(92.8)
32.7
(90.9)
গড় উষ্ণতা - উচ্চ °C (°F) 28.6 31.8 35.2 37.6
(99.7)
38.8
(101.8)
34.4
(93.9)
30.5
(86.9)
29.6
(85.3)
30.1
(86.2)
30.4
(86.7)
28.8
(83.8)
27.8
(82.0)
32.0
(89.6)
দৈনিক গড় উষ্ণতা °C (°F) 22.2
(72.0)
25.1
(77.2)
28.4
(83.1)
31.5
(88.7)
33.0
(91.4)
29.3
(84.7)
27.0
(80.6)
26.2
(79.2)
26.6
(79.9)
25.7
(78.3)
23.2
(73.8)
21.6
(70.9)
26.65
(79.97)
গড় উষ্ণতা - নিম্ন °C (°F) 14.7
(58.5)
17.0
(62.6)
20.3
(68.5)
24.1
(75.4)
26.0
(78.8)
23.9
(75.0)
22.5
(72.5)
22.0
(71.6)
21.7
(71.1)
20.0
(68.0)
16.4
(61.5)
14.1
(57.4)
20.2
(68.4)
সৰ্বনিম্ন উষ্ণতা °C (°F) 6.1
(43.0)
11.3
(52.3)
14.6
(58.3)
17.2
(63.0)
17.8
(64.0)
18.6
(65.5)
19.2
(66.6)
20.0
(68.0)
19.1
(66.4)
13.3
(55.9)
10.6
(51.1)
8.5
(47.3)
[[
বৰ্ষাপাত mm (ইঞ্চি) 3.2
(0.126)
5.2
(0.205)
12.0
(0.472)
21.0
(0.827)
37.3
(1.469)
96.1
(3.783)
163.9
(6.453)
171.1
(6.736)
181.5
(7.146)
90.9
(3.579)
16.2
(0.638)
6.1
(0.24)
804.5
(31.673)
% আদ্ৰতা 56 49 39 37 39 61 71 74 72 63 58 57 56.3
Avg. rainy days .3 .4 .9 1.8 2.7 7.6 10.6 10.1 8.9 5.7 1.6 .4 51.0
সূৰ্যোদয়ৰ সময় 279.0 271.2 263.5 273.0 282.1 180.0 142.6 136.4 168.0 226.3 246.0 263.5 2,731.6
উৎস নং ১: India Meteorological Department (1951–1980),[33] NOAA of the USA (extremes, mean, humidity, 1971–1990)[34]
উৎস নং ২: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only, 1971–1990)[35] IMD • Hyderabad [36]

Demographics[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Religion in Telangana
Religion Percent
Hinduism
  
৮৪%
Islam
  
১২.৪০%
Others
  
৩.২০%

According to the Backward Regions Grant Fund 2009–10, 13 backward districts are located in Andhra Pradesh: nine (all except Hyderabad) are from Telangana and the rest are from other regions.[37]

The religious makeup of Telangana is 84% Hindu, 12.4% Muslim, and 3.2% Sikh, Christian, and others.[38][39]

About 76% of the population of Telangana speak Telugu, 12% speak Urdu, and 12% speak other languages.[40][41] Before 1948, Urdu was the official language of Hyderabad State, and due to a lack of Telugu-language educational institutions, Urdu was the language of the educated elite of Telangana. After 1948, once Hyderabad State joined the new Republic of India, Telugu became the language of government, and as Telugu was introduced as the medium of instruction in schools and colleges, the use of Urdu among non-Muslims decreased.[42]

According to 2011 census, Telangana literacy rate is 67.22%.[43] Male and female literacy is 75.6% and 58.77% respecively. Hyderabad district leading with 80.96% and Mahboobnagar district at the bottom with 56.06%. [44]

Culture[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Telangana has typical cosmopolitan cultural background with population from India/outside India. It has distinctive culture inheriting cultural customs from Persian traditions embedded during Moghuls and Nizams rule with prominent south Indian traditions and customs but even some of the north Indian festivals are popularly celebrated across the state.

Art and literature[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Painting of Lord Rama on a temple at Bhadrachalam in Khammam District

Telangana's cultural heritage includes the poet Pothana who composed SriMadh Andhra Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatham. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah was the first Saheb-e-dewan Urdu poet. Other poets of Telangana from the early era include Kancherla Gopanna or Bhakta Ramadasu, Gona Budda Reddy, Palkuriki Somanatha, Mallinātha Sūri, and Hulukki Bhaskara. In the modern era poets include such figures as Padma Vibhushan, Kaloji Narayana Rao, Sahitya Akademi Award recipient Daasarathi Krishnamacharyulu, Vachaspathi Puraskar award recipient Sribhashyam Vijayasarathi, and Jnanpith Award recipient C. Narayana Reddy, as well as P. V. Narasimha Rao, ninth Prime Minister of India. Samala Sadasiva has been selected for the Kendra Sahitya Puraskaram distinction. His book Swaralayalu on the subject of Hindustani classical music won the award for the year 2011.

