সাৰ্বভৌম ৰাষ্ট্ৰসমূহৰ তালিকা

অসমীয়া ৱিকিপিডিয়াৰ পৰা

This is a list of sovereign states giving an overview of states around the world with information on the status and recognition of their sovereignty.

The list contains 206 entries. The states are divided using two distinct methods:

  1. The membership within the United Nations system column divides the states into two categories: 193 member states and one observer state in the United Nations,[1] and 12 other states.
  2. The sovereignty disputes column divides the states into two categories: 16 states whose sovereignty is disputed and 190 other states

Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below.

দেশসমূহৰ তালিকা[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

চমু আৰু পৰিচিত নাম Membership within the UN System [Note 1] Sovereignty dispute [Note 2] Further information on status and recognition of sovereignty [Note 4]
A AAA A AAA A AAA
ZZZৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ or observer states A AAA ZZZ
ZZZAbkhazia → Abkhazia ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
 আফগানিস্তান – Islamic Republic of Afghanistan A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 আলবেনিয়া – Republic of Albania A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 আলজেৰিয়া – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 আন্দৰা – Principality of Andorra A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Andorra is a co-principality in which the office of head of state is jointly held ex officio by the French president and the bishop of the Roman Catholic diocese of Urgell,[3] who himself is appointed by the Vatican.
 আংগলা – Republic of Angola A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 এন্টিগুৱা আৰু বাৰবুডা A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Antigua and Barbuda is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] with 1 autonomous region, Barbuda.[Note 6][4]
 আৰ্জেণ্টিনা – Argentine Republic [Note 7] A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces and 1 autonomous city. Argentina claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, which are administered by the United Kingdom.[5] Argentina claims Argentine Antarctica as part of its national territory, officially a department of the province of Tierra del Fuego, Antarctica, and South Atlantic Islands, which overlaps with the claims of the UK and Chile.[Note 8][6]
 আৰ্মেনিয়া – Republic of Armenia A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ Not recognised by Pakistan[7][8]
 অষ্ট্ৰেলিয়া – Commonwealth of Australia A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Australia is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and a federation of 6 states and 10 territories. The external territories of Australia are:
 অষ্ট্ৰিয়া – Republic of Austria A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3] Austria is a federation of 9 states (Bundesländer).
 আজেৰবাইজান – Republic of Azerbaijan A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Azerbaijan contains 2 autonomous regions, Nakhchivan and Nagorno-Karabakh (Dağlıq Qarabağ).[Note 6] In Nagorno-Karabakh, a de facto state has been established.
 বাহামাছ – Commonwealth of The Bahamas A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই The Bahamas is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 বাহৰেইন – Kingdom of Bahrain A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 বাংলাদেশ – People's Republic of Bangladesh A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 বাৰ্বাড'ছ A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Barbados is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 বেলাৰুছ – Republic of Belarus A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 বেলজিয়াম – Kingdom of Belgium A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3] Belgium is a federation divided into linguistic communities and regions.
 বেলাইজ A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Belize is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 বেনিন – Republic of Benin [Note 9] A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 ভূটান – Kingdom of Bhutan A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 বলিভিয়া – Plurinational State of Bolivia A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 বচনিয়া আৰু হাৰজেগ’ভিনা A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Bosnia and Herzegovina is a federation of 2 constituent units: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska.[Note 10]
 বটচৱানা – Republic of Botswana Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 ব্ৰাজিল – Federative Republic of Brazil Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Brazil is a federation of 26 states and 1 federal district.
 ব্ৰুনেই – State of Brunei, Abode of Peace A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Brunei claims sovereignty over part of the Spratly Islands.[Note 11]
 বুলগেৰিয়া – Republic of Bulgaria A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 বাৰ্কিনা ফাছো [Note 12] A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 বাৰ্মা – Republic of the Union of Myanmar [Note 13][10] A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 বুৰুণ্ডী – Republic of Burundi A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 কম্বোডিয়া – Kingdom of Cambodia A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 কেমেৰুন – Republic of Cameroon A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 কানাডা [Note 14] A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Canada is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and a federation of 10 provinces and 3 territories.
 কেপ ভাৰ্ডে – Republic of Cape Verde A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 চেণ্ট্ৰেল আফ্ৰিকান ৰিপাব্লিক A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 চাদ – Republic of Chad A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 চিলি – Republic of Chile A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands are "special territories" of Chile in the Valparaíso Region. Chile claims part of Antarctica as a commune in its Magallanes and Antártica Chilena Region. Its claim overlaps with those of the UK and Argentina.[Note 8]
 চীন – People's Republic of China[Note 15] A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali The People's Republic of China (PRC) contains five autonomous regions, Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet.[Note 6] Additionally, it has sovereignty over the Special Administrative Regions of:

It also claims:

Aksai Chin, controlled by the PRC, is claimed by India as a part of Jammu and Kashmir.[Note 18] The PRC is not recognised by 22 UN member states and the Holy See, which instead recognise the ROC.[Note 19]

China, Republic of (Taiwan) → Taiwan ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
 কলম্বিয়া – Republic of Colombia A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 কম'ৰছ – Union of the Comoros A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Comoros is a federation of 3 islands, and claims Mayotte, currently part of France, as a fourth.[Note 20][11] Comoros also disputes French sovereignty over Banc du Geyser.[5]
 কংগো গণৰাজ্য (Congo-Kinshasa) [Note 21] A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 কংগো (Congo-Brazzaville) A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
ZZZCook Islands → Cook Islands ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
 কষ্টা ৰিকা – Republic of Costa Rica A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 আইভৰি ক’ষ্ট – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 ক্ৰয়েছিয়া – Republic of Croatia A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 কিউবা – Republic of Cuba A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 চাইপ্ৰাছ – Republic of Cyprus A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ Not recognised by Turkey and Northern Cyprus Member of the EU.[Note 3] The northeastern part of the island is the de facto state of Northern Cyprus. See Foreign relations of Cyprus and Cyprus dispute. Turkey refers to the Republic of Cyprus government as "The Greek Cypriot Administration of South Cyprus".[12]
 চেক গণৰাজ্য [Note 22] A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3]
Democratic Republic of the Congo → Congo, Democratic Republic of the UN member state নাই
 ডেনমাৰ্ক – Kingdom of Denmark A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3]

The Danish Realm also includes two self-governing territories:

 দীজিবৌটি – Republic of Djibouti A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 ডমিনিকা – Commonwealth of Dominica A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 ডমিনিকান গণৰাজ্য A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 টিমৰ লেষ্টে – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste [Note 23] Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 একোৱাড’ৰ – Republic of Ecuador A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 ইজিপ্ত – Arab Republic of Egypt A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 এল চালভাড’ৰ – Republic of El Salvador A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 বিষুৱীয় গিনি

 – Republic of Equatorial Guinea

A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 এৰিট্ৰিয়া – State of Eritrea A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 এষ্ট’নিয়া – Republic of Estonia A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 ইথিঅ’পিয়া – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Ethiopia is a federation of 9 regions and 2 chartered cities.
 ফিজি – Republic of Fiji A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Fiji contains 1 autonomous region, Rotuma.[Note 6][13][14]
 ফিনলেণ্ড – Republic of Finland A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 ফ্ৰান্স – French Republic A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3] French overseas regions/departments (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte and Réunion) are full, integral parts of France.

The French Republic also includes the overseas territories of:

Clipperton Island is a possession of the government. French sovereignty over Banc du Geyser, Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, Mayotte, and Tromelin Island is disputed in part by Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and the Comoros.[5]

 গেবন – Gabonese Republic A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
Gambia  গাম্বিয়া – Republic of The Gambia A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 জৰ্জিয়া (দেশ) A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Georgia contains 2 autonomous regions, Adjara and Abkhazia.[Note 6] In Abkhazia and South Ossetia, de facto states have been formed.
 জাৰ্মানী – Federal Republic of Germany A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3] Germany is a federation of 16 federated states (Länder).
 ঘানা – Republic of Ghana Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 গ্ৰীচ – Hellenic Republic Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3] Mount Athos is an autonomous part of Greece that is jointly governed by the multinational "Holy Community" on the mountain and a civil governor appointed by the Greek government.[15]
 গ্ৰেনেডা A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Grenada is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 গুৱেটমালা – Republic of Guatemala A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 গুইনিয়া – Republic of Guinea A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 গুইনিয়া-বিচ্চাও – Republic of Guinea-Bissau A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 গুৱানা – Co-operative Republic of Guyana A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই All land west of the Essequibo River is claimed by Venezuela.[5]
 হাইটি – Republic of Haiti A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
Holy See → Vatican City ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
 হন্দুৰাছ – Republic of Honduras A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 হাংগেৰী A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 আইচলেণ্ড – Republic of Iceland A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 ভাৰত – Republic of India A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই India is a federation of 28 states and 7 union territories. Indian sovereignty over Arunachal Pradesh is disputed by the People's Republic of China.[5] India claims sovereignty over the whole of Kashmir, but administers only part of it as the federated state of Jammu and Kashmir.[Note 18]
 ইন্দোনেছিয়া – Republic of Indonesia A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Indonesia has 3 provinces with official special autonomy status: Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Papua, and West Papua.[Note 6]
 ইৰান – Islamic Republic of Iran A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 ইৰাক – Republic of Iraq A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Iraq is a federation[Note 20][16] of 18 governorates, 3 of which make up the autonomous Iraqi Kurdistan.[Note 6]
 আয়াৰলেণ্ড [Note 25] Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3]

The Constitution of Ireland asserts the aspiration towards creating a United Ireland by peaceful means.[17]

 ইছৰাইল – State of Israel A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ Not recognized by 33 states Israel annexed East Jerusalem, and occupies the Golan Heights[18] and parts of the West Bank. These areas are not internationally-recognised as being part of Israel.[5] Israel no longer has a permanent military presence in the Gaza Strip, following its unilateral disengagement, but is still considered the occupying power under international law.[19][20][21][22][23] Israel is not recognised as a state by 32 UN members (including most Arab states) and by the SADR.
 ইটালী – Italian Republic A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3] Italy has 5 autonomous regions, Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.[Note 6]
Ivory Coast → Côte d'Ivoire ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
 জামাইকা Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Jamaica is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 জাপান Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Japan disputes Russian administration of the South Kuril Islands.
 জৰ্ডান – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 কাজাখাস্তান – Republic of Kazakhstan A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 কেনিয়া – Republic of Kenya A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 কিৰিবাতি – Republic of Kiribati A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 উত্তৰ কোৰিয়া – Democratic People's Republic of Korea A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali North Korea is not recognised by two UN members: Japan and South Korea.[Note 26][24]
 দক্ষিণ কোৰিয়া – Republic of Korea Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali South Korea contains 1 autonomous region, Jeju-do.[Note 6][25] South Korea is not recognised by one UN member: North Korea.[Note 26]
ZZZKosovo → Kosovo ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
 কুৱেইট – State of Kuwait A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 কিৰগিজস্থান