Cuisine[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Hyderabadi biriyani

Telangana has two types of cuisines, the Telugu cuisine and Hyderabadi cuisine. Telugu cuisine is the part of South Indian cuisine characterized by their highly spicy food. Hyderabadi cuisine, an amalgamation of Arab, Mughlai, Telugu, Turkish cuisines, developed by the Qutb Shahi dynasty and the Nizams of Hyderabad. It comprises a broad repertoire of rice, wheat and meat dishes and various spices and herbs.[45][46]

Festivals[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Bathukamma flower arrangement

A number of festivals are observed and celebrated in Telangana. Regional festivals include Bonalu (celebrating the Hindu goddess of power, Mahakali), Bathukamma (celebrating the Hindu goddess Mahagauri) and Sammakka Saralamma Jatara (celebrating tribal goddesses). Apart from these, all the major Indian festivals like Dusshera, Ganesh Chaturthi, Ugadi (New Year of the Deccan), Diwali, Sankranti etc., are also celebrated. Muslims in Telangana celebrate the Islamic festivals of Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Muharram and Mawlid. Christians celebrate Christmas, Good Friday etc.

Mineral Resources[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

There are also extensive coal deposits, which are excavated by the Singareni Collieries Company, for power generation and industrial purposes.[47] There are limestone deposits in the area, which are utilised by cement factories. Telangana also has deposits of bauxite and mica.

Transportation[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Secunderabad railway station, a busiest railway junction in India and head quarters of south central railway
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport

Roadways[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The Telangana State Road Transport Corporation (TSRTC) is the major public transport corporation that connects all the cities and villages.[উদ্ধৃতিৰ প্ৰয়োজন] Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station (M.G.B.S) in Hyderabad is one of the largest bus stand in Asia.[48][49] Jubilee Bus Station in Secunderabad serves inter city bus services. Asia's biggest Inter City Bus Terminal (ICBT) is to come up in Miyapur (Hyderabad) soon, which would house nearly 200 bus bays and for parking nearly 1,000 buses. It would have both inter-state and inter-city buses plying from the city apart from city services.[50]

Railways[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The history of railways in this region dates back to the time of Nizam of Hyderabad. It falls under the auspices of the South Central Railway founded in 1966. Rail Nilayam in Secunderabad, the Land Mark Building is the Zonal Headquarter office of South Central Railway. Secunderabad, Hyderabad are the main divisions of SCR.

Airports[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Rajiv Gandhi International Airport, is an international airport in the city of Hyderabad. It has won world's No. 1 Airport award twice (2009, 2010) in the 5 - 15 million passenger category.[উদ্ধৃতিৰ প্ৰয়োজন] It is the largest airport in the state and one of the busiest airports nationwide. The government also has plans to start airports in other cities: Warangal, Nizamabad, Karimnagar, Ramagundam and Kothagudem.

Tourism[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Kuntala-waterfalls

Other places are Tank Bund, Necklace Road, Ramoji Film City, Birla Temple, Birla Planetarium, Zoological Park etc.

Religious Tourism[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

There are many religious pilgrim centres.