 – Kyrgyz Republic

A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 লাওচ – Lao People's Democratic Republic A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 লাটভিয়া – Republic of Latvia A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 লেবানন – Lebanese Republic A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 লেছথ’ – Kingdom of Lesotho A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 লাইবেৰিয়া – Republic of Liberia A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 লিবিয়া – Libyan Republic A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই The former government of Muammar Gaddafi, which claims to be the sole legitimate representative of the Libyan people, still has some international recognition (see Foreign relations of the National Transitional Council and Foreign relations of Libya under Gaddafi).
 লাইচটেনষ্টাইন – Principality of Liechtenstein A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 লিথুৱানিয়া – Republic of Lithuania A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 লাক্সেমবাৰ্গ – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 মেছেনদনীয়া – Republic of Macedonia A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Because of the Macedonia naming dispute, the country is referred to by the UN and a number of states and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia".
 মাদাগাস্কাৰ – Republic of Madagascar A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Madagascar claims the French territories of Banc du Geyser, Juan de Nova Island, and the Glorioso Islands.[5]
 মালাৱী – Republic of Malawi Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 মালয়েছিয়া Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Malaysia is a federation of 13 states and 3 federal territories. Malaysia claims part of the Spratly Islands.[Note 11]
 মালদ্বীপ – Republic of Maldives Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 মালি – Republic of Mali A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 মালটা – Republic of Malta A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 মাৰ্ছাল দ্বীপপুঞ্জ – Republic of the Marshall Islands A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Under Compact of Free Association with the United States.
 মৌৰিতানিয়া – Islamic Republic of Mauritania A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 মৰিছাছ – Republic of Mauritius A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Mauritius has an autonomous island, Rodrigues.[Note 6] Mauritius claims the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French island of Tromelin.[5]
 মেক্সিকো – United Mexican States A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Mexico is a federation of 31 states and 1 federal district.
 মাইক্ৰ’নেছিয়া যুক্তৰাজ্য A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Federated States of Micronesia is a federation of 4 states.
 মলডভা – Republic of Moldova A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Moldova has the autonomous regions of Gagauzia and Transnistria, the latter of which has established a de facto state.
 মনাকো – Principality of Monaco A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 মঙ্গোলিয়া A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 মণ্টেনেগ্ৰ A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 মৰক্কো – Kingdom of Morocco A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Morocco claims sovereignty over Western Sahara and controls most of it, which is disputed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Morocco disputes Spanish sovereignty over Ceuta, Melilla and the "Plazas de soberanía".[5]
 মজাম্বিক – Republic of Mozambique A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
Myanmar → Burma UN member state নাই
ZZZNagorno-Karabakh → Nagorno-Karabakh ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
 নামিবিয়া – Republic of Namibia A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 নাউৰু – Republic of Nauru A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 নেপাল – Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Nepal is a federation composed of 14 zones.
 নেদাৰলেণ্ডচ – Kingdom of the Netherlands A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3] The Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of four constituent countries:

The monarch and her ministers form the government of the kingdom as well as the government of the country the Netherlands. Following the dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles in 2010, Curaçao and Sint Maarten have become constituent countries, which, alongside Aruba, enjoy considerable autonomy. The other three islands (Bonaire, Saba, Sint Eustatius) became special municipalities of the Netherlands.

The designation "Netherlands" can refer to either one of the Kingdom's constituent countries or to the short name for the Kingdom (e.g., in international organizations). The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole is a member of the EU, but EU law applies only to parts within Europe.

 নিউজিলেণ্ড A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই New Zealand is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and has responsibilities for (but has no sovereignty over) two freely associated states:

The Cook Islands and Niue have diplomatic relations with 31 and 6 UN members respectively.[26][27][28] They have full treaty-making capacity in the UN,[29] and are members of some UN specialized agencies.

New Zealand has the dependent territories of:

The Tokelauan government claims sovereignty over Swains Island, part of American Samoa, a territory of the United States.[30] New Zealand does not recognize the Tokelauan claim.[31]

 নিকাৰাগুৱা – Republic of Nicaragua A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A Claims the San Andrés archipelago, currently part of Colombian territorial waters Nicaragua contains 2 autonomous regions, Atlántico Sur and Atlántico Norte.[Note 6]
 নাইগাৰ – Republic of Niger A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 নাইজেৰিয়া – Federal Republic of Nigeria A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Nigeria is a federation of 36 states and 1 federal territory.
ZZZNiue → Niue ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
ZZZNorthern Cyprus → Northern Cyprus ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
North Korea → Korea, Democratic People's Republic of ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
 নৰৱে – Kingdom of Norway A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Svalbard is an integral part of Norway, but has a special status due to the Svalbard Treaty.

Bouvet Island is a dependent territory of Norway. Norway also claims Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land as dependent territories of Norway.[Note 8]

 অ'মান – Sultanate of Oman A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 পাকিস্তান – Islamic Republic of Pakistan A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Pakistan is a federation of 4 provinces, 1 capital territory, and tribal regions. Pakistan disputes Indian sovereignty over Kashmir. It exercises control over some areas, but does not explicitly claim any part of it,[32][33] instead regarding it as a disputed territory.[34][35] The portions that it controls are divided into two polities, administered separately from Pakistan proper:[Note 18]
 পালাউ – Republic of Palau A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Under Compact of Free Association with the United States.
ZZZPalestine → Palestine ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
 পানামা – Republic of Panama A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 পাপুৱা নিউগিনি – Independent State of Papua New Guinea A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Papua New Guinea is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] with 1 autonomous region, Bougainville.[Note 6]
 পাৰাগুৱে – Republic of Paraguay A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 পেৰু – Republic of Peru A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 ফিলিপাইনছ – Republic of the Philippines A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই The Philippines contains two autonomous regions, the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao[Note 6] and the Cordillera Administrative Region.[36] The Philippines administers Scarborough Shoal and some of the Spratly Islands,[Note 11] and claims sovereignty over the Macclesfield Bank and Sabah, which is part of Malaysia.[5]
 প'লেণ্ড – Republic of Poland A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 পৰ্তুগাল – Portuguese Republic A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3] Portugal contains 2 autonomous regions, Azores and Madeira.[Note 6] Portugal does not recognize Spanish sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga.[5]
Pridnestrovie → Transnistria ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
 কাটাৰ – State of Qatar A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
Republic of the Congo → Congo, Republic of the ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
 ৰোমানিয়া A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 ৰাছিয়া – Russian Federation A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Russia is officially a federation of 83 federal subjects (republics, oblasts, krais, autonomous okrugs, federal cities, and an autonomous oblast). Several of the federal subjects are ethnic republics.[Note 6] Sovereignty over the South Kuril Islands is disputed by Japan.
 ৰুৱাণ্ডা – Republic of Rwanda A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
ZZZSahrawi Arab Democratic Republic → Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
 ছেইণ্ট কিট্টিচ আৰু নেভিচ – Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Saint Kitts and Nevis is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] and is a federation [Note 20] of 14 parishes.
 ছেইণ্ট লুছিয়া A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Saint Lucia is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 ছেইণ্ট ভিনচেণ্ট আৰু গ্ৰেনাদাইনছ Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 চামোৱা – Independent State of Samoa A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 ছান মেৰিন' – Republic of San Marino A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 চাও টম আৰু প্ৰিন্সিপ – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই São Tomé and Príncipe contains 1 autonomous province, Príncipe.[Note 6]
 চৌদি আৰৱ – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 ছেনেগাল – Republic of Senegal A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 ছাৰ্বিয়া – Republic of Serbia A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Serbia contains 2 autonomous regions, Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija.[Note 6] Most of the latter is under the de facto control of the Republic of Kosovo.
 ছেচেল্লেচ – Republic of Seychelles A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Seychelles claims the British Indian Ocean Territory.[5]
 ছিয়েৰা লিয়ন – Republic of Sierra Leone A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 ছিংগাপুৰ – Republic of Singapore A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 শ্ল'ভাকিয়া – Slovak Republic A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 শ্ল’ভেনিয়া – Republic of Slovenia Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 চল’মন দ্বীপপুঞ্জ A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই The Solomon Islands is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 ছোমালিয়া – Somali Republic A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Somalia is presently divided with its official government (TFG) controlling only part of the country. Puntland and Galmudug have declared themselves as autonomous regions of Somalia (a claim that the TFG does not recognise),[37][Need quotation to verify] while Somaliland has formed an unrecognised de facto state.
ZZZSomaliland → Somaliland ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
 দক্ষিণ আফ্ৰিকা – Republic of South Africa A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
South Korea → Korea, Republic of ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
ZZZSouth Ossetia → South Ossetia ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
 দক্ষিণ ছুডান – Republic of South Sudan A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই South Sudan is a federation of 10 states. Disputes Abyei with the Republic of the Sudan.[5]
 স্পেইন – Kingdom of Spain A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3] Spain is divided into autonomous communities and cities.[Note 6] Sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla and Peñón de Alhucemas is disputed by Morocco. Sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga is disputed by Portugal. Spain calls for sovereignty over Gibraltar.[5]
 শ্ৰীলংকা – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Formerly known as Ceylon.
 ছুদান – Republic of the Sudan A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Sudan is a federation of 17 states. Disputes Abyei and Kafia Kingi with South Sudan.
ZZZSudan, South → South Sudan ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
 ছুৰীনেম – Republic of Suriname A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 ছুইজাৰলেণ্ড – Kingdom of Swaziland A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 ছুইডেন – Kingdom of Sweden Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3]
 ছুইজাৰলেণ্ড – Swiss Confederation A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Switzerland is a federation of 26 cantons.
 ছিৰিয়া – Syrian Arab Republic A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Israel occupies the Golan Heights.[18]
ZZZTaiwan (Republic of China) → Taiwan ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
 তাজিকিস্থান – Republic of Tajikistan A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Tajikistan contains 1 autonomous region, Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province.[Note 6]
 তাঞ্জানিয়া – United Republic of Tanzania A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Tanzania contains 1 autonomous region, Zanzibar.[Note 6]
 থাইলেণ্ড – Kingdom of Thailand Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
Timor-Leste → East Timor ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
 তগ’ – Togolese Republic Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 টংগা – Kingdom of Tonga A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
ZZZTransnistria → Transnistria ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ নাই
 ট্ৰিনিদাদ আৰু ট'বেগ'‎ – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Trinidad and Tobago contains 1 autonomous region, Tobago.[Note 6]
 তুনিছিয়া – Republic of Tunisia Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 তুৰ্কী – Republic of Turkey A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 তুৰ্কমেনিস্থান A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 টুভালু A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Tuvalu is a Commonwealth realm.[Note 5]
 উগাণ্ডা – Republic of Uganda Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 ইউক্ৰেইন A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Ukraine contains 1 autonomous region, Crimea.[Note 6]
 সংযুক্ত আৰব আমিৰাত Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই The United Arab Emirates is a federation of 7 emirates.
 যুক্তৰাজ্য – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Member of the EU.[Note 3] The United Kingdom is a Commonwealth realm[Note 5] consisting of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. The United Kingdom has the following overseas territories:

The British monarch has direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:

 মাৰ্কিন যুক্তৰাষ্ট্ৰ – United States of America A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই The United States is a federation of 50 states, 1 federal district, and the incorporated territory of Palmyra Atoll. The United States has sovereignty over the following inhabited possessions and commonwealths:

In addition, there are uninhabited possessions of the United States in the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea: Baker Island, Howland Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway Atoll, Navassa Island, and Wake Island. The United States also asserts claims to Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank.[5]