  • Bhadrachalam Temple is a temple to Lord Rama in the town of Bhadrachalam in Khammam district. It is situated on the banks of the river Godavari. This is the place where Kancherla Gopanna (1620–1680) wrote his devotional songs dedicated to lord Rama. It was believed that lord Rama spent some years on the banks of river Godavari here in Treta Yuga. Kancherla Gopanna raised the funds and constructed the temple during the reign of Tanisha in the 17th century. Sri Rama Navami, a celebration of the Marriage of Lord Rama and sita, is celebrated here every year. Government of Andhra Pradesh sends pearls for the event.[51]
  • Thousand Pillar Temple is one of the oldest temples of South India that was built by the kakatiya located in the town of Hanamakonda in the Warangal district. It comprises one temple and other building. There are one thousand pillars in the building and the temple, but no pillar obstructs a person in any point of the temple to see the god in the other temple. The present day engineers have taken out all the pillars from the building. After they lifted all the pillars they encountered a huge mass of sand. It took nearly two weeks for them to take away all the sand. It was wet sand, because of a pipe connection from the nearby water body named Bhadrakali Cheruvu.
  • Ramappa Temple also known as the Ramalingeswara temple, is located 77 km from Warangal, the ancient capital of the Kakatiya dynasty, 157 km from Hyderabad in the state of Andhra Pradesh in southern India. It lies in a valley at Palampet village of Venkatapur Mandal, in erstwhile Mulug Taluq of Warangal district, a tiny village long past its days of glory in the 13th and 14th centuries.[1] An inscription in the temple dates it to the year 1213 and said to have been built by a General Recherla Rudra, during the period of the Kakatiya ruler Ganapati Deva.
  • Kaleshwaram mukteswara Temple also know as Dakshina Gangotri.Kaleshwaram is a village in Mahadevpur mandal in Karimnagar district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. This name refers more broadly to the region of Telangana in Andhra Pradesh.Kaleshwara Mukteswara Swamy Temple, Mahadevpur Mandal.Kaleshawarma is on the border of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra at the juncture of the Rivers Godavari and its Pranahiti tributary. It is 277 kilometres from Hyderabad, 125 kilometres from Karimnagar, 115 kilometres from Warangal, 75 kilometres from Parkal and 60 kilometres from Manthani.It is the site of a temple of the Hindu god Lord Shiva. The temple is significant because of the two Shiva Lingas that are found on a single pedestal. These Linga are named Lord Shiva and Lord Yama. Collectively, they known as Kaleshwara Mukteswara Swamy. Kaleshwaram is one of three Shiva temples mentioned in Trilinga Desham "Land of Three Lingas."The holy place draws tourists during the Karthika Month of the Indian Calendar, 16 November – 15 December. Holy baths are held during 6 to 17 December. People who bathe here first visit Lord Ganesha, then pray to Lord Yama and then to Lord Shiva. The temple is open from 4:00 a.m.-1:00 p.m. and 3:30-9:00 p.m.Two types of prasadam are inside the temple: Pulihora (Tamarind rice) and Laddu (Sweet)

Education[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

There are many schools, colleges and universities providing professional education in many fields.

Universities

Central Universities

Major Educational Institutes

Govt.Medical College and Medical Research Institutes[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Research[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Research institutes have been set up by the central government in the state. Some of them include:

Central Research Institutes

Sports[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium

Cricket, Chess, Tennis, Badminton etc. are more popular sports.[70] The Hyderabad cricket team is represented in the Ranji Trophy and had won twice. The Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium is the home ground of Hyderabad cricket team. It hosts international as well as domestic matches. The Sunrisers Hyderabad, an Indian Premier League franchise, is based in Hyderabad.

Famous stadiums for other sports include Gachibowli Athletic Stadium (also has an indoor stadium), G. M. C. Balayogi Athletic Stadium which hosts many sporting events. Many academies are set up to nurture future sport stars. Gopichand Badminton Academy, Sania Mirza Tennis Academy, NVK Tennis academy etc.