 উৰুগুৱে – Oriental Republic of Uruguay Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 উজবেকিস্থান – Republic of Uzbekistan A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Uzbekistan contains 1 autonomous region, Karakalpakstan.[Note 6]
 ভানুৱাটু – Republic of Vanuatu A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 ভেটিকান চিটি – State of the Vatican City A UN observer state A নাই Administered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity with diplomatic ties to 179 states.[38] The Holy See is a permanent observer of the UN in the category of "Non-member State"[39] and a member of the IAEA, ITU, UPU, and WIPO. The Vatican City is governed by officials appointed by the Pope, who is the Bishop of the Archdiocese of Rome and ex officio sovereign of Vatican City. The Holy See also administers a number of extraterritorial properties in Italy.
 ভেনিজুৱেলা – Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Venezuela is a federation of 23 states, 1 capital district, and federal dependencies.
 ভিয়েটনাম – Socialist Republic of Vietnam A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই Vietnam claims sovereignty over the Paracel[Note 17] and Spratly Islands.[Note 11][5]
 য়েমেন – Republic of Yemen Aৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 জাম্বিয়া – Republic of Zambia A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
 জিম্বাৱৱে – Republic of Zimbabwe A ৰাষ্ট্ৰসংঘৰ সদস্য দেশ A নাই
ZZZUN member states and observer states A ZZZ ZZZ
ZZZ AB B
ZZZ↓ Other states ↓ D AAA ZZZ
 আবখাজিয়া – Republic of Abkhazia D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Recognised by Russia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Tuvalu,[40] Vanuatu, Venezuela,[41] South Ossetia and Transnistria.[42] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
 কুক দ্বীপসমূহ D Member of some UN specialized agencies A নাই A state in free association with New Zealand, recognized by Japan,[43] Netherlands[44] and China.[45] The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[29] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
 কচভ’ – Republic of Kosovo D Member of some UN specialized agencies B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Kosovo unilaterally declared independence in 2008 and it has [[International recognition of সাঁচ:Numrec/Kos|received diplomatic recognition from এক্সপ্ৰেছন ত্ৰুটী: অপৰিচিত বিৰামচিহ্ন কেৰেক্টাৰ "[" UN member states]] and the Republic of China. Pursuant to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244, Kosovo is formally under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. Serbia continues to maintain its sovereignty claim over Kosovo. Other UN member states and non UN member states continue to recognise Serbian sovereignty or have taken no position on the question. Kosovo is a member of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Group. The Republic of Kosovo has de facto control over most of the territory, with limited control in North Kosovo.
 নাগ’ৰ্নো-কাৰাবাখ গণৰাজ্য – Nagorno-Karabakh Republic D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali A de facto independent state,[46][47] recognised only by Abkhazia,[48] South Ossetia[48] and Transnistria.[48][49] Claimed in whole by Azerbaijan.[50]
 নিউৱে D Member of some UN specialized agencies A নাই A state in free association with New Zealand, recognized by China.[51] Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity.[29] It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.
 চাইপ্ৰাছৰ উত্তৰাঞ্চল – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus D No membership Claimed by Cyprus Recognised only by Turkey. It has participated as an observer state of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation under the name "Turkish Cypriot State" since 1979. In addition, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic regards TRNC as sovereign but Azerbaijan has not followed suit.[উদ্ধৃতিৰ প্ৰয়োজন] Northern Cyprus is claimed in whole by the Republic of Cyprus.[52]
 পেলেষ্টাইন – State of Palestine D Member of one UN specialized agency B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali The declared State of Palestine has received diplomatic recognition from 130 states.[53] The proclaimed state has no agreed territorial borders, or effective control on the territory that it proclaimed.[54] The Palestinian National Authority is an interim administrative body formed as a result of the Oslo Accords that exercises limited autonomous jurisdiction within the Palestinian territories. In foreign relations, Palestine is represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, which has permanent observer status at the United Nations General Assembly as a non-member entity.[39] The State of Palestine is a member state of UNESCO.[55]
 চাহৰাৱী আৰৱ গণতান্ত্ৰিক প্ৰজাতন্ত্ৰ D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali Recognised by 84 other states. It is a founding member of the African Union and the Asian-African Strategic Partnership formed at the 2005 Asian-African Conference. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, are claimed in whole by Morocco as part of its Southern Provinces. In turn, the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claims the part of Western Sahara to the west of the Moroccan Wall controlled by Morocco. Its government resides in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.
 ছোমালিলেণ্ড – Republic of Somaliland D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali A de facto independent state,[56][57][58] not diplomatically recognised by any other state, claimed in whole by the Somali Republic.[59]
 দক্ষিণ অচ্ছেটিয়া – Republic of South Ossetia D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali A de facto independent state,[60] recognised by Russia, Nicaragua, Nauru, Venezuela,[41] Abkhazia and Transnistria.[42] Claimed in whole by Georgia as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia.[61]
 Taiwan – Republic of China[Note 15] D Former UN member state;

Participant in some UN related organizations as "Chinese Taipei"

B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali A state competing for recognition with the People's Republic of China as the government of China since 1949. The Republic of China controls the island of Taiwan and associated islands, Quemoy, Matsu, the Pratas and parts of the Spratly Islands,[Note 11] and has not renounced claims over its annexed territories on the mainland.[62] The Republic of China is recognised by এক্সপ্ৰেছন ত্ৰুটী: অপৰিচিত বিৰামচিহ্ন কেৰেক্টাৰ "�" UN member states and the Holy See as of ২০১১. The territory of the Republic of China is claimed in whole by the People's Republic of China.[Note 16] The Republic of China participates in the World Health Organization and a number of non-UN international organizations such as the World Trade Organization, International Olympic Committee and others under a variety of pseudonyms, most commonly "Chinese Taipei". The Republic of China was a founding member of the UN and enjoyed membership from 1945 to 1971, with veto power in the security council. See China and the United Nations.
 ট্ৰেন্সনিষ্ট্ৰিয়া – Transnistrian Moldovan Republic (Pridnestrovie, Trans-Dniester) D No membership B Claimed by Georgia Claimed by North Korea Claimed by Serbia Claimed by Somalia Claimed by the People's Republic of China Claimed by the Republic of China Claimed by South Korea Claimed by Azerbaijan Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus Disputed by Israel Claimed by Morocco Claimed by Moldova Claimed by Mali A de facto independent state, recognised only by Abkhazia and South Ossetia.[42] Claimed in whole by Moldova as the Territorial Unit of Transnistria.[63]
ZZZ↑ Other states ↑ D ZZZ ZZZ
ZZZZ ZZZZ ZZZZ

অন্তৰ্ভূক্তিৰ চৰ্তসমূহ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

The dominant customary international law standard of statehood is the declarative theory of statehood that defines the state as a person of international law if it "possess[es] the following qualifications: (a) a permanent population; (b) a defined territory; (c) government; and (d) capacity to enter into relations with the other states." Debate exists on the degree to which recognition should be included as a criterion of statehood. The declarative theory of statehood, an example of which can be found in the Montevideo Convention, argues that statehood is purely objective and recognition of a state by other states is irrelevant. On the other end of the spectrum, the constitutive theory of statehood defines a state as a person under international law only if it is recognized as sovereign by other states. For the purposes of this list, included are all states that either:

  • (a) have declared independence and are often regarded as having control over a permanently populated territory

or

  • (b) are recognized as a sovereign state by at least one other sovereign state

Note that in some cases there is a divergence of opinion over the interpretation of the first point, and whether an entity satisfies it is disputed.

On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 206 entities:[64][Note 27]

  • 203 states recognized by at least one UN member state
  • Two states that control a permanently populated territory and are recognized only by non-UN member states: Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, Transnistria
  • One state that controls a permanently populated territory and is not recognized by any other state: Somaliland

আৰু চাওক[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

টোকা[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. This column indicates whether or not a state is a member of the United Nations.[2] It also indicates which non-member states participate in the United Nations System through membership in the International Atomic Energy Agency or one of the specialized agencies of the United Nations. All United Nations members belong to at least one specialized agency and are parties to the statute of the International Court of Justice.
  2. This column indicates whether or not a state is the subject of a major sovereignty dispute. Only states whose entire sovereignty is disputed by another state are listed. Minor territorial disputes are detailed in the Further information.. column.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23 3.24 3.25 3.26 3.27 The member states of the European Union have transferred part of their sovereignty in the form of legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, which is an example of supranationalism. The EU has 27 member states.[9]
  4. Information is included on:
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 Commonwealth realms are members of the Commonwealth of Nations in which the head of state is Queen Elizabeth II. The realms are sovereign states; see Relationship of the realms.
  6. 6.00 6.01 6.02 6.03 6.04 6.05 6.06 6.07 6.08 6.09 6.10 6.11 6.12 6.13 6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18 6.19 6.20 6.21 6.22 6.23 For more information on divisions with a high degree of autonomy, see the List of autonomous areas by country.
  7. The Argentine Constitution (Art. 35) recognises the following denominations for Argentina: "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata", "Argentine Republic" and "Argentine Confederation"; furthermore, it establishes the usage of "Argentine Nation" for purposes of legislation.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 The continent of Antarctica, including its outlying islands south of 60°S, are held in abeyance under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty System. Under this treaty, territorial claims in this region are neither recognised nor disputed. Claimant countries are Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom, with all those save Argentina and Chile mutually recognising each others claims.
  9. Formerly referred to as Dahomey, its official name until 1975.
  10. For more information about the division of Bosnia and Herzegovina, see Dayton Agreement and the text of The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina (14 December 1995). Office of the High Representative. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 The sovereignty over the Spratly Islands is disputed by People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, and in part by Brunei, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Except for Brunei, each of these countries occupies part of the islands (see List of territorial disputes).
  12. Also known as Burkina; formerly referred to as Upper Volta, its official name until 1984.
  13. Burma's official short form name as used by the United Nations is "Myanmar". The government changed the state's official name in English from "Union of Myanmar" to "Republic of the Union of Myanmar" in October 2010.
  14. The legal name for Canada is the sole word; an officially sanctioned, though disused, name is Dominion of Canada (which includes its legal title); see: Name of Canada, Dominion.
  15. 15.0 15.1 The People's Republic of China (PRC) is commonly referred to as "China", while the Republic of China (ROC) is commonly referred to as "Taiwan". The ROC is also occasionally known diplomatically as Chinese Taipei, along with other names.
  16. 16.0 16.1 In 1949, the Republic of China government led by the Kuomintang (KMT) lost the Chinese Civil War to the Communist Party of China (CPC) and set up a provisional capital in Taipei. The CPC established the PRC. As such, the political status of the ROC and the legal status of Taiwan (alongside the territories currently under ROC jurisdiction) are in dispute. In 1971, the United Nations gave the China seat to the PRC and the ROC withdrew from the UN. Most states recognise the PRC to be the sole legitimate representative of all China, and the UN classifies Taiwan as "Taiwan, Province of China". The ROC has de facto relations with most sovereign states. A significant political movement within Taiwan advocates Taiwan independence.
  17. 17.0 17.1 The Chinese sovereignty over the Paracel Islands is disputed by Vietnam and the Republic of China (see List of territorial disputes);
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 Sovereignty over Kashmir is disputed between India and Pakistan; smaller parts are disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. Kashmir is divided between India, Pakistan and the PRC. See the List of territorial disputes.
  19. See also Dates of establishment of diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China and Foreign relations of the People's Republic of China.
  20. 20.0 20.1 20.2 More information on more or less federal structures can be found at a List of federations.
  21. Abbreviated as DRC, and also known as Congo-Kinshasa. Formerly referred to as Zaire, its official name from 1971 to 1997.
  22. A simpler official short-form name has been encouraged by the Czech government: the English variant Czechia remains uncommon, but variants in Czech (Česko) and some other languages are more popular. See Name of the Czech Republic
  23. The government of East Timor uses "Timor-Leste" as the English translation.
  24. Åland was demilitarised by the Treaty of Paris in 1856, which was later affirmed by the League of Nations in 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the European Union in 1995.
  25. The Irish state is often referred to as the Republic of Ireland (its official description but not its name). Sometimes this is done to distinguish the state from the island of Ireland as a whole. However, sometimes it is done for political reasons and is contentious.
  26. 26.0 26.1 Both North Korea and South Korea claim to be the sole legitimate government of Korea. See also Foreign relations of North Korea and Foreign relations of South Korea.
  27. The non-state sovereign entity Order of Malta is not included. It claims neither statehood nor any territory. Entities considered to be micronations are not included. It is often up to debate whether a micronation truly controls its claimed territory. Also omitted from this list are all uncontacted peoples, either who live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are not definitively known.