তথ্য সংগ্ৰহ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. "Telangana govt, depts to have new web addresses". The Hindu • Business Line. http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/news/states/telangana-govt-depts-to-have-new-web-addresses/article6072216.ece। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 3 June 2014. 
  2. Telangana, India’s 29th State, is Finally Born | The Diplomat
  3. "Notification" (PDF). The Gazette of India. Government of India. 4 March 2014. http://www.egazette.nic.in/WriteReadData/2014/158365.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 4 March 2014. 
  4. "Telangana will be 29th state, Hyderabad to be common capital for 10 years". TThe Times of India. 30 July 2013. Archived from the original on 31 July 2013. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Telangana-will-be-29th-state-Hyderabad-to-be-common-capital-for-10-years/articleshow/21490142.cms. 
  5. "POPULATION". Govt of Andhra Pradesh. http://www.ap.gov.in/Other%20Docs/Population.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 30 May 2014. 
  6. History of Kannada language: readership lectures, By R. Narasimhacharya
  7. "A grammar of the Teloogoo language, commonly termed the Gentoo, peculiar to the Hindoos inhabiting the north eastern provinces of the Indian peninsula(page iii)". Alexander Duncan Campbell. Sashachellum, 1816. http://books.google.com/books?id=PubopwMmteIC&lpg=PR3&ots=KOYt98TTXz&pg=PR3#v=onepage&q&f=false। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 10 October 2012. 
  8. "India Today Encyclopedia, An encyclopedia of life in the republic, Vol 1". Arnold P Kaminsky. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication data. http://books.google.com/books?id=wWDnTWrz4O8C&pg=PA684&dq=word+Telangana&hl=en&sa=X&ei=EjAUUvXyKsemygG5lYDIDg&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=word%20Telangana&f=false. 
  9. Sri Marana Markandeya Puranamu, ed. G. V. Subrahmanyam, 1984, Andhra Pradesh Sahitya Academy, Hyderabad.
  10. "Antiquities unearthed at Kotilingala". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/2011/03/26/stories/2011032665300500.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 17 January 2013. 
  11. Richards, J. F. (1975). "The Hyderabad Karnatik, 1687–1707". Modern Asian Studies (Cambridge University Press) খণ্ড 9 (2): 241–260. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00004996. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=2626396। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 20 April 2012. 
  12. Mulki agitation in Hyderabad State
  13. 13.0 13.1 "History and Culture – History-Post-Independence Era". APonline. http://www.aponline.gov.in/quick%20links/hist-cult/history_post.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 14 September 2010. 
  14. After Sriramulu, Andhra State
  15. Andhra State formed[সংযোগবিহীন উৎস]
  16. Elliot, Carolyn M. (November 1974). "Decline of a Patrimonial Regime: The Telangana Rebellion in India, 1946–51". Journal of Asian Studies খণ্ড 34 (1): 24–47. http://www.scribd.com/doc/15377979/Decline-of-a-Patrimonial-Regime-The-Telengana-Rebellion-in-India-194651. 
  17. "Declassify report on the 1948 Hyderabad massacre". http://swaminomics.org/declassify-report-on-the-1948-hyderabad-massacre/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 25 September 2013. 
  18. History of Communist party in India
  19. [1]
  20. SRC sub committee said no decision on Visalandhra taken.- Page 1 of Feb 1, 1956 Indian Express
  21. Andhra Pradesh to be formed with safeguards to Telangana
  22. Andhra Pradesh formed
  23. "How Telangana movement has sparked political turf war in Andhra". Rediff.com. 5 October 2011. http://www.rediff.com/news/report/how-telangana-movement-has-sparked-political-turf-war-in-andhra/20111005.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 19 February 2012. 
  24. "Pro-Telangana AP govt employees threaten agitation". The Economic Times. 10 February 2012. http://articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com/2012-02-10/news/31046433_1_pro-telangana-telangana-employees-separate-statehood-demand। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 18 February 2012. 
  25. "Snuffed Out By T-Politics". http://www.tehelka.com/snuffed-out-by-t-politics/. 
  26. "Creation of a new state of Telangana by bifurcating the existing State of Andhra Pradesh". Home Ministry, Govt of India. http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=99854। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 3 October 2013. 
  27. "Telangana bill passed by upper house". Times of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/telangana-bill-in-rajya-sabha/liveblog/30712218.cms। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 20 Feb 2014. 
  28. Amid chaos and slogans, Rajya Sabha clears Telangana bill - NDTV, 20 Feb 2014
  29. "THE ANDHRA PRADESH REORGANISATION ACT, 2014". Ministry of Law and Justice, Government of India. http://www.mha.nic.in/sites/upload_files/mha/files/APRegACT2014_0.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 3 March 2014. 
  30. "Telangana is born, KCR to take oath as its first CM". http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/telangana-braces-to-celebrate-its-birthday-celebrations-kcr/1/364724.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2 June 2014. 
  31. "Factfile on Telangana". Indiatoday.in. 30 July 2013. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/factfile-on-telangana/1/297128.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 8 December 2013. 
  32. "Agri Climatic Zones". State Horticulture Mission, Government of Andhra Pradesh. http://apshm.ap.nic.in/Agri_Climatic_Zones.html#3। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 8 December 2013. 
  33. "Hyderabad". India Meteorological Department. http://www.imd.gov.in/section/climate/extreme/hyderabad2.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 30 May 2010. 