তথ্য সংগ্ৰহ[সম্পাদনা কৰক]

  1. "United Nations Member States". United Nations. 3 July 2006. http://www.un.org/en/members/index.shtml। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 30 August 2010. 
  2. Press Release ORG/1469 (3 July 2006), retrieved 28 February 2011)
  3. "Andorra country profile". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/992562.stm#leaders। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 8 November 2011. 
  4. Government of Antigua and Barbuda. "Chapter 44: The Barbuda Local Government Act". Laws of Antigua and Barbuda. http://www.laws.gov.ag/acts/chapters/cap-44.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-11-10. 
  5. 5.00 5.01 5.02 5.03 5.04 5.05 5.06 5.07 5.08 5.09 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 "Disputes - International". CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2070.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 8 November 2011. 
  6. Government of the United States, Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1989). Polar prospects: a minerals treaty for Antarctica. United States Government Printing Office. পৃষ্ঠা. 43. ISBN 978-1-4289-2232-7.  "Mutual recognition of claims has been limited to Australia, France, New Zealand, Norway, and the United Kingdom ... Chile and Argentina do not recognize each other's claims ..."
  7. Pakistan Worldview - Report 21 - Visit to Azerbaijan Senate of Pakistan — Senate foreign relations committee, 2008
  8. Nilufer Bakhtiyar: "For Azerbaijan Pakistan does not recognise Armenia as a country" 13 September 2006 [14:03] - Today.Az
  9. Europa, retrieved 28 February 2011
  10. "Myanmar gets new flag, official name, anthem". Reuters. 21 October 2010. http://ca.reuters.com/article/topNews/idCATRE69K2HM20101021। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 22 October 2010. 
  11. Constitution of Comoros, Art. 1.
  12. SeeRepublic of Turkey Ministry for European Union Affairs Retrieved June 12, 2012.
  13. "Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji (1978 সম্পাদনা). প্ৰকাশক Suva, Fiji: Government of Fiji. 1927. http://www.itc.gov.fj/lawnet/fiji_act/cap122.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-07-10. [সংযোগবিহীন উৎস]
  14. Government of Fiji, Office of the Prime Minister (1978). "Chapter 122: Rotuma Act". Laws of Fiji. University of the South Pacific. http://www.paclii.org/fj/legis/consol_act/ra103/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-11-10. 
  15. Constitution of Greece, Art. 105.
  16. Source: Iraqi constitution
  17. "Constitution of Ireland – Burnreacht na hÉireann". Government of Ireland. http://www.constitution.ie/reports/ConstitutionofIreland.pdf। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 8 November 2011. "Article 3: It is the firm will of the Irish Nation...to unite all the people who share the territory of the island of Ireland...recognising that a united Ireland shall be brought about only by peaceful means" 
  18. 18.0 18.1 Occupied territory:
  19. Gold, Dore; Institute for Contemporary Affairs (26 August 2005). "Legal Acrobatics: The Palestinian Claim that Gaza is Still "Occupied" Even After Israel Withdraws". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 5, No. 3. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/brief/brief005-3.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-07-16. 
  20. Bell, Abraham (28 January 2008). "International Law and Gaza: The Assault on Israel's Right to Self-Defense". Jerusalem Issue Brief, Vol. 7, No. 29. Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs. http://www.jcpa.org/brief/brief005-3.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-07-16. 
  21. "Address by Foreign Minister Livni to the 8th Herzliya Conference" (Press release). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Israel. 22 January 2008. http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Government/Speeches+by+Israeli+leaders/2008/Address+by+FM+Livni+to+the+8th+Herzliya+Conference+22-Jan-2008.htm?DisplayMode=print। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-07-16. 
  22. Salih, Zak M. (17 November 2005). "Panelists Disagree Over Gaza’s Occupation Status". University of Virginia School of Law. http://www.law.virginia.edu/html/news/2005_fall/gaza.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-07-16. 
  23. "Israel: 'Disengagement' Will Not End Gaza Occupation". Human Rights Watch. 29 October 2004. http://www.hrw.org/english/docs/2004/10/29/isrlpa9577.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-07-16. 
  24. "Treaty on Basic Relations between Japan and the Republic of Korea". http://www.ioc.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~worldjpn/documents/texts/docs/19650622.T1E.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-10-27. 
  25. Keun Min. "Greetings". Jeju Special Self-Governing Province. http://english.jeju.go.kr/contents/index.php?mid=02। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-11-10. 
  26. Federal Foreign Office of Germany (November 2009). "Beziehungen zu Deutschland". Government of Germany. http://www.auswaertiges-amt.de/diplo/de/Laenderinformationen/Cookinseln/Bilateral.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-07-16.  For more information, see Foreign relations of the Cook Islands.
  27. China Internet Information Centre (13 December 2007). "Full text of joint communique on the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Niue". Xinhua News Agency. http://www.china.org.cn/english/international/235447.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-07-16. 
  28. Republic of Nauru Permanent Mission to the United Nations. "Foreign Affairs". United Nations. http://www.un.int/nauru/foreignaffairs.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-07-16. 
  29. 29.0 29.1 29.2 http://untreaty.un.org/cod/repertory/art102/english/rep_supp8_vol6-art102_e_advance.pdf
  30. Radio New Zealand International (26 March 2007). "American Samoa governor ready to resist Tokelau’s claim to Swains Island". Radio New Zealand Ltd. http://www.rnzi.com/pages/news.php?op=read&id=31024। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-07-16. 
  31. Government of New Zealand; Government of Tokelau (8 October 2007). "Draft Constitution of Tokelau – English". New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Trade. http://www.mfat.govt.nz/Foreign-Relations/Pacific/Tokelau/Tokelau-Constitution-(English).php। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-07-16. 
  32. Constitution of Pakistan, Art. 1.
  33. Aslam, Tasnim (11 December 2006). "'Pakistan Does Not Claim Kashmir As An Integral Part...'". Outlook India (The Outlook Group). http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?233374. 
  34. Williams, Kristen P. (2001). Despite nationalist conflicts: theory and practice of maintaining world peace. Greenwood Publishing Group. পৃষ্ঠা. 154–155. ISBN 978-0-275-96934-9. http://books.google.com/?id=OYmurpH3ahsC. 
  35. Pruthi, R.K. (2001). An Encyclopaedic Survey Of Global Terrorism In 21St Century. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd.. পৃষ্ঠা. 120–121. ISBN 978-81-261-1091-9. http://books.google.com/?id=C3yDkKDbZ3YC. 
  36. "EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 220 July 15, 1987". http://www.lawphil.net/executive/execord/eo1987/eo_220_1987.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2011-07-29. 
  37. Weller, Marc; Nobbs, Katherine (2010). Asymmetric Autonomy and the Settlement of Ethnic Conflicts. প্ৰকাশক Philadelphia, United States: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-4230-0. http://books.google.com/?id=ru-DIWuuObEC. 
  38. "Bilateral relations of the Holy See". Holy See website. http://www.vatican.va/roman_curia/secretariat_state/documents/rc_seg-st_20010123_holy-see-relations_en.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2012-06-05. 
  39. 39.0 39.1 "Non-member States and Entities". United Nations. 29 February 2008. http://www.un.org/en/members/nonmembers.shtml। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 30 August 2010. 
  40. "On the establishment of diplomatic relations between Republic of Abkhazia and Tuvalu. | The Ministry of Foreign Affairs Republic of Abkhazia". Mfaabkhazia.net. http://www.mfaabkhazia.net/en/node/1082। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2011-12-18. 
  41. 41.0 41.1 "Chavez Backs Abkhazia, South Ossetia". St. Petersburg Times. Associated Press. 27 July 2010. http://www.times.spb.ru/index.php?action_id=2&story_id=32067। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 5 June 2011. 
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 "Абхазия, Южная Осетия и Приднестровье признали независимость друг друга и призвали всех к этому же" (in Russian ভাষাত). newsru.com. 2006-11-17. http://www.newsru.com/russia/17nov2006/aup.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2011-06-05. 
  43. "Lecture by Prime Minister Puna of the Cook Islands -State recognition of the Cook Islands to lead to furthering cooperation". Meiji University. 2011-06-22. http://www.meiji.ac.jp/cip/english/about/news/2011/glqts000000005qk.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2012-01-14. 
  44. "Cook Islands and the Netherlands establish Diplomatic Relations". The Cook Islands Herald. 2011-08-17. http://www.ciherald.co.ck/articles/h577a.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2012-01-14. 
  45. "Joint Communique Between the People's Republic of China and the Cook Islands on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations". The Embassy of the People's Republic of China in New Zealand. 2003-10-27. http://www.chinaembassy.org.nz/eng/kkqd/t39446.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2012-01-14. 
  46. Krüger, Heiko (2010). The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: A Legal Analysis. Springer. পৃষ্ঠা. 55. ISBN 978-3-642-11787-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=7JDCQu-Us8sC&lpg=PP1&pg=PA55#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  47. Nikoghosyan, Hovhannes (August 2010). "Kosovo ruling implications for Armenia and Azerbaijan". HULIQ.com (Hareyan Publishing, LLC). http://www.huliq.com/1/803-kosovo-ruling-implications-armenia-and-azerbaijan। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2011-04-17. 
  48. 48.0 48.1 48.2 Вице-спикер парламента Абхазии: Выборы в НКР соответствуют всем международным стандартам: "Абхазия, Южная Осетия, НКР и Приднестровье уже давно признали независимость друг друга и очень тесно сотрудничают между собой", - сказал вице-спикер парламента Абхазии. ... "...Абхазия признала независимость Нагорно-Карабахской Республики..." - сказал он."
  49. "In detail: The foreign policy of Pridnestrovie". Pridnestrovie. 2010-05-26. http://pridnestrovie.net/foreignpolicy_full.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2010-06-29. 
  50. See Regions and territories: Nagorno-Karabakh (17 January 2006). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  51. "Joint Comminuque on the Establishment of Diplomatic Relations Between Niue and the People's Republic of China". Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Lithuania. 2007-12-19. http://lt.china-embassy.org/eng/xwdt/t391353.htm। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2012-02-07. 
  52. See The World Factbook|Cyprus (10 January 2006). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  53. Palestine Liberation Organization. "Road For Palestinian Statehood: Recognition and Admission". Negotiations Affairs Department. http://www.nad-plo.org/etemplate.php?id=5। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2011-07-28. 
  54. See the following on statehood criteria:
  55. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. "Arab States: Palestine". United Nations. http://www.unesco.org/new/en/unesco/worldwide/arab-states/palestine/। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 3 December 2011. 
  56. International Crisis Group (23 May 2006), "Somaliland: Time for African Union leadership", Africa Report (110): 10–13, http://www.operationspaix.net/IMG/pdf/ICG_Somaliland_AU_Leadership_2006-05-23_.pdf, r কৰা হৈছে: 2011-04-19 
  57. Mesfin, Berouk (September 2009), "The political development of Somaliland and its conflict with Puntland", ISS Paper (Institute for Security Studies) (200): 8, http://www.somalilandtimes.net/sl/2009/403/P200.pdf, r কৰা হৈছে: 2011-04-19 
  58. Arieff, Alexis, "De Facto Statehood? The Strange Case of Somaliland", Yale Journal of International Affairs (Spring/Summer 2008), http://yalejournal.org/wp-content/uploads/2011/01/083206arieff.pdf, r কৰা হৈছে: 2011-04-17 
  59. See Regions and territories: Somaliland (30 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  60. Jansen, Dinah (2009), "The Conflict between Self-Determination and Territorial Integrity: the South Ossetian Paradigm", Geopolitics vs. Global Governance: Reinterpreting International Security (Centre for Foreign Policy Studies, University of Dalhousie): 222–242, ISBN 978-1-896440-61-3, http://centreforforeignpolicystudies.dal.ca/pdf/gradsymp09/Jansen.pdf 
  61. "Russia condemned for recognizing rebel regions". CNN.com (Cable News Network). 2008-08-26. http://www.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/europe/08/26/russia.vote.georgia/index.html। আহৰণ কৰা হৈছে: 2008-08-26. 
  62. "Ma refers to China as ROC territory in magazine interview". Taipei Times. 2008-10-08. http://www.taipeitimes.com/News/taiwan/archives/2008/10/08/2003425320. 
  63. 'See Regions and territories: Trans-Dniester (13 December 2005). BBC News. Retrieved January 17, 2006.
  64. The following bullets are grouped according to the availability of sources for the two criteria ((a) and/or (b)). This arrangement is not intended to reflect the relative importance of the two theories. Additional details are discussed in the state's individual entries.

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