  34. "Hyderabad climate normals 1971–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the USA. ftp://ftp.atdd.noaa.gov/pub/GCOS/WMO-Normals/RA-II/IN/43128.TXT। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: December 24, 2012. 
  35. "Climatological information for Hyderabad, India". Hong Kong Observatory. http://www.hko.gov.hk/wxinfo/climat/world/eng/asia/india/hyderabad_e.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 5 May 2011. 
  36. "IMD • Hyderabad". India Meteorological Department - Hyderabad Center. http://imdhyderabad.gov.in/extwx.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 28 May 2013. 
  37. "BRGF District". Panchayat.gov.in. http://panchayat.gov.in/brgf/Report.do?method=BRGFdistrict। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 14 September 2010. }[সংযোগবিহীন উৎস]
  38. "Telangana and Muslims". TwoCircles.net. http://www.twocircles.net/2009dec12/telangana_and_muslims.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 14 September 2010. 
  39. Region-wise distribution of religious groups 2001 - Table 7.2 in page 381 of SKC report
  40. Region-wise distribution of religious groups 2001 - Table 7.3 in page 393 of SKC report
  41. "Urdu in Andhra Pradesh". LANGUAGE IN INDIA. http://www.languageinindia.com/april2003/urduinap.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 22 January 2013. 
  42. "Census of India – Distributions of 10,000 Persons by Language – people not interested in dividing Andra Pradesh". Censusindia.gov.in. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/Census_Data_Online/Language/Statement3.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 14 September 2010. 
  43. T-party today: India’s 29th state Telangana is born
  44. "Literacy of Rural - Urban(Andhra Pradesh)". Govt of India. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/paper2-vol2/data_files/AP/Chapter_VI.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 9 May 2014. 
  45. Sanjeev Kapoor; Harpal Singh Sokhi page=3 (2008). Royal Hyderabadi Cooking. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-81-7991-373-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=pFivPqq7FbIC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 8 December 2013. 
  46. Karen Isaksen Leonard (2007). Locating Home: India's Hyderabadis Abroad. Stanford University Press. পৃষ্ঠা. 14. ISBN 978-0-8047-5442-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=HQCvgavbQjgC&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 8 December 2013. 
  47. "Introduction". Singareni Collieries Company. http://scclmines.com/scclnew/our-business_products-and-services_introduction.asp। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: December 2013. 
  48. "citi-Charter". Apsrtc.gov.in. Archived from the original on 17 September 2010. http://www.apsrtc.gov.in/Contact%20Us/Grievances/Citi-Chart.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 19 August 2010. [সংযোগবিহীন উৎস]
  49. "AP Fact File-Natural Advantages". APonline. Archived from the original on 3 April 2009. http://www.aponline.gov.in/Quick%20links/apfactfile/naturaladvantages.html#Airways। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 3 March 2009. 
  50. "Miyapur bus terminal". timesofindia. 20 April 2014. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/hyderabad/At-last-Miyapur-bus-terminal-to-take-off/articleshow/19266730.cms. 
  51. "Sri Rama Navami in Bhadrachalam". http://www.discoveredindia.com/andhra-pradesh/religious-tourism-in-andhra-pradesh.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 4 April 2014. 
  52. "Osmania University". Osmania.ac.in. http://www.osmania.ac.in/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 15 May 2014. 
  53. "JNTU Hyderabad". jntuh.ac.in/new/. http://www.jntuh.ac.in/new/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 15 May 2014. 
  54. "Kakatiya University". kakatiya.ac.in. http://www.kakatiya.ac.in/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 15 May 2014. 
  55. "teluguuniversity.ac.in". Teluguuniversity.ac.in. http://www.teluguuniversity.ac.in/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 31 January 2014. 
  56. "University of Hyderabad". uohyd.ac.in/. http://www.uohyd.ac.in/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 15 May 2014. 
  57. "EFL University". efluniversity.ac.in. English and Foreign Languages University. http://www.efluniversity.ac.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=70&Itemid=136। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 27 May 2011. 
  58. "University Act". manuu.ac.in. Maulana Azad National Urdu University. http://www.manuu.ac.in/universityAct.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 24 June 2011. 
  59. "IITH.ac.in". IITH.ac.in. 3 January 2011. http://www.iith.ac.in। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 7 March 2011. 
  60. "NIT Warangal". http://www.nitw.ac.in/nitw/. NIT Warangal. http://www.nitw.ac.in/nitw/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 1 August 2012. 
  61. "IIIT.net". http://www.iiit.net/themes/iiit-july-1/homePage/images/mImg1.jpg। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 7 March 2011. 
  62. "nird.org.in". http://www.nird.org.in/index.aspx। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 15 October 2012. 
  63. http://www.osmaniamedicalcollege.com/
  64. http://www.gandhihospital.in
  65. http://nims.ap.nic.in/
  66. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kakatiya_Medical_College
  67. http://www.gmcnzbd.org/
  68. http://www.univ.tifr.res.in
  69. "NIN India.org". http://www.ninindia.org/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 15 October 2012. 
  70. "Sports Authority of Andhra Pradesh". SAAP. http://www.saap.in/aboutsaap.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 5 April 2014. 

Further reading[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

বাহ্যিক সংযোগ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]